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Acres, H. G., The Design of the Shipshaw Power De- 
velopment 221 

Discussion 449 

Air Transport, The Post-War Possibilities of, Charles I. 

Stanton . 18 

Aircraft Construction, Plastic Plywoods in, R. D. His- 

cocks 4 

Alaska Highway Bridges, Problems in Design of, Ray- 
mond Archibald, John W. Guppy, and William K. 

Greene 353 

Aluminium, Machining of, R. H. Ashcraft 304 

ASME-EIC Agreement 45 

Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fifty-Eighth, 

Message from the City of Quebec 37 

Programme 38 

Report of Meeting 152 

Said at the Annual Meeting 160 

Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fifty-Ninth. 581, 637 
Archibald, Raymond, William K. Greene, John W. 

Guppy, Problems in Design of Alaska Highway Bridges 353 

Architects vs Brian R. Perry 105, 473, 632 

Architects vs Engineers 105, 473, 632 

Ashcraft, R. H., Machining of Aluminium 304 

Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario 131 

Auld, J. R., Electric Systems in Military Explosive Plants 400 

Bailey Bridge, Colonel E. C. Thorne 513 

Barnes, J. C., Nomograph for Equations for the Form 

YX" = Z 543 

Batt, William L., Management's Need of Broader Vision 140 

Beaubien, deGaspé, Biography Ill 

Beaubien, deGaspé, Your Institute 164 

Benefit Plans for Canadian Workers, M. A. MacKenzie 

and N. E. Sheppard 32 

Bogle, Major R. T., Lt.-Col. A. O. Monk, The Corps of 

Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. 616 

Book* Reviews 328, 437, 597 

Branches, Membership and Financial Statements of . . . . 100 

Branches, Reports - 96 

Branches, News of — 

Border Cities 123, 178, 377, 525 

Calgary 178, 269 

Edmonton 58, 377, 435, 642 

Halifax 58, 123, 269, 324, 377, 594 

Hamilton 58, 123, 269, 324, 379, 435, 557, 594, 642 

Kingston 58, 179, 270, 379 

Lakehead 123, 325, 435, 594 

Lethbridge 325, 644 

London 595 

Moncton 59, 123, 380, 644 

Montreal 59, 124, 179, 270, 379, 644 

Niagara Peninsula 60, 270, 645 

Ottawa 60, 124, 180, 271, 381, 596, 646 

Peterborough 61, 181, 271, 325, 381 

Quebec 646 

Saguenay 271, 326, 436, 525 

Saint John 181 

St. Maurice Valley 436, 526 

Saskatchewan 61, 181, 271, 327, 647 

Sault Ste. Marie ' 61, 182, 327 

Toronto 62, 125, 182, 271, 327, 382, 595, 648 

Vancouver 62, 182, 271, 328, 382, 648 

Winnipeg 597, 648 

Brault, Paul G. A., Launching 10,000-ton Cargo Vessels. 9 

British Electrical Industry, The Growth of Research in 

the, V. Watlington 570 

Cameron, K. M., President's Retiring Address 160 

Canada, Department of Reconstruction 590 

Canadian Construction Association, The Role of the Con- 
struction Industry in Post- War Years 35 

Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, The 

Corps of, Lt.-Col. A. O. Monk, Major R. T. Bogle. . . 616 

Canadian Lumbermen's Association establishes new prize 516 

C.O.T.C : 43 

Canadian Standards Association, Origin and Develop- 
ment of, W. R. McCaffrey 538 

Cannon, Machining of, Major E. G. Moffat 460 

Cartridge Cases, The Manufacture of Large Calibre, John 

T. Harris 564 

Cemented Carbide Tools and Chip Control, Harry Crump 301 
Chant, Group Capt. S. N. F., Preparing R.C.A.F., Per- 
sonnel for Rehabilitation 627 

Chemical Institute of Canada 369, 473 

Chenevert, J. G., The Intercepting Sewer System in Que- 
bec City 503 

Chip Control, Cemented Carbide Tools and, Harry 

Crump 301 

Classification and Remuneration of Engineers 547 

Collective Bargaining and the. Engineer . 104, 261, 308, 

369, 421, 471, 514, 554, 583 

Combustion Gas Turbine, Armin K. Leuthold. . 488 

Construction Industry in Post- War Years 35 

Cook, W. H., Emergency Refrigeration of Cargo Spaces. 417 
Corporation of Professional Engineers of Quebec Pro- 
posed Agreement with the E.I.C 585 

Correspondence 46, 107, 478, 518, 554, 588, 634 

Council Meetings 50, 108, 167, 171, 315, 371, 424, 519, 552, 637 

Council Report for the Year 1943 86 

Crump, Harry, Cemented Carbide Tools and Chip Con- 
trol 301 

Cutting Fluids and their Relationship to Metal Cutting, 

William H. Oldacre 536 

Defence Projects in Northwest Canada 1940-1944 498 

Desbarats, Georges Joseph, an Appreciation 321 

Discussions — 

The Engineer as Planner, Ralph E. Flanders 46 

Stretching our Resources, G B. Stenning 82 

The Continuing Need for the Conservation of Re- 
sources, Howard Coonley 82 

Trends in Industrial Relations, J. C. Cameron 107 

Social Security Planning in the English-Speaking 

World, Maurice Stack 148 

Development of Steam Production at Arvida, M. G. 

Saunders 338 

Post-War Planning 364 

The Design of the Shipshaw Power Development, H. 

G. Acres 449 

Post- War Planning 479 

Doherty, Robert Ernest, Hon. M.E.I. C 162, 166 

Doherty, Robert Ernest, The Engineering Profession To- 
morrow 446 

Dowd, Dr. K. E., Nutrition in Relation to Efficiency. . . 576 

DuBose, McNeely, The Engineering History of Shipshaw 194 

Earthquake Damage at Cornwall, Robert F. Legget. . . . 572 

Elections and Transfers 51, 109, 171, 264, 317, 372, 

373, 521, 553, 639 

Electric Systems in Military Explosive Plants, J. R. Auld 400 

Electrical Equipment at Shipshaw, R. A. H. Hayes .... 250 

Ends and Means in Soil Mechanics, Dr. K. Terzaghi . . . 608 

Engineering Education after the War 314 

Engineering Education ? How Can We Improve, George 

B. Langford 573 

Discussion 575 

Engineering History of Shipshaw, McNeely DuBose. . . . 194 

Engineering Profession Tomorrow, Robert E. Doherty. . 446 
Engineers' Council for Professional Development Annual 

Meeting 582 

Engineers in the Quebec Civil Service 263 

Engineer's Need of Humanities, The, Dr. R. C. Wallace 626 

Explosive Plants, Electric Systems in Military, J. R. Auld 400 

Financial Statements — 

Of the Institute 91 

Of the Branches 100 



Fitzgerald, G. W. N., The Technique of Testing High 

Voltage Bushings 532 

Foremanship, D. D. Panabaker 297 

Franco-Canadian Scientific and Technical Association . . 583 

Fry, Lawford H., Railroad Equipment in Wartime 22 

Gagnon, Monseigneur Cyrille, Greetings from Laval 

University 161 

Gallay, Wilfred, Plastics in Engineering 72 

Ganaraska Survey, A. H. Richardson 463 

Discussion 589 

Gas Turbine, The Combustion, Armin K. Leuthold. . . . 488 

Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion, Dr. Lionel S. Marks. . 622 

Godbout, Hon. Adélard, The Engineer and Quebec 162 

Greene, William K., Raymond Archibald, John W. 

Guppy, Problems in Design of Alaska Highway Bridges 353 
Griesbach, Walter, Construction of Shipshaw No. 2 

Power Development 234 

Guppy, John W., Raymond Archibald, William K. 

Greene, Problems in Design of Alaska Highway Bridges 353 

Harris, John T., The Manufacture of Large Calibre 

Cartridge Cases 564 

Hayes, R. A. H., Electrical Equipment at Shipshaw. . . . 250 
Hiscocks, R. D., Plastic Plywoods in Aircraft Construc- 
tion 4 

Holden, O., Ogoki Diversion 347 

Hvilivitzky, J., and J. H. Ings, Some Structural Design 
Features of the Polvmer Corporation Steam Power 

Plant 394 

Industrial Research in Post- War Canada, C. J. Mac- 
kenzie 136 

Ings, J. H., and J. Hvilivitzky, Some Structural Design 
Features of the Polymer Corporation Steam Power 

Plant 394 

Institute Committee on Classification and Remuneration 

of Engineers 547 

Institute Committee on Employment Conditions 308, 369 

421, 471 

Institute Committee on Industrial Relations 32, 85 

Institute Committee on Post- War Problems 459 

Institute Committee on Quality Control 584 

Institute Committee on the Engineer in the Civil Service 42 

Institute Membership, The Composition of 515 

Institute Prize Winners, Biographies 176 

Irvine, W. A., Post-War Planning by Industry 26 

Jacobsen, E. R., Washington Letter. . .48, 106, 167, 370, 

423, 473, 517, 550, 587, 635 

Jet Propulsion, Gas Turbines and, Dr. Lionel S. Marks. . 622 

Job Evaluation, D. W. Weed 85 

Lake Manouan Storage Dam, F. L. Lawton 200 

Langford, George B., How Can We Improve Engineering 

Education ? 573 

Discussion 575 

Launching 10,000-Ton Cargo Vessels, Paul G. A. Brault. 9 

Laval University, Greetings from 161 

Dr. Cameron praises Laval 161 

Lawton, F. L., The Manouan and Passe Dangereuse 

Water Storage Developments 200 

Lefebvre, Olivier Odilon, an Appreciation 268 

Legget, Robert F., Earthquake Damage at Cornwall . . 572 

Legget, Robert F. , River Valley Development 624 

Leuthold, Armin K., The Combustion Gas Turbine. . . . 488 
Library Notes.. .63, 126, 183, 273, 328, 383. 437, 483, 

527, 558, 597, 650 

McCaffrey, W. R., Standardization in Canada 538 

Mackenzie, C. J., Industrial Research in Post-War 

Canada 136 

MacKenzie, M. A., Some Observations on Benefit Plans 

for Canadian Workers 32 

Machining Magnesium Alloys, Carl J. Wiberg 306 

Machining of Aluminium, R. H. Ashcraft 304 

Machining of Cannon, Major E. G. Moffat 460 

Magnesium Alloys, Machining, Carl J. Wiberg 306 

Management's Need of Broader Vision, William L. Batt 140 
Manouan and Passe Dangeureuse Water Storage Devel- 
opments, F. L. Lawton 200 

Marks, Dr. Lionel S., Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion 622 

Mead, Daniel Webster, Hon. M.E.I.C. 162, 165 

Metal Cutting, Cutting Fluids and their Relationship to, 

William H. Oldacre : 536 

Miller, Warren C, Planning Now for Post-War Con- 
struction Projects 459 

Moffat, Major E. G.. The Machining of Cannon 

Monk, Lt.-Col. A. O., Major R. T. Bogle, The Corps of 
Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers 

Montreal Terminal, C.N.R., Railway Signalling and In- 
terlocking, James J. Van Horn 

Montreal Tramways Company, A Subway Plan for 

Morrison, I. F., A Note on a New Form of the Three- 
Moment Equation 






News of Other Societies 131, 369, 422, 473, 582. 583 

Nomograph for Equations for the Form YX n = Z, J. C. . 

Barnes 543 

Nutrition in Relation to Efficiency, K. E. Dowd 576 

Nylon, C. J. Warrington . 285 

Obituaries — 

Atwood, William Stephen 

Blanchard, Aubrey B 

Bogart, John Laurence Haslett . 
Braden, Norman Short 

Chapais, Charles 

Coutlee. Charles Robert 

Cox, Leonard Martin 

Cummings. Eugene Walker Dimock. 

Dalkin, George R 

Dawson, William Ball 

Desbarats, Georges Joseph 

Dubuc. Colonel Arthur Edouard 

Dugas, Major Alexandre 

Dupuis, Louis Charles 

Evans, Edwin George 

Ewart, Henry Edward 

Fay, Frederic Harold 

Foreman, Alvah Ernest 

Freeland. John James 

Fulton, William 

Gibbs, Charles R 

Gurnham, Robert Allan 

Hanning, George Foster 

Harris, Richard Crosby 

Hertzberg, Major-General C. S. L. . 
Howard. Lawrence James Meredith. 
Hunter, James H. 

Jacobs, Wing-Commander David Sinclair. 
Junkins. Sydney Edwin 

Kenny, Air Vice-Marshal Walter Robert 

King, Harry Molyneux 

Kingston, Charles Burrard 

Lefebvre. Olivier Odilon 

Logie, Lieutenant Richard Bucknam 

MacKenzie. Charles E 

Morgan, Alfred Hedley 

Mutchler. James Irving 

Newell. Fred 

Newton, Samuel Robert 

Palmer, Robert Edward 

Patterson. Thomas Bilton 

Penman, Alan Carleton 

Plamondon, Adrien 

Porter, John Bonsall 

Russell, William B 

Smart, Russel Sutherland 

Stevenson, Charles L 

Stewart. Robert A 

Thorne, Benjamin Leonard 

Wain, John Bernard 

Westbye, Peder Pederson 

Wilson, Harry Alton 

Woodman, John 

Officers of the Institute, Newly Elected, Biographies. . . 

Ogoki Diversion, O. Holden 

Oldacre, William H.. Cutting Fluids and their Relation- 
ship to Metal Cutting 























Panabaker, D. D.. Effective Foremanship 297 

Passe Dangereuse Water Storage Development, 

F. L. Lawton * 200 

Personals 53, 117. 173. 265, 318, 373, 432, 480, 522, 

555, 591, 640 
Piette, Guillaume. Improved Soil Stabilization 413 



Plastic Plywoods in Aircraft Construction, R. D. His- 

cocks " 4 

Plastics in Engineering, Wilfred Gallay 72 

Plywoods in Aircraft Construction, R. D. Hiscocks 4 

Polymer Corporation Steam Power Plant, Some Struc- 
tural Design Features of the, J. H. Ings and J. Hvili- 

vitzky 394 

"Portable" Invasion Harbour 581 

Post- War Canada, Industrial Research in, 

C. J. Mackenzie 136 

Post-War Construction Projects, Planning Now for, 

Warren C. Miller 459 

Post-War Planning, John E. Armstrong, R. M. Brophy, 
G. A. Gaherty, Arthur Surveyer, R. L. Weldon and 

H. G. Welsford. Supp. to March Journal 

Discussion 364, 479, 516 

Post-War Planning by Industry, W. A. Irvine 26 

Post-War Possibilities of Air Transport, Charles!. Stanton 18 

Post-War Years, The Role of the Construction Industry in 35 

Preliminary Notice. . . .65, 129, 186, 275, 331, 388, 439, 

485, 529, 559, 599, 652 

President's Visit to the Maritimes 165, 311 

President's Visit to the Ontario Branches 475 

President's Visit to the West 548, 630 

Prince Rupert-Hazelton Highwav, B.C., J. M. Wardle. . 280 

Prize Awards 1944 429 


Railroad Equipment in Wartime, Lawford H. Fry 

Railway Signalling and Interlocking, Montreal Terminal 

C.N.R., James J. Van Horn 

Recent Graduates in Engineering 

Refrigeration of Cargo Spaces, W. H. Cook 

Registration in Engineering at Canadian Universities. . . 

Remuneration of Engineers in the Civil Service 42, 263 

Research in the British Electrical Industry, The Growth 

of, V. Watlington 

Richardson, A. H., The Ganaraska Survey 


River Valley Development, Robert F. Legget 

R.C.A.F. Personnel for Rehabilitation, Preparing, Group 

Capt. S.N.F. Chant 

Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers 

(R.C.E.M.E.) 261, 312, 368, 421, 470, 616 




Saunders, M. G., The Development of Steam Production 

at Arvida 338 

Discussion 343 

Sewer System in Quebec City, The Intercepting, 

J. G. Chenevert 503 

Sheppard, N. E., Some Observations on Benefit Plans for 

Canadian Workers 32 

Ships Named for Engineers 104 

Shipshaw, Electrical Equipment at, R. A. H. Hayes. . . . 250 

Shipshaw, Engineering History of, McNeely DuBose. . . 194 
Shipshaw No. 2 Power Development, Construction of, 

Walter Griesbach 234 

Shipshaw Power Development, Design of, H. G. Acres. . 221 

Discussion 449 

Social Security Planning in the English-Speaking World, 

Maurice Stack 146 

Discussion 148 

Soil Mechanics, Ends and Means in, Dr. K. Terzaghi . . . 608 

Soil Stabilization, Guillaume Piette 413 

S.P.E.E., Engineering Education after the War 314 

Stack, Maurice, Social Security Planning in the English- 
Speaking World 146 

Discussion 148 

Standardization in Canada, W. R. McCaffrey 538 

Stanton, Charles I., The Post-War Possibilities of Air 

Transport 18 

Steam Power Plant, Some Structural Design Features of 

the Polymer Corporation, J. H. Ings and J. Hvilivitzky 394 
Steam Production at Arvida, The Development of, M. G. 

Saunders 338 

Discussion 343 

Stenning, C. B., Stretching our Resources 78 

Discussion 82 

Stretching our Resources, C. B. Stenning 78 

Discussion 82 

Subway Plan for Montreal 357 

Surveyer, Dr. Arthur, Taxation of Private Enterprise. . . 49 

Taxation of Private Enterprise, Dr. Arthur Surveyer. . . 49 
Technical Institutes in Canada, The Desirability of 

Establishing, C. R. Young 150 

Terzaghi, K., Ends and Means in Soil Mechanics 608 

Testing High Voltage Bushings, The Technique of, 

G. W. N. Fitzgerald 532 

Thorne, Colonel E. C, The Bailey Bridge 513 

Three-Moment Equation, A Note on a New Form of the, 

I. F. Morrison 143 

Town Planning, An Editorial 472 

University of Toronto, Engineering Students' Costs .... 1 10 

Van Horn, James J., Railway Signalling and Interlock- 
ing, Montreal Terminal, C.N.R 288 

Wallace, Dr. R. C, The Engineer's Need of Humanities. 626 

Wardle, J. M., Canada's Wartime Road 280 

Wardle, J. M., Prince Rupert-Hazelton Highway, B.C. . 280 

Warrington, C. J., Nylon 285 

Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel 43, 44, 472 

Wartime Labour Relations Regulations 104, 261, 309 

Wartime Transportation, Effects of Peacetime Develop- 
ments on, Lawford H. Fry 22 

Washington Letter, E. R. Jacobsen. . . .48, 106, 167, 370, 

422, 473, 517, 550, 587, 635 
Watlington, V., The Growth of Research in the British 

Electrical Industry 570 

Weed, D. W., Job Evaluation 85 

When is an Engineer not an Engineer ? 368 

Wiberg, Carl J., Machining Magnesium Alloys 306 

Young, G R. , The Desirability of Establishing Technical 

Institutes in Canada 150 












I.. AUSTIN WHIGHT, m.b.i.c. 

LOUIS TItUDEL, u.b.i.c 

A militant Editor 

N. E. D. SHEPPARD. u.b.i.c. 
Adttrtitina Manager 


J. A. LALONDE, u.e.i.c, Chairman 

R. DbL. FRENCH, u.b.i.c, Vice-chairman 

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H. F. FIWNEMORE. u.b.i.c. 

T. J. LAFRENTERE. m.b.i.c. 

Price 50 cents a copy, $3.00 a year: in Canada, 
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—Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, as 
Second Class Matter. 

THE INSTITUTE a» a body it not reopontible 
olther for the statements made or for the 
opinion* expremued in the following page»* 

"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional 
knowledge among its members, to promote their profes- 
sional interests, to encourage original research, to develop and 
maintain high standards in the engineering profession and 
to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 

• • * 


H.M.S. FORMIDABLE, photographed from the quarterdeck of the 

Warspite (British Admiralty Photo) Cover 


R. D. Hiscocks 


Paul G. A. Brault, M.E.I.C. 

Charles I. Stanton 


Latvford H. Fry 


W . A. Irvine 



M. A. Mackenzie 
N. E. Sheppard 






Visitors to Headquarters 56 

Obituaries 56 








tW. P. BRERETON, Winnipeg, Man. 
*H. CIMON, Quebec, Que. 

*T. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 

tJ. E. ARMSTRONG, Montreal, Que. 

tH. E. BRANDON, Toronto, Ont. 

•S. G. COULTIS, Calgary, Alta. 

•G. L. DICKSON, Moncton, N.B. 

JE. V. GAGE, Montreal, Que. 

*F. W. GRAY, Sydney. N.S. 

•E. D. GRAY-DONALD, Quebec, Que. 

•J. HAÏMES, Lethbridge, Alta. 

tR. E. HEARTZ, Montreal, Que. 

•W. G. HUNT, Montreal, Que. 

•E. W. IZARD, Victoria, B.C. 

• For 1943. t For 1943-44 J For 1943-44-45 


R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 


K. M. CAMERON, Ottawa, Ont. 

tL. F. GRANT, Kingston, Ont. 

*J. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 


tC. J. MACKENZIE, Ottawa, Ont. 

tA. JACKSON, Kingston, Ont. 

*J. R. KAYE, Halifax. N.S. 

JJ. A. LALONDE, Sorel, Que. 

tA. M. MACGILLIVRAY, Saskatoon, Sask. 

*N. MacNICOL, Toronto, Ont. 

tN. B. MacROSTIE, Ottawa, Ont. 

*T. A. McELHANNEY, Ottawa, Ont. 

*A. W. F. McQUEEN, Niagara Falls, Ont 

tG. E. MEDLAR, Windsor, Ont. 

tJ. P. MOONEY, Saint John, N.B. 

tE. NELSON, Edmonton, Alta. 


C. V. CHRISTIE, Montreal, Que. 


L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 

tC. K. McLEOD. Montreal, Que 

*G. G. MURDOCH, Saint John, N.B. 

JC. R. YOUNG, Toronto, Ont. 

tH. G. O'LEARY, Fort William, Ont. 

♦A. E. PICKERING. Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

*G. MacL. PITTS, Montreal, Que. 

*W. J. W. REID, Hamilton, Ont. 

*J. W. SANGER, Winnipeg, Man. 

tC. SCRYMGEOUR, Dartmouth, N.S. 

*H. R. SILLS, Peterborough, Ont. 

tJ. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 

tH. J. WARD, Shawinigan Falls, Que. 

tJ. W. WARD, Beauhamois, Que. 

tC. E. WEBB, Vancouver, B.C. 


LOUIS TRUDEL, Montreal, Que. 


C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 



E. V. GAGE, Chairman 

J. L. LANG, Chairman 


L. F. GRANT, Chairman 



R. A. SPENCER, Chairman 







W. H. POWELL, Chairman 



J. M. FLEMING, Chairman 


O. W. ELLIS, Chairman 


A. E. CAMERON, Chairman 
A. E. MacRAE 




K. M. CAMERON, Chairman 


J. G. HALL, Chairman 


J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

O. O. LEFEBVRE, Vice-Chairman 







Zone A (Western Provinces) 
H. N. Ruttan Prize 

W. P. BRERETON, Chairman 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) 

John < .all. rait h Prize 
L. F. GRANT, Chairman 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) 
Phelps Johnson Prize (English) 

C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 



Ernest Marceau Prize (French) 

H. CIMON, Chairman 



Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

G. G. MURDOCH, Chairman 


M. J. McHENRY, Chairman 












H.F. BENNETT, Chairman R. DeL. FRENCH 



J. A. LALONDE, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Vice-Chairman 





G. A. GAHERTY. Chairman 






J. E. ARMSTRONG. Chairman 



W. C. MILLER, Chairman 



g. L. Mackenzie 



















R. B. YOUNG. Chairman 
E. VIENS. Vice-Chairman 





Chairman, J. B. DOWLER 

Vice-Chair., A. H. MacQUARRIE 

Executive, G. W. LUSBY J. M. WYLLIE 

(Ex-Officio), G. E. MEDLAR 

Sec-Treas., W. R. STICKNEY, 

1614 Ontario Street, 
Walkerville, Ont. 






(Ex-Officio), S. G. COULT1S 


S$c.-Treas., K. W. MITCHELL, 

803-17th Ave. N.W., 
Calgary, Alta. 

Chairman. J. A. MacLEOD 
Executive, J. A. RUSSELL 
(Ex-Officio). F. W. GRAY 
Sec-Treat., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 


Chairman, C. W. CARRY 
Vice-Chair., B. W. PITFIELD 
Executive, J. A. ALLAN 





H. W. TYE 



Water Resources Office, 

Provincial Government, 
Edmonton, Alta. 


S. W. GRAY, 

Wartime Bureau of Technical, 
Personnel, 84 Hollis Street, 
Halifax, N.S. 


W. J. W. REID 

91 Barnesdale Blvd., 
Hamilton, Ont. 






R. A. LOW, 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
Queen's University, 
Kingston, Ont. 


E. M. G. MacGILL 

(Mrs. E. J. Soulsby) 


c/c C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 


Chairman, J. M. DAVIDSON 

Vice-Chair.,C. S. DONALDSON 

Executive. A. G. DONALDSON G. S. BROWN 

(BzJ>fficio), J. HAÏMES 
Stc-Treas., R. B. MoKENZIE. 

McKenzie Electric Ltd., 
706, 3rd Ave. S., Lethbridge, Alta. 









Sec. Treas., 












Chairman, T. L. McMANAMNA 
Vice-Chair., R. S. CHARLES 
Executive, H. F. BENNETT 
(Ex-Officio), F. T. JULIAN 
See. Treas., H. G. STEAD, 

60 Alexandra Street, 
London, Ont. 














Engrg. Dept., C.N.R. 
Moncton, N.B. 






(Ex-Officio), C. K. McLEOD 


Sec-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 
Outremont, Que. 


Chairman, G. E. GRIFFITHS 
Vice-Chair., W. D. BRACKEN 
Executive, A. G. HERR 



(Ex-Officio), C. G. CLINE 

Sec-Treas., J. H. INGS, 

2135 Culp Street, 

Niagara Falls, Ont. 



W. H. G. FLAY 
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Sec. Treas., A. A. SWINNERTON 

Dept. of Mines & Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Chairman, A. R. JONES 
Executive, R. L. DOBBIN 
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Sec-Treas., A. J. GIRDWOOD, 

308 Monaghan Road, 
Peterborough, Ont. 


Life Hon.- 


















Colonization Department, 
Room 333-A, Parliament Bldgs., 
Quebec, Que. 






8-C Brittany Row, 
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Chairman, A. 
Vice-Chair., C. 
Executive, G. 

(Ex-Officio), G. 



Sec-Treas., F. 


d. McAllister 

P. O. Box 1417 

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Sec-Treas., DAVID E. ELLIS, 

Shawinigan Water & Power 

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Vice-Chair., J. McD. PATTON 
Executive, F. E. ESTLIN 



(Ex-Officio), A. P. LINTON 

See. Treas., STEWART YOUNG, 

P.O. Box 101, Regina, Sask. 


Chairman, N. C. COWIE 
Vice-Chair., A. M. WILSON 
Executive, C. O. MADDOCK 

G. W. MacLEOD 

(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG 

Sec. Treas., O. A. EVANS, 

159 Upton Road. 

Sault Ste. Marie 





(Ex-Officio), H. E. BRANDON W. S. WILSON 

Sec-Treas., S. H. deJONG, 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 


Chairman, T. 
Vice-Chair., A 
Executive, J. 


(Ex-Officio), C. 

Sec-Treas., P. 

2099 Beach Avenue, 

Vancouver, B.C 














41 Gorge Road West. 
Victoria, B.C. 






55 Princess Street, 
Winnipeg, Man. 




Engineer in Charge of the Structural Laboratory, Aeronautical Division, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ont. 

Paper presented at a joint meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers and The Engineering 
Institute of Canada, at Toronto, Ont., on September 30th, 1943. 

At the beginning of the war it was believed in the 
National Research Council of Canada that the possi- 
bilities of the wooden aeroplane had not been fully 
appreciated. It was considered that the factors 
which govern the speed with which a prototype ma- 
chine might be developed and placed in full scale pro- 
duction weighed heavily in favour of wood, especially 
when the question is examined in the light of Canadian 

As a result, we undertook in the Structures Section 
to set up a small pilot plant in order to test and develop 
thes*e ideas, with the particular object of demonstrating 
that recent advances in materials and techniques can 
be applied to the rapid production of an aeroplane 
which is not merely a metal substitute but a machine 
of technical merit. 







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Fig. 1 — Tests on plywood cylinders in compression. 




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r»iN t»AMt*C 

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Fig. 2 — Tests on plywood in hearing. 

Wood as a Structural Material 

Although wood is one of the oldest structural 
materials in the world, surprisingly little information 
has accumulated as to its strength properties. Admitted- 
ly far from the isotropic ideal dear to the elastician, the 
elastic properties of the material are specified by at 
least twelve constants, or rather parameters, which 
vary with moisture content, specific gravity and even 
from the heartwood to the sapwood of the same tree. 
Time effects are important and, particularly when 
shear loads are involved, both deflection and loads at 
failure will vary with the time the load has been 
applied. This may sound like a rather vague proposition 
for an engineering material, but if the experimental 
data on the external loading condition of an airframe 
are critically examined, it is apparent that the only 
logical assessment should be on a statistical basis; 
therefore, providing the probable variations fall within 
reasonable limits, there is no inconsistency in employing 
a material the strength properties of which are not 
uniquely determined. Moreover, since the leading 
dimensions of an aeroplane are defined chiefly by 
aerodynamical and operational requirements, few com- 
pact structural sections can be employed without an 
excessive penalty in weight. Stiffness, therefore, rather 
than considerations of ultimate strength usually 
governs the design. In elastic stability problems, it 
can be shown that the ratio of Young's modulus to 
density, to density squared, or even to density cubed, 
is the figure of merit for any material, and that under 
such conditions an expanded material, such as wood, is 
supreme. Finally, with the present insistence on per- 
fectly smooth surfaces, it is not difficult to see that 
contemporary metal construction is considerably handi- 

In view of the broad scope of the problem, it was 
felt at the Research Council that useful results could 
most quickly be obtained by concentrating on one or 
two design problems, performing such basic tests as 
from time to time appeared desirable and acquiring in 
the process a good deal of useful experience in shop 

Tests to Obtain Basic Data 

One cannot proceed very far with the design of shell 
structures without some basic data and a few of our 
first tests were conducted on plywood cylinders in 
compression (See Fig. 1). Some of these cylinders were 
hot-press moulded with a rubber bag in the autoclave, 
others were formed with two-ply veneer and cold-press 
resin on a wrapping machine. The grain of the wood 
was in all cases at 45 deg. to a generator, with inner 
and outer plies parallel and the grain of the core plies 
at right angles. The diameter of the cylinders ranged 
from 6 to 24 inches. We have been able to detect a 
slight length effect with matched specimens but con- 
sider that it is negligible for all practical purposes. 

It is interesting to observe that the critical compres- 
sive buckling stress can be expressed in the familiar 

form S e = KE ■= where K is an experimental constant, 


E is the modulus of elasticity of the material, in our case 
parallel to the direction of the load, t is the wall thick- 

Fig. 3 — Tapering and securing ends of stiffeners. 

ness and R the radius of curvature. A conservative 
value for design purposes is obtained by taking K = 0.3, 
a value which has enjoyed considerable popularity in 
the design of metal structures for years. 

We have conducted few bending tests on cylinders 
to date and in most applications the problem is com- 
plicated by the addition of shear loads. The results of 
a few bending tests indicate that the critical stress, 
again as in the case of metal cylinders, is some 25 to 40 
per cent higher than the critical value in compression. 

The results of a fair number of compression tests on 
plywood blocks show that, with compact sections, the 
elastic modulus and ultimate strength vary rapidly 
with changes in the grain angle. 

The low bearing strength of wood perpendicular to 
the grain is a shortcoming which can be avoided by 
the use of plywood. The values shown in Fig. 2 have 
been found useful in the design of joints employing 
rivets or short bolts. With concentrated loads of any 
magnitude the size and number of pins required to 
transmit the forces directly to the plywood structure 
may become formidable and the need arises for an 
intermediate material having a high bearing strength, 
reasonable tensile and shear values, and a moderate 
density. Phenolic fabric base laminates were found 
satisfactory for this purpose. These are available with 
a bearing strength of the order of 30,000 lb. per sq. in. 
Form factors are apt to be unpredictable, however, and 
it is good practice to conduct a few simple tests in order 
to determine safe loads for any specific condition. 

Bonding and Gluing 

The phenolics usually will bond to wood effectively 
only with hot press resins. Since the temperature 
coefficients of linear expansion for the plastics usually 
differ substantially from those of wood, it is important 
to avoid excessive temperature stresses. We consider 
that the most satisfactory expedient is to first glue a 
thin layer of véneer to the laminate with hot press 
adhesive and then to bond the wood face to the remain- 
der of the structure with a cold setting adhesive. The 
same considerations apply in bonding metal to wood. 

The problem of diffusing a concentrated load into a 
shell structure is always troublesome. Particular care 
should be taken with plywood structures because wood 
has no elastic limit in tension. Highly localized tensile 
stresses may cause failure even if the average stress in 
a member is quite moderate because the material 
cannot yield plasticity and distribute the local stresses. 

Many of the weathering difficulties which have arisen 
with wooden aeroplanes in the past can be attributed 
to the use of primitive glues and it is safe to say that 
recent advances in the art are largely the outcome of 
improvements which have occurred in glues. Many 
synthetic resin adhesives are now available which have 
a high resistance to water, ample shear strength and 
are proof against mould and extremes of temperature. 
Quite a number will even survive the boiling water test, 

which is still required by some specifications, although 
it has never been explained why anyone should want 
to boil an aeroplane. 

Contrary to popular opinion, high pressures are not 
required in gluing and it is quite possible to construct 
satisfactory joints with a pressure of less than one lb. 
per sq. in. if the viscosity of the glue is not excessive. 
The pressure requirements are determined solely by the 
forces necessary to obtain a thin glue line and, if the 
veneers are thin and the pressure uniformly distributed, 
then the forces required are small. With more rigid 
sections, high pressures are essential only if the faces 
of the wood do not match reasonably well. On thin 
members, nails or screws will provide ample pressure, 
but it should not be assumed that the nails or screws 
will be effective after the glue has set, because large 
shear deflections, sufficient to fail the glue, are necessary 
for these elements to assume any load. 

In a three-ply test specimen it is not very difficult 
to produce a bond with a shear strength equal to that 
of the wood, but it does not follow that every joint 
can transmit a load corresponding to the block shear 
strength of the wood. For example, the stresses in the 

3 -PLY 








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pent*, ro ours/oc &*a(n 

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rovtfj WaWt,3 J_ A f Am/l 

0.3 0.4 0.3 

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Fig. 4 — Effect of core thickness on plywood in flexure. 

Fig. 5 — Moulded plywood rear fuselage for Harvard 


Fig. 6 — Method of building the skin. 

Fig. 7 — Bulkhead with frame and stiffeners. 

joint may be far from pure shear and it is not surprising 
that for a thin specimen and with the grain in the core 
parallel to the face grain, the load at failure is of the 
order of 25 per cent of the strength of the wood in pure 
shear. A further reduction results when the grain of 
the intermediate ply is not parallel to the load; at 90 
deg., for example, there is a further decrement of 30 
to 50 per cent due to the rolling effect of the wood fibres. 

Sometimes failures in box beams are unfairly charged 
to the glue. A thin web will buckle at very moderate 
shear stresses and continue to carry the load in diagonal 
tension. As the result the maximum shear stresses in 
the flange-web joint are more than double the values 
calculated from simple shear considerations. 

It relieves the load on glued joints considerably if 
the ends of stiffeners are tapered as in Fig. 3. In flooring, 
decking and so forth where local distortion may be 
large, rivets are found extremely effective in discourag- 
ing peeling in the glue joint. 

In gluing it is of the utmost importance to match 
the moisture content of the pieces which are to be glued 
together. If a thin strip of veneer is coated with liberal 
quantities of a water-soluble glue and bonded to a 
heavier piece which is perfectly dry, it is obvious that 
the wet member will contract in drying and the result 
will be a badly warped component. Moreover, wood 
is a hygroscopic material and no amount of finishing- 
will prevent it from shrinking and swelling with 
changes in the moisture content of the air. Most of the 
dimensional change occurs in a direction perpendicular 
to the grain so that if two pieces of veneer are glued 
together with the grain at right angles, the panel will 

only remain flat at one value of the relative humidity. 
For a stable material it follows that three plies of 
veneer are the minimum. Unfortunately, conventional 
three ply is composed of veneers of equal thickness and 
the bending stiffness parallel to the face grain is some 
12 times the stiffness at right angles. Therefore, unless 
special design considerations demand much greater 
stiffness in some one direction, it is preferable to employ 
a construction which gives a comparable stiffness in 
both directions. Figure 4 shows how this can be done 
by using a thicker or thinner core. 

expekiments in construction of fuselage 
and Control Surfaces 

Turning our attention to more ambitious experiments, 
Fig. 5 indicates the general structure of a rear fuselage 
which we designed and constructed in moulded ply- 
wood. It did not appear desirable to redesign the 
forward portion of the structure because the existing 
steel tube framework with detachable side panels per- 
mitted access to a large amount of equipment which 
could not readily be moved. Hence the detail design of 
this portion was dictated somewhat by the original 
metal layout, but every attempt has been made to 
approach the true monocoque form. The skin is suffi- 
ciently thick to carry all loads except in the vicinity 
of cut outs and in the forward portion where the loads 
from the four attachment points are distributed by 
stub longerons. Light wooden frames maintain the 
correct shape. Plastic pads transit the axial loads from 
the attachment fittings to the longerons. It is interesting 
to note that the problem of stress diffusion is frequently 
less difficult with plywood than with metal structures; 
with the longerons, for example, we have endeavoured 
to taper the cross sectional area and to graduate the 
elastic properties by varying the construction so that 
the glue joint between the longeron and the skin is 
uniformly stressed. 

This fuselage was static tested in six different flight 
and landing conditions, and proved well up to design 
requirements. Weighing 154 lb. as tested, it has carried 
a down load on the tail equal to the design breaking 
load for a Spitfire fighter aircraft. In the landing 
attitude it has sustained a tailwheel reaction slightly 
in excess of two and one half tons. 

The skin, which is moulded in two halves as shown 
in Fig. 6, is composed of four layers of spruce veneer 
bonded with thermo-setting urea glue. The veneers are 
trimmed to shape and stapled in place on a wooden 
mould with the inner and outer layers at right angles 
to the middle layers and at an angle of 45 deg. to the 
fuselage centre line. Successive layers are coated with 
adhesive and assembly-sealed in a rubber bag and 
cooked with steam in the autoclave for about 35 
minutes at a temperature of 240 deg. and a pressure 
of 30 lb. per sq. in. 

Fig. 8 — Construction of plywood stabilizer. 

Figure 7 is a rear view of the front bulkhead. We 
prefer to fabricate the frames separately and mounting 
these in a jig, to glue the half skin to the frames with 
cold setting glue. Woodscrews, at a liberal pitch, are 
supplemented with webbing at appropriate sections to 
apply to pressure and with the drying accelerated by 
infra-red lamps the entire operation is completed in 
less than an hour. 

In the stabilizer structure shown in Fig. 8 the skin 
is hot press moulded and stiffened with channel section 
moulded stiffeners. The ribs are also flanged and 
bonded in a rubber bag. For the rear spar we chose an 
I beam section with the grain in the plywood web 
running diagonally. The root fitting consists of a pair 
of ball and socket joints attached to trunnions. These 
trunnions transmit the loads to a phenolic laminate 
inserted in the spar flanges. The total stabilizer weight 
is 23 lb. On test it carried 2200 lb. without evidence of 

The elevator is similar. The skins and stiffeners are 
assembled on the bench and then glued to the channel 
section spar and end ribs in one operation. Finally the 
moulded leading edge is glued in place. The complete 
weight less mass balance is 13 lb. The elevator structure 
failed at a test load of 1040 lb. or 140 per cent of the 
design load. 

With the rudder, as in the previous components we 
endeavoured to make the skin the major structural 
element. The bottom fairing, which is detachable, is 
composed of fabric impregnated with ureaformalde- 
hyde resin and moulded in the autoclave. Weighing 18 
lb. complete with mass balance, it was tested to 150 
per cent of the design load without any evidence of 

We have also built and tested a number of com- 
ponents along more conventional lines, as for example, 



Vpneers cooted on 
oufer r>ce with 

Urecv C P Glue «s 

formed in Rubber B<iû, 

Veneers Immersed in 

woter ût 200*F for 


03 04 03 06 


<r& JO 4o SO /OO fVO 4GO 600 /ÛOO &XV JOOO-dooo 

0/PY/A/G //*■/" - /H///S StfMes 

Fig. 10 — Drying time with infra-red lamps. 

or Water Ritlsu 

Fig. 9 — Minimum bend radii for veneer and two-ply 


Fig. 11 — Experimental autoclave with metal mould. 

a rudder with full depth diagonal ribs. The spar, ribs 
and trailing edge are first assembled and then the skin 
is glued in place using small self-tapping screws to 
apply pressure. The final operation consists of gluing 
the leading edge in place. 

Bending, Cooking and Moulding Plywood 

One of the first things one needs to know in designing 
these structures is a safe bend radius to use with the 
various veneers. The values shown in Fig. 9 we consider 
to be a practical minimum. 

Infra-red lamps will greatly accelerate the drying of 
cold setting resin adhesives. The curve in Fig. 10 
indicates the time required to achieve a reasonable 
shear strength at a constant temperature. The time is 
very considerable at the temperatures which frequently 
prevail in workshops. The diagram shows some time- 
temperature curves for a thick pack of veneers exposed 
to an infra-red lamp under these conditions. As a 
simple example consider a glue line Y% m - below the 
surface. During the first eight-minute interval the 
average temperature is roughly 120 deg. and at that 
temperature we see from this curve the total time 
required would be 40 minutes for a glue to set. There- 
fore, in eight minutes we obtain 20 per cent of the 
required cooking. During the next interval, the average 
temperature is about 145 deg. and the total time 
required would be 20 minutes, therefore, in eight we 
obtain an additional 40 per cent of the required cooking. 


Fig. 12 — Disposable fuel tank made of plywood. 

Fig. 13 — Assembly of plywood fuel tank. 

Adding the percentage to a total of 100 per cent, we 
obtain the required time with this lamp and distance 
in a glue line Y% m - below the surface. This curve is 
based on experimental results with a 5^-in. panel and 
shows the considerable time saving which can be 

No description of the bag moulding art is necessary 
as it has received a good deal of attention in the 
literature lately. Lockheed employed the fluid pressure 
idea fifteen years ago to produce a number of extremely 
refined aeroplanes but the production possibilities of 
the method have only recently received attention. The 
wooden mould, rubber bag and autoclave, as currently 
used is a convenient arrangement for experimental 
work, but suffers numerous drawbacks for large scale 

production. Wooden moulds are woefully impermanent 
when subjected to frequent heating and cooling cycles, 
a great deal of time and heat is wasted in cooking the 
great bulk of the mould, and its size and general 
awkwardness present a considerable handling problem 
not to mention the wear and tear on rubber bags. 
Alternative methods are in use with varying degrees of 
success, but we believe that a metal mould in the 
majority of production applications will quickly pay 
for itself. Figure 11 shows a section through such a 
mould. The form is of metal and internally heated, 
preferably with steam. The veneer and glue assembly 
is placed on the form and stapled to wooden inserts 
at the edges. Over this assembly is placed a reasonably 
air tight blanket, it does not need to be rubber and even 
a few leaks do not matter. Finally a light outer shell is 
dropped in place and sealed. Compressed air can there- 
fore provide the pressure independently of the tempera- 
ture. We have performed a number of cookings on a 
unit of this type, the temperature rise is extremely 
rapid and the results uniformly satisfactory. 

One of the most interest ing plywood enterprises in 
which we have been engaged is a jettisonable or dis- 
posable fuel tank for a long-range fighter aircraft as 
shown in Fig. 12. The machines carry two of these 
tanks, one under each wing, and when the fuel is con- 
sumed the tank is dropped. Therefore, cheapness and 
simplicity of construction is essential. 

We start with a two-ply veneer which is wound on a 
collapsible drum. Metal bands are loaded with a lever 
weight arrangement to apply pressure. Infra-red lamps 
supply the heat necessary to set the cold press resin as 
the two-ply ribbon is wound on the drum. The nose and 
tail are of the same shape and are made of 5 layers of 
two-ply, hot press moulded wood (see Fig. 13). Lamin- 
ated rings which also carry the loads from the attach- 
ment fittings serve as a doubler between the ends and 
the cylindrical portion. Pipe and attachment fittings 
are riveted in place first, then the ends glued on and a 
fairing added. The tanks are flushed with a gasoline 
resistant sealing compound, pressure tested and with a 
coat of paint ready for sendee. 

We have performed a number of tests on these tanks 
but none so drastic as that which recently occurred 
when one laden with 100 octane fuel was accidentally 
released from an aircraft about to land. The tank 
dropped a distance of four or five feet and commenced 
a journey across the field at some 100 m.p.h. Although 
enveloped in spray it did not ignite and despite con- 
siderable damage was still a complete unit when 
retrieved by the somewhat shaken ground crew. 



PAUL G. A. BRAULT, m.e.i.c. 
United Shipyards Limited, Montreal 

Paper presented before the Montreal Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada, on March 4th, 1943 

The six-berth shipyard at Bickerdike Basin, Mon- Y% m - t° the foot, and the intersection of the aft per- 

treal, known as United Shipyards Limited, was built pendieular with the keel line is at elevation 100.0 ft. 

for the purpose of producing 10,000-ton cargo vessels. The Y<\.rd 

During construction of the yard it was necessary to m. j' •*• f + v. ■ u +u ■ u • t?- i 

j . & . ,ii ,i -x- j i r .i lhe disposition of the six berths is shown in .big. 1. 

determine the length, position and make-up ot the r,,, , ,. ^ , • ,,i ■ t , u , ., e 

, , • , & ' j i ,i ■ • j , lhe relationship ol the two groups of three berths was 

launching groundwavs and also the excavations needed , , ,, , , , . f ■■ ■, T i , , 

i. -a i u- 1 governed by the local rock contour ol the site, lhe dark 

to provide launching clearances. u x u j * . u -u ce a * * a 

rf ,,• i lxi u- i i x- hatched areas represent the crib conerdam necessitated 

lo this end complete launching calculations were , , , i • x- T t u u *l 

x j r^i l i x- j <• xi i • c by seasonal water level variation. In way ol each berth 

computed. Ihese calculations served lor the design ot ,/ a -, ■ ■ , , • t ui 

,, i u- ai i i u- x the conerdams are joined bv a series ol removable 

the launching cradle and launching arrangements , jxi Hhi-i-.* e e fxi 

,, & & & bents and stoplogs. Ihis distance Irom lace ol stoplog 

Th V ssv ^° a ^ perpendicular during construction is 58 ft. The 

. . . clear distance between cofferdams when bents and 

lhe principal dimensions of the vessels to be launched stoplogs are removed is 65 ft. 

are as follows: Several features of the yard affected the design of 

Length between perpendiculars. . .416 ft. the launching arrangements. Although the water in the 

Length from stern to aft perpen- basin is tideless, its elevation during the launching 

dicular 17 ft. 6^ in. season (Apr. 15th to Dec. 15th) may vary from eleva- 

Length from fore perpendicular tion 106 to elevation 92 minimum. The summer 

to bow 7 ft. 1034 in. average is approximately at elevation 95. At the first 

Length overall 441 ft. 4^ in. winter freeze up, however, the water may rise to eleva- 

Midship moulded breadth 56 ft. 103^ in. tion 116. This condition required the building of a 

Midship moulded depth 37 ft, 4 in. watertight cofferdam system which would permit hull 

Rake or F.P. to intersection of construction during the winter months. 

keel and stem bar 7 ft. 9 in. The jagged rock bank on the east side of Berth No. 3 

A table of offsets lifted from the loft floor defined left after excavating for launching clearance extends 

the moulded shape of the hull. From this table a series about 250 ft. beyond the end of groundways and paral- 

of Bonjean curves were established which permitted lels the berth about 35 ft. from its centre line. This 

the calculation of buoyancy and centre of gravity of leaves only 6 ft. clearance during a launch and the 

buoyancy at any displacement desired. danger of any loose cradle timber becoming snagged 

The vessels are erected with keel line at a slope of made it advisable to design the launching cradle in such 

30 100 IM XK 110 Kg 

1 I I I I I I 

Scute trctrl 

Fig. 1 — Arrangement of building berths at Bickerdike Basin. 

Mom ifW lt Pofcit) 

Sterw Rises 

Vessel Flouts i 

Launching Curves 

Fig. 2 — Launching curves showing the forces and moments 
acting on vessel during launching. 

a manner that all parts be thoroughly secured and that 
the removal of the cradle after launching be controlled. 

At this same berth the lack of water between the 
vessel and the bank during a launch sets up a trans- 
verse head which causes the vessel to move towards 
the bank immediately after leaving the groundways. 
In order to protect the hull from damage a timber 
guard was built off the adjoining cofferdam. 

The vessel when launched offers about 12,000 sq. ft. 
of exposed surface to prevailing east or west winds. 
The basin is narrow and presents a limited area for 
tugs to manoeuvre in. These facts made it desirable to 
apply drags to the vessel to bring it to rest immediately 
after the launch. 

Static Launching Calculations 
Calculations of moments of vessel's weight and buoy- 
ancy about the fore poppet and end of groundways for 
various travels were made. These computations were 
based on the following assumptions: — 

Launching weight of vessel 2,430 long tons 

Weight of launching cradle 90 long tons 

Declivity of vessel and ground- 
ways Y% in. per ft. 

Camber of groundways nil 

Length of groundways aft of A.P. 180 ft. 
Distance from keel to sliding 

surface 3 ft. 

Elevation of water 92 . ft. 

The results of these calculations are plotted graphi- 
cally in Fig. 2, and indicate the maximum static fore 
poppet load to be about 750 tons and the margin 
against tipping about the end of groundwavs to be 
about 82,000 ft.-tons. 

The curves show the variation of load on fore poppet 
during launching due to weight (W) and buoyancy (B), 
also the moments of W and B about the centre of fore 
poppet and about the after end of ground ways 
(EOGW). They indicate that pivotting occurs at a 
travel of 433 ft. after start of launch. A one-foot rise or 
fall in water level would shorten or increase the travel 
by 19.2 ft. 

Assuming a straight line variation of pressure on the 
overlap on the groundways, calculations showed a maxi- 
mum way end pressure of 5 tons per sq. ft. Undei 
normal conditions, i.e., water at elevation 95.0 and 
length of ways aft of A.P. of 230 ft., the indicated way 
end pressure was under 3 tons per sq. ft. 

At the theoretical pivotting position the draft at the 
aft perpendicular figured at 14.5 ft. Assuming a 100-ft. 
over-run beyond the theoretical pivotting point, the 
draft would be 19.7 ft. This latter figure was used to 
determine the required excavations of the basin needed 
to provide launching clearance. 

The Groundways 

The two groundways on each berth are at 20 ft. 
centres and extend from the bow to approximately 
230 ft. beyond the aft perpendicular. Their over all 
length is about 630 ft. They are straight and without 
transverse inclination or longitudinal camber. 

The width of each groundway is a function of the 
launching weight (2,520 tons), length of sliding ways 
(349 ft.) and the desired initial mean pressure (2.0 tons 
per sq. ft.). Thus the width required equals: 


2.0 X 349 

X Yi X 12 = 21.7 in. 

Each groundway consists of two continuous rows of 
12 by 12 dressed B.C. fir timbers placed side by side 
with staggered butt joints and bolted with through 
z /i in. bolts at about 42 in. centres. A 6 by 12 ribband, 
extending 3 in. above the top of the groundways, runs 
continuously on the outboard side and is wedged at 
7 ft. centres to anchored timber blocks. The dressed 
size of the timbers being 11}^ by 11^ in., the width 
provided equals 23 in. less 1 in. ribband clearance, or 
22 in. net. 

0»«1 2 3* 



Fig. 3 — General arrangement of 

A temporary cofferdam was built to permit construc- 
tion in the dry of the aft end of groundways. After 
completion, this cofferdam was removed, thus per- 
manently flooding the area. The aft 307 ft. of ways are 
laid on continuous concrete pedestals poured upon 
rock. The remainder are supported on the berths' 
timber bents (7 ft. centres) which are also on rock 
foundation. The rock between the ways was excavated 
for a distance of 28 ft. forward of the end of ground- 
ways to provide clearance for the drop of the vessel in 
the event of launching at minimum water level. 

In anticipation of possible heavier launchings in the 
future, the submerged length of the groundways was 
built 6 in. wider than the forward portion. A removable 
filler piece was inserted along the ribband to align 
with the ribband on the remainder of the ways. 

The Releasing Arrangement 

There are two common methods of controlling the 
force component down the ways. They are the releas- 
ing trigger and the burning sole plates. The latter 
method was adopted at United Shipyards Limited due 
to its extreme simplicity and its ready adaptability to 
prevailing conditions. Although the sponsor does not 
actually release the vessel as is the case usually with the 
trigger, the method adopted is not without its interest 
value as the burning of the sole plates is a point of un- 
failing attraction to all who witness the launching. 

The sole plate, one at each sliding way, is a steel 
plate bolted to two holding plates, one of which is 
bolted to the forward end of the sliding way and the 
other bolted to the groundway as described later under 
"Fore Poppet" and shown in Fig. 6. The net section 
and bolting of each sole plate is designed for one half 
of the total force component down the ways, neglecting 
friction on the groundway lubricant. 

The force component down the ways (F) is equal to 
the launching weight times the sine of the angle of 
declivity of the ways, or F = 2520 X . 052 = 131 . 6 tons. 
It is transmitted to the sliding ways by friction between 
the hull and cradle and reacted by the rock foundation 
through the berth structure and compression in the 

The centre of each sole plate is perforated with 
twelve 11/16 in. diameter holes at 1% in. centres. The 
spaces between holes are numbered consecutively from 
the outer edges of the plate towards its centre. In this 
manner the burning of both sole plates is more readily 
controlled and uniformity of remaining section in each 
plate assured. 

The area of metal broken gives a measure of the 
actual force acting upon the vessel. 

The Cradle 
The general elevation in Fig. 3 indicates the three 
principal parts of the cradle, built between the sliding 
ways and the vessel. They are the aft poppet, the main 
blocking and the fore poppet. The midship section 
shows how the wire rope tag lines and the sliding way 
spreaders combine to prevent any transverse move- 
ment of the cradle during the launch. All individual 
parts of the cradle, such as wedges, planks, blocks, etc., 
are thoroughly tied to the sliding ways. This assures 
complete salvage of all items as well as preventing any 
part floating away separately while the vessel is entering 
the water. The 1 in. wire rope connecting the forward 
sliding way section to the drag cable shackle serves 
eventually to anchor the cradle to the drag after the 
vessel has come to rest. 

The Sliding Ways 

The total length of each sliding way, one on the port 
groundway and the other on the starboard, is 349 ft. 
Each is made up of nine sections 36 ft. long and one aft 
section 25 ft. long. Each section consists of two 12 by 12 
dressed B.C. fir timbers bolted together with through 
% in. diameter bolts at 51 in. centres. The length and 
position relatively to the vessel of each sliding way is 
determined by practical considerations of the fore and 
aft poppet construction. 

The design of the joint connecting each section of 
sliding way to the succeeding section is of prime impor- 
tance due to the type of releasing arrangement adopted. 
Conceivably, if a joint were not adequate, the vessel 
might launch itself by merely breaking down its fric- 
tion on the cradle forward of the weak joint. Thus the 
fore poppet would be left behind thereby causing 
probably disastrous results. 

A joint is designed for one half the force component 
down the ways, neglecting the lubricant friction, less the 
friction between the hull and cradle forward of the joint 
being considered. The first joint forward consists of two 
link plates which engage a 3 in. diameter through pin 
in each adjoining section. Each through pin in turn 
engages two side plates which arc adequately bolted to 
its section. The second joint from the forward end is 
similar to the first joint but with 2 in. diameter through 
pin and smaller side plates. To permit interchange- 
ability of sections, all remaining joints are made the 
same as the second joint (see Fig. 4). Two of the side 
plate bolts at each joint engage an angle on the out- 
board side. This angle has a hole in its outstanding leg 
which serves to connect the tag lines and tie up cradle 

Each port section of sliding way is connected to its 

10 15 ZO 25 30 

cradle, showing ways and poppets. 





r>= ?r T> ;?r 


|— È^ ^^1 _ -I^H^ T^i ni^l I^HXI — E^fe^ V/EP6E 

y, f ^ (&P|p ;<s) 


TypicflL Blocking 


Sliding Way Joint 



^c- Keel Linc 


(s.ul 2 3 4- 

I' " l I I I 

Scale (fectï 

Fig. 4 — Typical cradle blocking, and sliding-way joint 



corresponding starboard section by two 8 by 8 timber 
spreaders positioned at the third points. 

The sliding ways are spaced 1 in. clear of the ground- 
way ribband by means of thumb plates. These thumb- 
plates are steel plates 1 in. thick by 2 x /i in. wide, bent 
into the shape of an angle 2J/£ by 1 in. Two thumb- 
plates are placed at each sliding way section. They are 
all numbered and are carefully checked when removed 
just prior to launching in order to make sure that none 
have remained in place. 

The one inch space between the groundway ribband 
and the sliding way is covered by a 34 hi. wood strip 
for the full length of the cradle. This is a precaution 
against nuts, bolts, washers, etc., becoming lodged in 
the clearance space during the construction period of 
the cradle. These covers are removed just before the 
thumbplates are taken out whereupon a last inspection 
of the clearance space is made before launching. 
Ckadle Blocking 

Typical cradle blocking is shown in Fig. 4, and occurs 
at each hull frame. The blocks between the two layers 
of longitudinal 3 by 12 planks are 12 in. by 12 in. by 2 ft. 
long. The fitting block is also 12 in. wide. The wedges 
are cut from 4 by 6 in. hard wood, 3 ft. 6 in. long 
and have a slope of 1 in 12 in. The four corners of the 
driving end of each wedge are chamfered. The sliding 
way joints provide 1 in. clearance between sections. 
The ends of all sliding Avay sections are rounded at the 
lower edge to prevent scoring of the groundways. 
The Aft Poppet 

The maximum strain on the aft poppet occurs after 
the stern keel blocking has been removed and remains 
until the aft poppet passes beyond the end of ground- 
ways. The load it must carry is indeterminate but it 

Fig. 5 — Starboard aft poppet showing 
ments for its salvage. 

«ire rope arrange- 

must support the overhang of the vessel aft of the 
poppet. This overhang is about 56 ft. at the upper deck 
and about 39 ft. at the keel line. 

The cradle is removed from under the vessel by 
anchoring the cradle to the drag blocks and having the 
tugs haul the vessel off by the stern. The keying action 
of the aft poppet on the finer lines of the vessel's stern 
made it necessary to construct the aft poppet in such a 
manner that it would remain with the vessel during 
this hauling off operation. As shown in Fig. 5, the aft 
poppet is therefore built as a separate unit, free from 
the sliding ways at the bottom of its wedge riders and 
tied to the vessel by two % /i in. wire ropes on each side. 
The six vertical members with bracing longitudinal 
channels and wedge rider are built and handled in one 
piece. The saddle plates, tie rods and angles, etc., are 
assembled separately. Note the wire ropes connected 
to the poppet distinct from the tag lines connected 
directly to the sliding ways. To salvage the aft poppet 
the wire rope tag lines are thrown off and the poppet 
allowed to sink to the bottom of the basin at a con- 
venient spot, the proportion of steel in the unit being 
purposely sufficient to assure the unit will not float. 
Buoys at the ends of the wire rope tag lines serve to 
spot the position of the poppet whereupon it is raised 
from the bed of the basin by a floating crane. 

The very purpose of the shipyard dictated that all 
cradle parts be so proportioned that they could be re- 
used repeatedly. For this reason the vertical uprights 
of the aft poppets are capped with a cross timber 
instead of running up directly to the hull. These cross 
timbers serve as fitting pieces and can be readily re- 
placed for adjustments on different vessels, thus pre- 
serving the main structure intact. 

The Fore Poppet 

The fore poppet is the bearing about which pivotting 
of the vessel occurs during launching. The poppet must 
provide the means of pivotting and at the same time 
properly distribute the resulting concentrated load to 
the groundways. Both of these functions are obtained 
by the use of crushing blocks. 

The fore poppet and releasing arrangements are 
shown in Fig. 6. The sliding way holding plate and sole 
plate are 23 in. wide and Yi in. thick. The groundway 
holding plate is 24 in. wide due to the 1 in. difference 
of centres between the sliding way and groundway. 
Should the starting friction on the lubricant be too 
high, two 100-ton hydraulic jacks are provided, one at 
each groundway, which are connected to a single pump. 
The tie down is to take care of the local moment set up 
by the sole plate load being reacted at the centre of the 
groundway. Note the connection on the outboard side 
of the sliding way used to anchor the cradle to the drag 
blocks after the launch. 

Previous to pivotting, the keel line and the bottom of 



6bounpw<t —f 


BCHTH Dtt»— , 

Fore Poppet 

Fig. 6 — Elevation of fore poppet and releasing arrangement. 

the poppet block are parallel to the ground ways. Dur- 
ing pivotting, the angle between the bottom of the 
poppet block or keel and the groundways changes from 
to about 3 deg. Theoretically, if the vessel and cradle 
were absolutely rigid an infinitely small angle between 
the keel line and the groundway would cause all the 
load on the ways to be concentrated at a single point 
of contact. This load would be equal to the launching 
weight (W) less the buoyancy (B) at that instant. 
Since the vessel is not absolutely rigid the poppet load 
therefore cannot be 750 tons as static calculations 
showed. Keeping in mind the fact that as the launch 
proceeds the angle between the keel and groundways is 
continually increasing, but that at the same time the 
load on the ways (W - B) is continually diminishing, 
there comes a time when the change of angle is suffi- 
cient to overcome the elasticity of the vessel and the 
load on the groundways actually becomes concentrated. 
The crushing block arrangement is a deliberate effort 
to create a non-rigid space, of fixed length, between the 
hull and the groundways which will take the change of 
angle and spread the load uniformly over a known length. 
The method used in proportioning the crushing- 
blocks is as follows: — 

(a) Determine a graph of the unit stress per square 
inch required to obtain various percentages of 
crushing of the blocks to be used. (Several tests 
were made with clear spruce wood. The average 
of these tests is shown in Table I). 
From the static launching calculations determine 
the angle (a) between the keel and groundways 
and the load (W - B) on the ways for various 
travels after pivotting has commenced. 
Assume a depth of crushing blocks and deter- 
mine the amount of crushing (D in.) at the for- 
ward end of the poppet. This crushing should be 
about 35 per cent of the depth of blocking, 
(d) For each travel in (b) determine the length (L) 
of poppet in contact with the ways assuming 
that the full crushing (D) has taken place. 



L = 

tan a 


For each travel in (b) determine the load (P) per 

square foot on the ways. 

W — B 
Then P = T , where b = width of sliding ways 
L o 

in contact. 

It will be found that this quantity (P) increases 

to a maximum as the travel increases and then 

begins to diminish with further increase in 

travel. The permissible load on the groundway 
lubricant is about 10 to 11 tons per sq. ft. Should 
the maximum calculated load P be higher than 
this, the depth of crushing blocks must be in- 
creased and the calculations repeated till found 
satisfactory. At the travel at which the maxi- 
mum pressure per square foot occurs the quantity 
L represents the required length of poppet block. 

(f) With a poppet of length h and crushing at its 
forward end equal to D, the crushing D. at any 
intermediate block distance z from the aft end 

will be j- X D. From Table I the pressure per 


square inch to obtain D, may be found. 

(g) Since the pressure per lineal foot of poppet 
equals P X b, it follows from f) that the area 
of crushing blocks required for each foot of 
poppet is known. For practical reasons, it is 
better to fix the area of blocking and vary its 
spacing rather than vary the blocking area at a 
uniform spacing. 


Table showing percentages of deformation of clear 

spruce blocking when subjected to various unit pressures. 

Pressure in lbs. Crushing percentage 

per sq. in. of depth 

100 83 

200 1 . 67 

300 2 . 50 

400 3 . 83 

500 8.33 

600 17.50 

700 26.67 

800 35.83 

900 45.00 

Fore Poppet Section 

Fig. 7 — Section at forward end of fore poppet. 



Fig. 8 — Calculated force and velocity curves plotted on a 
travel base. 

In the design (Fig. 6) D was assumed 3.6 in. This 
gave a maximum P of 10.4 tons per sq. ft. occurring at 
a travel of 87 ft. beyond the static pivotting point. The 
angle was 1 deg. 13 min. giving a length L of 13.7 ft. 
The total poppet load at this position of maximum unit 
pressure was 520 tons. 

The poppet block is 23 in. wide and is built up with 
layers of 3 in. planks thoroughly nailed together. It was 
-constructed in the shop and the top surface carved to 
the hull shape from mould loft templates. 

Since the poppet load must necessarity be carried by 
the sliding ways, the stresses there are at right angles 
to the wood grain. There appeared to be no object 
therefore to construct the poppet block of stronger end 
on timbers with stresses parallel to the grain. 

Figure 7 shows a cross section at the forward end of the 
fore poppet. Note the staggered arrangement of the 
poppet block planks. The tie rods are 2% in. diameter 
steel rounds threaded at both ends but not upset. A 
thick steel pad is used at the upper end of the tie rod 
to properly distribute the load to the timber. The 
saddle plates are 6 by 3^ in. with welded brackets. 

The Lubricants 

The lubricants used are Paragon stéarine as base 
coat and Paragon grease as slip coat. These are mineral 
products developed exclusively for launching purposes. 
The base coat serves to smooth out any unevenness in 
the groundway timbers and is tough enough to resist 
the launching loads without squeezing out or disin- 

The base coat is 34 in., thick and, in order to obtain 
good adherence, is applied when the groundways are 

thoroughly dry. To lay the base coat the groundways 
are first cleaned and divided into rectangular areas by 
1 by 34 in. wood slats lightly nailed at about 4 ft. centres. 
The stéarine is then melted and each rectangular area 
filled by pouring on the melted stéarine with hand 
ladles. The slats are then removed and the spaces so 
left are also filled, after which the whole area is 
smoothed off with hot irons. A brush coat of stéarine is 
also applied to the underside of the sliding ways. 

A 34 in. thick layer of slipcoat is smeared on by hand 
on top of the base coat before placing the sliding ways 
in position. No grease irons are used. The 1 in. clear 
space between the ribband and the sliding ways is 
packed with grease before applying the covers. 

Three successful launchings in one summer season 
have been made on the same base coat without any 
appreciable reduction in its thickness. After a winter 
season, however, it is better to renew the base coat 
entirely. The removed base coat may be melted, 
strained and salvaged for re-use. 

A fresh new slip coat is used at every launch. After 
launching the grease is scrapped up and discarded as it 
cannot be salvaged and is no longer serviceable. 

Force Calculations 

In order to obtain some conception of the amount of 
drag needed to bring the vessel to rest immediately 
after the launch and the amount of travel that drag 
would require, it was necessary to make force calcula- 
tions based on the static launching computations. 

The force acting upon the vessel at any time during 
the launch may be expressed as follows: — 
F r = F g — F b — F L — F w — F d 

F r is the net resultant force in tons and may, without 
appreciable error, be considered acting parallel to the 
ways during the launch and parallel to the water after 
the launch. 

F g is the component of launching weight down the 
ways and equals W sin 6 where W equals the launching 
weight in tons and 6 the angle of inclination of the ways. 

F b is the component buoyancy down the ways and 
equals B sin 6 where B is the buoyancy in tons. Note 
that F e — F b = (W — B) sin 8 or the net load on the 
ways X sin 6 at any time. 

F L is the frictional resistance of the lubricant and 
equals / (W — B) cos 6 where / is the coefficient of 
friction. The coefficient / was assumed as 0.01, a de- 
liberately low figure in order to obtain the most 
unfavourable condition for the drag. 

F w is the water resistance of the vessel and equals 

f | Manilla Line 
Connected to Paat» Cable 


Bilge. Crib -" 

Fig. 10 — Elevation showing arrangement 


Kv 2 where v is the velocity of the vessel in feet per 
second and K a coefficient. In the calculations made, 
the value of K suggested by Henry H. W. Keith in 
Principles of Naval Architecture, Rossell and Chapman, 
Vol. 1, was used. 

F D is the drag resistance and is equal to kD where D 
is the weight of drag in tons and k its coefficient of fric- 
tion on the ground. Both quantities must be assumed 
and if results are not satisfactory the assumption must 
be altered until it is so. 

F D was assumed as twelve equal weights of 10 tons 
each, adding successively to one another. Coefficient 
k was assumed equal to 0.65. The resulting force and 
velocity computations are shown in Fig. 8. 

The Drags 

The use of bundles of heavy chain for drag weights is 
the most common practice. United Shipyards, being a 
new yard, did not possess any chain and it was not 
thought expedient to either borrow or lease chain from 
other yards even if any was available. The decision was 
therefore made to use concrete blocks as drag weights. 

In order to complete the force calculations, it was 
necessary to determine the friction coefficient of the 
blocks on the terrain they had to travel upon. This 
terrain was partly on concrete and partly on hard 
packed gravel. Accordingly, tests were made with a 
concrete block weighing 3650 lb. on conditions similar 
to those anticipated by the actual drag. These tests 
indicated a friction factor of about 0.65, a figure used 
in the computations. 

The force calculations showing that twelve incre- 
ments of 10 tons of drag would be suitable, it was 
decided to use twelve 5-ton concrete blocks on each 
side of the vessel. Each block is proportioned for needed 
volume to obtain the required weight, the only fixed 
dimension being the depth in order to permit driving 
of the wedges immediately behind the block. The 
blocks are shown in Fig. 9. Each block weighs 5 long 
tons. When extended, the distance from the centre of 
connecting pin to face of block is generally 13 ft. but 
blocks adjacent to the upper ends of bilge cribs have 
this length increased by 10 ft. The wire rope engages a 
steel spool which bears on the 3J/£ in. diameter connect- 
ing pin. The pin, in turn, bears on the embedded 
anchor plates. Lifting hooks are depressed in pockets 
to provide a clear surface on the top of the block so 
that the cradle wedges may be driven. The connections 
between the blocks are designed for 100 per cent of the 

Fig. 9 — Detail of 5-ton concrete drag block. 

weight of all the drag on one side of the vessel. A factor 
of 3 on the ultimate strength of the wire ropes was used 
and the steel parts proportioned at 20,000 lb. per sq. in. 
All blocks were made similar for complete interchange- 
ability. The wire rope was arranged to straddle the 
width of the block, and placed below the vertical, centre 
of gravity in order to obtain maximum stability and 
minimum liveliness as the block is set in motion. 

The initial position of the blocks is such that each 
has 10 ft. of movement before picking up the succeed- 
ing one. Transversely, the two sets of drags are at 35 ft. 
centres. A 3 by 8 wood guard rail was built off the out- 
board ends of the ribband wedge timbers due to the 
closeness of the inboard edge of the drag blocks. This 
rail extends from the uppermost drag block to the end 
of the groundways. 

The Drag Cables 

The drag cable must be of such a length that it will 
pick up the fust drag block only after the launching 
cradle has left the end of the groundways. With the 
position of the first block determined, the resulting 
length of drag cable required is 404 ft. 

It is necessary to control each drag cable so that it 
will not foul the staging towers (2 ft. away) during the 
launch and will not kink as it straightens out to pick 
up the drag. Several methods of tying up the drag 
cable were considered, the final arrangement being as 
depicted in Fig. 10. 

The 23^ in. diameter wire rope drag cable weighs 


Droc CaBLC - 

Plan of Connection to Hull 

(W famr $ Drac. BLOCKS 

of drag cable and drag blocks 

^- Druc Blocks 



Fig. 11 — View of bow of vessel showing starboard fore 
poppet and connection of drag cable to hull. 

about 10 lb. per ft. and is 404 ft. long bight to bight of 
the 6-ft. spliced loop at its ends. The bilge cribs, drawn 
in dotted lines, are in way of the drag blocks thus 
necessitating the disposition of blocks shown. The con- 
nection of the gauge wire used to obtain the time- 
distance curve of the launch is indicated at the bow. A 
small loop at the end of the gauge wire was passed 
through the paravane hole and engaged a steel pin 
held by a light manilla line to the upper deck. Drawing 
up the pin freed the vessel whereupon the gauge wire 
was reeled back in. 

To eliminate transverse sway, a 1}^ in. diameter 
manilla rope connected at either end to temporary 
welded brackets is strung along the vessel's side and 
supported to the upper deck by 5^ in. diameter manilla 
rope at 15 to 20 ft. intervals. The % in. wire rope tag- 
lines connected to the cradle (Fig. 3) pass over this \Y% 
in. line thereby holding it closely to the vessel. The 
drag cable is also tied at 15 to 20 ft. intervals by ^g in. 
diameter manilla ropes which pass over the sharp edges 
of the upper shell plate strake. The drag cable is further 
tied to the 1}^ in. manilla line by light strands at 5 to 
6 ft. centres. As the vessel slides down the ways, the 
cable ties break successively, thus uniformly paying- 
out the cable to the ground. 

The drag cable is connected to the bow of the vessel 
by a shackle which is pinned to a bolted steel bracket. 
The centre to centre distance between brackets is the 
same as port and starboard spacing of the drags on the 
berth. This connection and the fore poppet are shown 
in Fig. 11. 

As the ship comes to rest under the influence of the 
drags, the elasticity of the cables causes the vessel to 
move forward slightly thus slackening the cables. At 
this moment the connecting pins are pulled out by the 
attached tackles and the shackles allowed to drop to 
the basin bed. The 1 in. wire rope connecting the 
shackles to the sliding ways (Fig. 3) thus anchors the 

cradle to the drag. A 34 in. wire rope is also attached to 
each shackle and is of sufficient length to float a wood 
buoy at its other extremity. 

After the vessel has been hauled off the cradle, men 
on rafts equipped with hand winches pick up the x /i in. 
lines, raise the shackles from the bottom of the basin 
into the rafts and disconnect the 1 in. line to the slid- 
ing ways. After detaching the cables at the first drag 
block they are pulled inshore, coiled and stored for 
later use. 


A schedule which lists all operations required is pre- 
pared for each launch. The principal items on the 
schedule include placing the drag blocks, removing the 
aft end staging, removing the stoplogs and bents, in- 
spection by divers of the submerged groundways, tying 
up of the drag cable, driving the wedges, removing keel 
blocks and shoring, removing bilge cribs, ribband 
covers, thumbplates and burning of the sole plates. 

All launchings with water over elevation 97.0 require 
the wedges to be driven before stoplogs and bents are 
removed. Thus it is not infrequent that the weight of 
the vessel remains on the grease some 24 hours before 
the launching time. This condition is not desirable 
but is unavoidable. 

The wedges are driven in two separate rallies. Three 
pairs of rams are used during a rally, one pair at the 
aft end and the others at the third points of the cradle. 
Each pair works forward on its alloted number of 
wedges. Due to the solid rock foundation little trouble 
is experienced in transferring the weight of the vessel 
to the groundways. Generally speaking, when the 
second rally is completed, the keel block wedges may 
be removed by hand. 

Interest in the burning of the sole plates extends 
even to the burners themselves, who vie with one 
another for the job. Four burners who have worked on 
the vessel to be launched are chosen for the operation. 

Since the basin is tideless, the time of launching may 
be chosen at will. Usually, launchings occur at the hour 
which interferes least with the operation of the yard 
and is of the greatest convenience to the ceremonial 

Figure 12 is a view taken after the first launch from 
Berth No. 3. Note that the launching cradle remains 
anchored to the drag blocks. 

To check the force calculations and also to determine 
the velocity,- starting and running friction of the lubri- 


12 — Vessel being towed to outfitting basin after first 
launch from Berth No. 3. 



cant, friction of the drag, an arrangement was set up to 
establish the time-distance curve for each of the first 
five launchings. The first derivative or slope of the 
time-distance curve gives the velocity of the vessel and 
the second derivative or the slope of the velocity curve 
gives the acceleration of the vessel. The acceleration 
multiplied by the launching mass gives the resultant 
force (F,) acting on the vessel. 

The arrangement consisted of a wood reel of known 
circumference (10.1 ft.) with sufficient gauge wire 
wrapped around it to extend over the total travel. The 
gauge wire was connected to the vessel as indicated in 
Fig. 10. A foot brake was attached to the reel to con- 
trol its momentum as the vessel's velocity decreased. 
A small copper plate was inserted in the side of the 
reel. With each revolution of the reel this plate con- 
tacted two poles fixed to the axle supporting frame, 
thus closing a circuit. The poles were connected to a 
chronograph which had a magnetically operated pen 
holder. The pen scribed a continuous line on a paper 
attached to a drum which revolved at a constant known 
speed. Each contact the reel made with the poles 
operated the pen holder magnet thus causing a short 
side deviation of the line scribed by the pen. A stylus, 
following in the fresh ink line, was held by a second 
magnet which could be activated by a separate tele- 
graph key, permitting thereby various independent 
time observations. 

The results obtained are shown in Table II. The time- 
distance curves did not prove sufficiently accurate to 
produce a truly reliable second derivative or accelera- 
tion curve. As nearly as it could be judged, the friction 
coefficient of the drags was about 0.35 instead of the 
0.65 established by the tests. 

Customary sliding way telltales were placed at the 
aft end, mid-point and fore end of the cradle to deter- 
mine the liveliness of the vessel before launching. 

Nails, driven by the side saddle channels into a 
wood block fixed to the fore poppet wedge rider, indi- 
cated the amount of crushing which had taken place. 

At the first launch (Hull No. 2) an attempt was 
made to establish the travel and time at which actual 
pivotting occurred. A 16 mm. movie camera was set up 
on shore and focussed on the stern of the vessel. A 
second similar camera was set on board the vessel and 
focussed on the shore line in the distance. Knowing the 
number of frames per second, the time of pivotting 
could be determined by viewing the film. An observer 
at each camera checked the time independently with 
stop watches. The travel at pivotting was obtained 
from the time-distance curve. Apparently actual pivot- 
ting took place about 22 ft. beyond the travel shown 
by the static launching calculations. 

The first launching off Berth No. 3 was followed 
with great interest due to the water conditions on the 
port side. The vessel definitely contacted the guard 
(4 ft. 6 in. lateral movement) just previous to picking 
up the drag. There was also evidence of the sliding 
ways rubbing against the port ribband. 

Just as Hull No. 3 on Berth No. 1 had come to rest 

after launching, a very strong wind arose and blew the 
vessel over to the guard on the east side of Berth No. 3 
before the tugs could obtain control. The resulting side 
strain on the anchored cradle caused the link plates at 
the sliding way midj oints to sever their cotter pins 
thus dividing the sliding ways into two sections. 

After the wedges had been fully driven under Hull 
No. 4, strong winds forced postponement of the launch 
for three days. The weight was therefore carried on the 
grease for this period of time and in freezing weather. 
The vessel started off on a successful launch about 15 
seconds after breaking its sole plates. 

The abnormal travel of Hull No. 5 before coming to 
rest was due to the drags moving on sanded snow and 
ice instead of packed gravel. The ice was 6 to 8 in. 
thick in the basin at the time and, in way of the 
launch, had previously been broken up into slabs by 
the tugs. 


Observations taken at first five launchings. (Columns indicate 

the order in which the launchings took place.) 

Hull number 2 1 3 4 5 

Berth number 2 3 1 4 5 

Temperature 57°F 56°F 32°F 28°F 1°F 

Water elevation 94.7 94.6 96.0 95.2 95.6 

Feet of water over end of 

groundways 8.9 8.9 9.7 10.0 10.4 

Launching weight (long tons) .. 2520 2490 2490 2450 2250 

Initial mean pressure (tons per 

sq.ft.) 1.94 1 92 1.92 1.88 1.73 

Number of drag blocks 24 24 20 16 16 

Aft sliding way telltale move- 
ment in ins 0.75 0.75 0.65 0.75 — 

Area of sole plate broken (sq. in.) 3.05 3.25 2 44 2.16 2.97 

Breaking load (long tons) 84 . 4 87 . 66 . 3 57 . 8 79 5 

Inches of crushing at fore end 

of fore poppet 3.8 33 3.1 3.1 3.0 

Travels in feet: 

Keel enters water 102 103 76 92 84 

Stern rises 402 400 373 

Drags picked up 617 617 603 618 620 

Vessel at rest 764 738 736 773 864 

Time in seconds: 

Keel enters water 15.5 18.0 21.5 19.0 45.0 

Stern rises 30.5 33.0 38.5 

Drags picked up 43.5 47.5 54.5 49.5 79.0 

Vessel at rest 66.0 67 79 70.0 127.0 

Max. velocity (ft. /sec.) 22 22.0 20 21.2 20.4 

Starting friction factor 4.3 42 — — 

Running friction factor 1 78 1 . 56 1 .78 2 . 67 

Feet of movement of last drag 

block 37 20 43 92 185 


The author wishes to express his acknowledgements 
to Mr. L. Voss, U.S. Maritime Commission and Mr. A. 
Aldrich, naval architect, Bethlehem Fairfield Corpora- 
tion, for the valuable information supplied which con- 
tributed immeasurably to the design of the cradle. To 
Mr. J. S. Crandall, Codarck Associates, Mass., and 
Mr. W. J. Mares, Wartime Merchant Shipping Ltd., 
for their helpful and timely advice and suggestions. To 
Mr. F. P. Shearwood, whose guidance throughout was 
much appreciated. To shipwrights Crawford, McLeod, 
Bilodeau and rigger Pink, whose excellent executions 
of the plans made the success of the launchings a reality. 





Administrator of Civil Aeronautics, Department of Commerce, Washington. 

An address delivered at a joint meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers and The Engineering 
Institute of Canada, at Toronto, Ont., on September 30th, 1943. 

Just before World War I the railroads of the United 
States and Canada began to be subject to serious com- 
petition from other forms of transportation than coastal 
shipping. Just before the present World War the com- 
petition became three-dimensional. Up to 1935 air 
transport had handled comparatively small amounts of 
traffic, but thereafter it began to make substantial 
inroads on certain classes of railroad business. The 
post-war period will see a further increase in the amount 
of traffic handled by the airlines, and the competition 
will be proportionately keener. 

Much discussion on the post-war prospect revolves 
around the question of whether the relationship be- 
tween the airlines and the railroads will be one of 
mutual aid, or active competition. In our opinion the 
relationship will be mixed. For the most part, the 
services of one will supplement the services of the other. 
There is no use blinking the fact that in many fields of 
traffic they offer very different types of service, and 
that a large number of travelers and shippers will have 
a choice to make between air service or surface trans- 
port service. They will make this choice by balancing 
the advantages of one against the advantages of the 
other. Where cost is a primary consideration, the 
cheapest service will be used without regard to other 
factors. Where speed of delivery is paramount, air 
service will be used with little regard to cost. There 
will be instances, of course, where air service will be 
both the fastest and the most economical, as in the 
Canadian north country and in Alaska. This will also 
be true of a few inaccessible sections of the United 
States, and many parts of Mexico, Central, and South 

Approximately 50 per cent of all passenger travel of 
more than 100 miles falls, I believe, into this category 
of traffic which can go either by air or by rail, depending 
upon whether greater speed or greater economy is 
desired. About two per cent of all transport of goods 
falls into the same category. How this traffic is dis- 
tributed among the various competing means of trans- 
portation will be determined by the individual judge- 
ments of the many thousand users of transport services. 
Their judgements will be governed, in turn, by the 
relative success of the airlines and the railroads in 
improving existing services, reducing costs, and increas- 
ing the general convenience of their services to the 

Many important decisions will depend upon whether 
the services of the airlines and railroads are to be 
regarded as primarily competitive or basically supple- 
mentary. In particular, the regulatory policies of our 
respective governments will be determined thereby. If 
the most fruitful relationship between the older and 
newer forms of transportation is to be one of co-ordinated 
joint activity, it will be sound policy for them to be 
under common ownership and direction. On the other 
hand, if competition is to be fostered, common owner- 
ship would not seem to be appropriate. 

What are the principal factors that bear on the suc- 
cess of air transport in its struggle for traffic ? 

I wish here to differentiate between two very different 
types of air transport. One is along routes where the 

potential traffic density is reasonably heavy. The other 
is along routes of lighter density. This differentiation is 
important because each type presents its own peculiar 
technical and economic problems. 

Air Transport in the U.S. at Present 

But first, let us glance at the air traffic picture as a 
whole. This is the way it appears to us in the United 
States. Existing rates of fare on the airlines are just 
over 5 cents per passenger-mile, on the average. Air- 
craft of 21 passenger capacity travel at a cruising speed 
of approximately 180 miles an hour at altitude. From 
taxiing out at one terminal to taxiing in at the next 
stop their average overall speed was roughly 155 miles 
an hour. A traffic survey by the Civil Aeronautics 
Board revealed that in 1940 the airlines carried about 
20 per cent of the passengers traveling a thousand 
miles or more by public means of transportation, and 
11 per cent of those traveling between points 200 miles 
or so apart, such as between New York and Washing- 
ton. The exact ratio varied from region to region, 
depending upon a number of factors, particularly upon 
the comparative frequency of schedule and quality of 
service offered by the railroads and the airlines between 
specific points. 

Air express charges, including pick-up and delivery 
service, range upward from 67 cents per ton-mile for 
heavy shipments over long distance; to 83 cents per 
ton-mile for a 10-pound package carried, say, from 
Washington to Montreal. While very small in com- 
parison with the total movement of goods, air express 
has been steadily and rapidly increasing, rising more 
than 100 per cent in 1942. 

Postage for air mail is double the charge for an 
ordinary letter. But air mail now carries about 10 per 
cent of all non-local letters. Historically, of course, the 
development of air transport in the United States was 
based upon the air mail. By the time of Pearl Harbor, 
however, air transport was much less dependent upon 
air mail than in earlier years. This was brought about 
in part by reduction of airline operating costs so that a 
large part of the air mail could be carried at a service 
rather than a subsidy rate, and in part by a decline in 
the proportion of total airline revenues represented by 
mail pay. It has always been our national policy to 
handle first-class mail by the fastest means of transport. 
Instead of transmitting only the most urgent letters at 
a surcharge, it should be the aim of postal policy to 
transmit every first-class letter by air without surcharge 
whenever delivery can be advanced thereby. Before 
the war the high cost, owing to use of air mail to 
promote development of air transportation, may have 
been a justifiable deterrent to the elimination of the 
surcharge on air mail, but this should not be so after 
the war. This is the import of the recent mail-pay 
decisions of our Civil Aeronautics Board, based upon 
the Post Office's Cost Ascertainment Report of 1942. 

It seems likely that average cost for air mail will not 
exceed 0.4 mills per pound-mile, representing a 60 per 
cent decrease from the 0.96 mills prevailing during the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1942. While it is still almost 
three times as high as the 0.14 mills cost for surface 



mail transport the difference does not seem to be large 
enough to justify restricted use of air for transport of 
first class mail. It is generally agreed, I think, that the 
dividends accruing to the United States from the 
development of its air transport system far outweigh 
any losses to the Post Office on air mail. 

Lastly, almost all countries in the world — certainly 
ours — are now air-minded. Tens of thousands of people 
who had never previously thought of making a long 
trip by air are now flying back and forth everywhere. 
Now habituated to the convenience of swift travel 
through the sky, these people constitute a vast new 
market for air travel. 

Recent Growth of Commercial Air Traffic 

Let me briefly summarize the remarkable growth of 
commercial air transport in recent years. Between 1927 
and 1942 the number of passengers riding the U.S. air- 
lines increased from 8,700 to more than 4,000,000 a 
year. During the same period air mail increased from 
1,270,000 to 44,600,000 lb. annually— air express and 
freight, from 46,000 to 22,300,000 lb. each year. Com- 
mercial air transport, I believe, will continue to grow 
steadily. According to a recent conservative estimate 
by our Civil Aeronautics Board there will be a five-fold 
increase in our domestic airline operations by 1947. 
For intercontinental and transoceanic air passenger 
traffic the Board estimates an eight-fold increase. We 
have scarcely scratched the surface of the air transport 
potential. Some of the less developed countries far 
outstrip us in this field. Take Alaska, for example, and 
a similar situation no doubt exists in Canada. On a per 
capita basis, Alaska has 100 times as many airplanes 
as the United States, flies 22 times as many passenger 
miles, hauls 75 times as much mail by air and approxi- 
mately a thousand times as much freight and express. 
We need such intensive development elsewhere. 

When the railroads had finished building their main 
East-West and North-South lines, they did not stop 
there. They began to criss-cross the country with 
secondary lines, and to double-track their main lines. 
We are, in my opinion, entering that phase of develop- 
ment in the commercial history of the airplane. We are 
on the threshold of great and intensive development 
requiring expansion along all lines. 

When I speak of expansion, I do not mean adding a 
few more schedules from point to point or a few 
hundred miles of new routes a year. I mean adding 
hundreds of new schedules and thousands of miles of 
new routes. I mean carrying millions of new passengers, 
great quantities of express and freight, and most of the 
first class mail. We can meet the challenge presented 
by the possibilities inherent in air transport, only if we 
are prepared to take advantage of our unparalleled 

Possible Further Development 

Let me illustrate some of the -wider gaps in our pre- 
war air transport system. 

There are in the United States 140 metropolitan 
districts, each containing 50,000 or more people. They 
constitute our major markets. Yet on June 30th of this 
year 22 of these were not certificated stops on our air 
transport system. Their only air service was provided 
by airports serving other cities. 

In addition, many of those with direct service did 
not have schedules connecting them with one another. 
In September, 1940, only 201 of the 814 possible pairs 
of metropolitan districts in the northeastern section of 
the United States — or less than 25 per cent of the total 
— had two or more flights each way daily. Not all of 

these were direct flights, for I include those where 
reasonable connections were possible. 

Of the remaining 613 pairs, only 111 had one flight 
each way daily either direct or by reasonable connec- 

The coverage was still less adequate for smaller 
communities. Outside the metropolitan districts, we 
have 122 population centres with 25,000 to 50,000 
people each. Of these, only 52 were certificated for 
direct air service. Of the 413 communities in the 10,000- 
25,000 population category, only 58 were certificated. 

These figures alone should make it fairly obvious 
that we shall need many new air transport routes, many 
new schedules, and many new stops. 

Optimum Distance for Air Travel 

Air transport has been used almost exclusively for 
longer distances. It has been used little if at all for the 
shorter hauls. The explanation for this is obvious. 
Surface transport over short distances provides speed 
and comfort approximating that of air transport, and 
at lower cost — often at very much lower cost. If air 
transport is to be properly developed, it must try to 
become superior to rival forms of transport over shorter 
as well as longer distances. It must do this not only 
where surface transport is impeded by difficult terrain, 
but also where surface transport has no serious difficul- 
ties to overcome. 

We have made some studies to determine the 
optimum distance for air travel, and you may find 
the figures applicable at least in part to Canada. In the 
northeastern section of the United States — that is, the 
region north of the ( )hio river and east of the Mississippi 
— the optimum distance for air travel lies somewhere 
between 150 and 200 miles as measured by rail. Though 
we cannot be too sure, the optimum probably lies closer 
to 200 miles than 150, and it is significant that our 
basis of measurement has to be the distance in terms 
of surface transport. 

As the distance of air travel increases above the 
optimum, the number of passengers declines. Many 
factors affect the rate of decline, and we have been 
unable to completely segregate their influence. Roughly, 
however, our studies indicate that the number of pas- 
sengers declines inversely in proportion to the distance 
raised to the 3/2 power. 

For example, between two cities 1600 miles a part, the 
number of airline passengers is only 12.5 per cent of 
the total between equal sized cities that are 400 miles 
apart. As the distance between cities increases, there is 
a very rapid decline in the number of passengers. 

Also, the total number of passenger-miles declines. 
Roughly, this decline is inversely proportional to the 
square root of the distance. In the above example, the 
number of passenger-miles at 1600 miles is half the 
number at 400 miles. 

Thus, even though the advantages of air travel 
increase with distance, the volume of travel declines as 
the distance increases. 

Of course, this relation between distance and traffic 
holds good only for travel beyond the optimum distance 
of 150-200 rail miles. Below this optimum, there has 
scarcely been any air travel at all. 

These figures, as I have said, are based upon data 
for the northeastern quadrant of the United States 
during a period when DC-3 or comparable equipment 
was in use. But I am sure these figures hold in a general 
way for all parts of the country and reveal the same 
phenomenon — a very rapid rise of air traffic up to the 
optimum distance, and then a fairly rapid decline of 
traffic as the distance exceeds that. Specific optimum 



distances and the rates of increase and decline will vary- 
somewhat from section to section, according to the 
services available by surface transport. Now, contrast 
this air travel with travel in general. 

Statistics reveal that the shorter the trip, the greater 
the volume of traffic and the greater the number of 
passenger miles, down to a very short distance. Common 
everyday experience confirms this. 

For example, the average intercity bus trip prior to 
the war was less than 30 miles. The average trip by rail 
was about 50 miles. The average for rail and bus was 
about 40 miles. Even with air travel, this overall aver- 
age would be raised only to approximately 42 miles. 

For air transport the significance of these facts is 
this — the shorter-distance travel market, which is the 
mass market, has hardly been touched by air transport. 
It represents perhaps the largest chunk of travel busi- 
ness potentially available to the airlines and should be 
intensively developed. 

To illustrate the relative amount of passenger traf- 
fic as the distance between stops is decreased, let us 
assume that two terminal cities are GOO miles apart by 
rail. Let us also assume that between these two cities 
lie five other cities spaced 100 rail miles apart. Assume 
further that the terminal cities are of the same size — 
100.000 population — and that the intermediate cities 
are of identical size, but only a fourth as large as the 
terminals — 25,000 population. 

In this case traffic will increase rapidly as stops are 
added. For example, the addition of a stop midway 
between the terminals will add traffic equal to 50 per 
cent of the traffic between the terminal cities alone. 
If, instead of the midway stop, two stops are added at 
200-mile intervals, the increase in traffic will be about 
100 per cent. On the assumption that the same relation 
between distance and passengers holds good down to 
100 rail miles, the addition of the three other possible 
intermediate stops, making five intermediates, will 
more than double the number of passenger miles flown 
when the intervals were 200 miles. In fact, the traffic 
with stops every 100 miles would be over six times the 
traffic between the two terminals alone. 

Certainly, the market for short-distance travel is 
one that should receive a great deal of attention. There 
is no alternative to the development of that market as 
a means of expanding air transport. Many argue that 
it costs more to provide short-distance than long- 
distance service — that as lengths of hop go down, unit 
costs go up, with the result that rising costs prohibit 
short-distance air travel. So far as I know, no careful 
analysis has been made of the many interacting factors 
involved in the relation of unit costs to length of hop. 
Perhaps the answer will not be available until the 
results of actual operations are known. Yet very seri- 
ous attention should be given to this phase of the 

Long and Short Raxge Aircraft 
The main cost difficulties revolve around the effi- 
ciency of the design of aircraft for different types of 
services, and are influenced by the location and design 
of the airports involved. 

It may be possible that an airplane designed for 
optimum operation at 600-mile stops will be able to 
operate nearly as efficiently at 100 miles. On the other 
hand, it may be necessary to have specially designed 
planes to operate at minimum cost for stop distances 
of 100 miles or less. Whether the operating efficienc}' 
and costs of such a plane would be comparable to those 
of longer-range planes is the real question. 

What is probably needed is a plane specifically de- 

signed for short range operation. Such a plane would 
perhaps have these characteristics: 

1. Optimum efficiency at low altitude. 

2. Short range — perhaps 300 miles. 

3. Short take-off and landing runs. 

4. Excellent manoeuvrability on the ground. 

5. Small size — perhaps in some cases with a payload 
of as little as 5,000 lb., dependent upon the 
volume of traffic involved. 

7. Light-weight inexpensive passenger equipment. 

8. Adaptability to crosswind landings. 

One main purpose of specially designing a plane 
would be to minimize the time lost in making a stop. 
With pre-war equipment 10 minutes was about the 
minimum time required to make a stop, even when no 
fueling was done. Perhaps after some experimentation, 
we can approach the average three-minute stops made 
by our express trains at intermediate points. 

The ideal service for a traveller would be one of 
door-to-door delivery, so to speak. 

But airports are generally some miles from the center 
of the city, very frequently out on the periphery of the 
city. Contrast this with the usual position of railroad 

In addition, there is generally only one air station 
for each population cluster, large or small, compared 
with the number of stops made by the railroads in 
large metropolitan areas. 

Eliminate one or both of these difficulties, and mass 
short-distance travel business can be obtained. 

There are some who pin their hopes on the helicopter 
to bring air transport services close to the door-to-door 
ideal. We think of them flying from roof-top to roof-top, 
or at least from very small landing areas in the heart 
and residential centers of a city. 

The total lift of any helicopter now in the planning 
stage is not very large, however. Until a larger craft — 
something approaching the capacity of conventional 
transport planes — can be put into service, it does not 
seem to offer a practical solution to the problem of mass 
transport over short distances. We do not know, of 
course, how soon such a large craft may be available. 
But to judge from the time it has taken other new 
transport plane designed to be developed and placed 
into service, it seems to me that a large helicopter will 
not be ready during the first few post-war years. 

I do not want to minimize the importance of the 
helicopter. Perfected in sizes ranging from a two-place 
machine to a machine with many times that capacity, 
it is capable of revolutionizing aviation, particularly, 
I should think, in some parts of Canada. What I want 
to emphasize is that it may take time — perhaps many 
years — to obtain such a machine, particularly the 
larger ones. 

Meantime, there is the immediate necessity of adapt- 
ing conventional planes and airports to the needs of 
mass short-distance air travel. 

Obviously, every effort should be made to bring air- 
ports closer to the city. Also, we should begin to think 
and plan for multiple air stations in our large cities. 

Such a development, it seems to me, would go far 
toward solving the short distance problem. If it were 
possible, for example, to increase the number of sta- 
tions and locate them so that door-to-airport travel 
time was not more than 15 minutes, population centres 
100 miles apart would be almost within commuting 
distance. With a 140 m.p.h. block-to-block speed, the 
overall door-to-door time would be approximately an 
hour and a half. Certainly, performance of this kind, 
particularly with high schedule frequency, would 
attract volume business. 



The most important point about the development of 
efficient short-distance air service is this: It is needed 
not only for its own sake, but also for the fullest pos- 
sible expansion of long-distance air travel. It is required 
to furnish the necessary feeder service to the trunk lines. 

In sum, the expansion of our domestic air transport 
system requires: 

1. The addition of many new airline stops. 

2. A many-fold increase in short-distance services. 

3. Intensive development of short-distance travel 
between large metropolitan populations; perhaps 
by means of multiple airports at each city. 

With these steps taken, the expansion of traffic will 
be of a magnitude to astound most of us. There are also 
great expansion possibilities in the carrying of mail, 
express, and freight which should not be neglected. We 
have not been able to analyze these possibilities in de- 
tail largely because we have not had the necessary data. 
But it is reasonable to assume that population, dis- 
tance, and service factors affect mail, express, and 
freight traffic; in much the same general way as they 
affect passenger traffic. Optimum distances, of course, 
will probably differ for the various types of traffic, 
which will likewise be affected by such factors as sched- 
ule frequency. Yet I think it must be clear that traffic 
will be greater the larger the population involved, and 
the shorter the distance up to the optimum. 

Need for Navigation Aids and Airports 

But air transport requires more than planes and 
pilots to fly passengers, mail, and cargo. It equally 
requires air navigation facilities of many kinds and a 
vast network of airports. The U.S. Federal Airways 
system now totals 35,000 miles within our continental 
boundaries, a 700 per cent increase since 1927. Then- 
length has almost doubled since 1932. Traffic along the 
airways is increasing at an astonishing rate. Recorded 
movements along the Federal skyways were 6,000,000 
during 1942, mostly military of course. For the current 
year they will reach 13 or i4,000,000. We expect them 
to continue upward despite a probable slight dip im- 
mediately after the close of hostilities. We expect that 
by 1950 we shall have in our country at least a half 
million private, commercial, and military aircraft in 
active service. You will appreciate the significance of 
that when I tell you that at the end of 1941 we had in 
the entire country under 25,000 licensed civil aircraft, 
and probably less than half that number of military 

Fortunately, our airways system, unlike those of 
Europe, has been designed for mass traffic. It is closely 
co-ordinated with your Canadian system, as you no 
doubt know. In fact, your system is so closely co- 
ordinated with the U.S. and Alaskan systems that the 
three virtually form a single system, from the Rio 
Grande to Behring Sea. General Salinas Carranza, 
Director of Civil Aviation of Mexico, visited us a few 
months ago and declared his intention of extending a 
similar- system throughout Mexico. He expressed the 
belief that the Central American countries will do like- 
wise, and that we may well contemplate a vast con- 
tinental airways system extending from the Canal Zone 
to the Arctic. We have also installed four interconti- 
nental super radio stations which in the combined range 
blanket the world, providing direct communication 
from our shores to planes in flight almost anywhere on 
the globe. The major units are located at New York, 
New Orleans, San Francisco, and Honolulu, with sup- 
plementary stations at Seattle, Anchorage and many 
of the Pacific Islands. 

Before the war, the Civil Aeronautics Administration 
made, at the direction of the Congress, a nation-wide 
survey of airports. This resulted in a tentative plan for 
a network of 4,000 airports to serve the more or less 
immediate needs of the country. 

If these airports had been evenly distributed over 
the country, they would have formed a checkerboard 
of 27-mile squares. If the number of airports were 
increased from 4,000 to 6,000 and these were evenly 
distributed, the checkerboard squares would be reduced 
to 22 miles. Mountain and desert areas would need 
relatively fewer airports, of course, and these could 
therefore be allocated to more thickly populated zones. 

At the present time we have almost 3,000 classified 
airports — 1,000 short of the pre-war plan. Recent de- 
velopment lias necessarily been concentrated upon the 
larger fields. As a result, there has been an eleven-fold 
increase in the number of our major civil airports — with 
paved runways at least 3,500 ft. long and capable of 
handling the transport type craft. Whereas we had only 
76 such fields two years ago, we shall have 865 by the 
end of this year. Nor does this number include many 
Large airdromes built solely for use by the armed forces. 
We also have 905 Class II ports, each with paved run- 
ways from 2,500 to 3,500 ft. long. These are situated, 
for the most part, near smaller cities and Larger towns. 
In my opinion, we shall have to have many more of 
this class for future commercial flying. Nor can it be 
said that we have enough major ports, for tlrose in 
many of our larger cities are already overcrowded. 

Census figures reveal that in the United States there 
are 6,669 communities with a population of 1,000 or 
more. It seems reasonable to suppose that all communi- 
ties of such size will desire to be accessible by airplane. 
Therefore, if we disregard those which lie so close to- 
gether that they can make joint use of an airport, and 
consider the fact that larger cities will require several 
airports, we arrive at a national total of 6,000 airports 
as a reasonable target to shoot at in the early post-war 
years. This means that we need roughly twice as many 
airports as we now have, though, on the average, 
smaller ones. But the majority of the 6,000 would be 
for local private and commercial flying. 

Now, what about the cost of providing the additional 
facilities necessary for adequate population and geo- 
graphic coverage by air transport, discussed earlier ? 

Fortunately, the task is not as great as one might 
suppose, thanks to the efforts over a period of years of 
local, State and Federal officials, of legislators, and 
public-spirited citizens. Also, the armed services have 
installed many airports and other facilities which will 
probably be available for civilian use after the war. 

We have done some studying on the question of what 
additional facilities will be needed for commercial air 
transport, and how much they will cost. 

One of the most striking results of this study was to 
show the relatively small number of stops required to 
obtain a very high population and geographic coverage. 
This is the consequences of the manner in which our 
people "bunch up" in fairly large groups. 

Of our 132,000,000 people in 1940, 63,000,000 or 
almost 48 per cent live in 140 metropolitan areas, each 
containing 50,000 or more people. Thus, if we disregard 
the possibility of multiple air stations at the very large 
places, 140 airports would be enough to serve almost 
half the population. 

To reach about 90 per cent of the urban population, 
all cities of 10,000 up to 50,000 where the metropolitan 
population begins — we would need about 460 additional 
airports. (Continued on page 25) 






Director of Research, The Locomotive Institute, New York, N. Y. 

Paper presented at a joint meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers and The Engineering 
Institute of Canada, at Toronto, Ont., on September 30th, 1943. 

In considering the influence of the war on present and 
future development of railroad equipment, one of the 
first things noted is that although the war is loading 
the railroads to the limit of their endurance, it did not 
find them unprepared. In the last ten years railroad 
equipment has been undergoing steady growth and 
improvement. In this, builders and users have par- 
ticipated actively, and the extraordinary demands made 
by war conditions have shown that their work was 
soundly done. With relatively small additions to equip- 
ment, a tremendously increased traffic is being handled. 
Net tons of freight hauled per mile of road per day 
increased from 4800 in 1940 to over 8100 in 1942. 
Passenger miles in May, 1943, were four times those of 

In general, the effect of the war has been to emphasize 
the necessity for making the most efficient possible use 
of existing rolling stock. No great evolutionary changes 
in design have been produced. New designs have been 
avoided as far as possible to conserve engineering man- 
power. The building of new rolling stock has been rather 
severely restricted and the scarcity of critical materials 
has necessitated some changes in construction. In car 
construction, the shortage of steel plates has led to the 
use of emergency designs with wood taking the place of 
steel as far as practicable. 

Importance of Good Road Bed 

The present paper in discussing railroad equipment 
deals more particularly with rolling stock, with the 
strongest emphasis on motive power, but it must not 
be forgotten that rolling stock is only one of the legs 
of the three-legged stool of railroading. A railroad 
stands firm when its three supports, road, rolling stock, 
and personnel, are in proper proportion. To many the 
dynamic locomotive may make more appeal than the 
static track, but the track is the basis and foundation 
of railroading. The first public railroad, as we under- 
stand the term, the Liverpool and Manchester, was laid 
out and largely built before the directors had decided 
whether the trains should be pulled by horses, station- 
ary steam engines, or steam locomotives. The genius 
of George Stephenson decided the choice in favor of the 
steam locomotive, and time has approved the decision. 

It is fundamental that the civil engineer builds the 
railroad and that the structure which he provides, the 
track with its grades, curves, rails, and bridges, has an 
important influence on how the locomotive engineer 
finally shapes his machines to handle a given traffic. 

One constant aim in railroading is to move more 
rapidly from place to place. To do this, it is not suffi- 
cient for the car and locomotive-engineers to provide 
easy riding cars and locomotives which can run a few 
miles an hour faster than their predecessors. Far more 
can be gained by civil engineering that will eliminate 
slow-downs than by locomotive engineering that adds 
five miles an hour to the top speed of the locomotive. 
The railroads have recognized this and their civil 
engineering work in the last ten years has been of great 
value in carrying the present abnormal traffic. 

In the case also of the rolling stock, development 
work is bearing fruit. The war traffic is not being 

handled by material which has sprung full grown from 
the brains of our engineers. It is being carried by, and 
is proving the efficiency of, the rolling stock developed 
during peacetime. New equipment has had to be pro- 
vided, and more is badly needed, but conservation of 
time and of the engineering manpower required for new 
designs has led to reproduction of existing types with 
only such changes as were made necessary by shortages 
of critical materials. 

Locomotive Situation Reviewed 

Before going into details, a brief over-all review of 
the locomotive situation is in order. Three forms of 
motive power are moving the war traffic — electric, 
Diesel, and the steam locomotives on which the rail- 
roads grew up. All three forms were in active develop- 
ment when the war came. The Pennsylvania Railroad 
had just completed electrification of 675 miles of the 
most heavily traveled part of its line, New York to 
Washington and Harrisburg, and in 1941 was hauling 
electrically more than 64 per cent of the system pas- 
senger mileage and more than 15 per cent of the system 
freight ton-mileage. The Diesel-electric locomotive had 
won a prominent place in switching, passenger, and 
freight service. The steam locomotive, which was hand- 
ling the bulk of the nation's traffic, was showing active 
growth in power and efficiency. 

Some individual locomotives are considered later in 
the paper, but before coming to these, some of the 
basic principles of the three forms of motive power are 
set forth. All three of them have their proper place in 
the railroad economy. Some enthusiastic souls who 
think that we should be modern without being ham- 
pered by engineering facts would have us relegate the 
steam locomotive to obsolescence. Cold analysis does 
not confirm this view, but supports the warm admira- 
tion that many of us have for steam. The most critical 
study leads to the conclusion that the steam locomotive 
must be the basic form of motive power all over the 
world for many years to come. 

Differences between electric, Diesel, and steam power 
lie in the means used for transforming the potential 
thermal energy of a fuel into effective mechanical work 
at the rim of the driving wheels. 

In the case of the electric locomotive, the energy 
developed at the driving wheels is generated in a 
stationary power plant and delivered over an elaborate 
transmission system. The electric locomotive is all 
driving mechanism. Tractive force is limited only by 
the weight on driving wheels. The energy from the line 
available for traction is practically unlimited so that 
the amount of horsepower that can be developed by the 
locomotive is restricted only by the amount of current 
that the motors can carry without overheating. For 
short bursts a heavy overload can be carried. This 
makes the electrical locomotive very effective in 
accelerating a train and in taking advantage of momen- 
tum grades. Weight for weight, the electric locomotive 
can out-haul the steam locomotive and the Diesel, but 
the high first cost of the transmission system limits 
efficient electric operation to lines of high traffic density. 
Under conditions such as prevail on the Pennsylvania 



Railroad between New York and Washington, electric 
operation carries a volume of traffic which would 
require additional trackage if steam or Diesel power 
were used. 

The steam locomotive is a self-contained mobile- 
power plant. The thermal energy of the fuel is trans- 
formed in firebox and boiler to produce steam. In the 
cylinders, the thermal energy carried by the steam is 
turned into mechanical energy which is transmitted 
directly through the rods to the driving wheels. This 
driving mechanism provides a very flexible and satis- 
factory transmission. Loss of power is small and change 
of speed is simple. In this lies one great advantage of 
the steam locomotive. 

The Diesel locomotive is also a self-contained power 
plant, but the bulk and complications of boiler and 
superheater are avoided and the fuel liberates its 
thermal energy directly in the cylinders. Unfortunately, 
the internal-combustion engine must run with a narrow 
range of speed and is therefore not directly adapted to 
locomotive requirements. To provide the necessary 
flexibility in speed, complications are necessary. The 
Diesel cylinders drive an electric generator which 
transmits electricity to motors geared to the axles. 

Comparison of steam and Diesel power is a favorite 
indoor sport for engineering controversialists. Reams 
of statistics have been spilled on the subject and more 
are in prospect. Our present purpose does not require 
us to be exhaustive or exhausting on the subject. We 
present only a few facts which seem to be clear-cut. 

The Case of the Diesel Locomotive 

A competent engineering authority responsible for 
the operation of both Diesel and steam power is on 
record to the effect that no Diesel locomotive is doing 
work which cannot be done by a steam locomotive. 
The Diesel is high in first cost, but has the advantages 
of requiring little water and a comparatively small bulk 
of fuel. Waterless operation is of advantage in desert 
country. Conversion of thermal energy into mechanical 
work is effected with high efficiency so that the weight 
of fuel to be carried is small. The unit cost of Diesel 
fuel oil is high, but because of the high thermal efficien- 
cy, the fuel cost per drawbar horsepower is not greatly 
different for the Diesel and the steam locomotive. This 
relation may be fundamentally affected by war and by 
post-war developments in the fuel field. The Diesel is 
necessarily an oil burner and requires a fairly definite 
grade of distillate. A change in oil conditions, which 
produced a scarcity of this fuel, would hamper the 
Diesel. The steam locomotive burns coal or low-grade 
oil and no major change is required to convert from one 
fuel to the other. Our ample coal reserves insure that 
the steam locomotive will not be starved out of existence 
in any foreseeable future. 

In comparing steam and Diesel locomotives, a factor 
to be considered is "availability." The Diesel can be 
serviced more rapidly and can run a longer distance 
between refueling so that it is "available" for a greater 
number of hours a day. However, availability pays 
dividends only when traffic conditions enable the 
locomotives to be used during all the hours that it is 
available. E. E. Chapman of the Santa Fé has pointed 
out that availability is rather an abstract term as the 
actual use of both Diesel and steam locomotives is 
controlled by train schedules. 

Examples of Locomotive Use 

Some examples of the use of Diesel and steam loco- 
motives are given. 
In the New York Central main-line passenger service, 

a steam locomotive handles the heavy through trains 
for the 928-mile run from Harmon to Chicago. Schedules 
require trains to leave either terminal in the late after- 
noon and arrive early next morning. That afternoon 
the run is reversed. The time of lay-over from morning 
to evening is determined by the traffic requirements 
and could not be shortened by mechanical improve- 
ments in the locomotives. The steam locomotives in this 
service make from 20,000 to 24,000 miles a month. 

On the Santa Fé, steam and Diesel locomotives handle 
passenger trains on the 2226-mile run between Chicago 
and Los Angeles. In steam service, locomotives are 
changed at Kansas City while the Diesel runs through. 
Fourteen engine crews handle the Diesel while the 
mountain-type steam locomotive on the 1789 miles 
from Kansas City to Los Angeles takes twelve crews. 
Extended runs of this character are standard practice 
on the Santé Fé. 

Figures given by J. M. Nicholson, assistant to vice- 
president, Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé Railway, 
show that in regular service engine runs of over 1000 
miles are scheduled for four trains daily operated by 
Diesel locomotives and for 10 trains daily operated by 
steam locomotives. In such work, the Diesel locomo- 
tives average about 18,500 miles a month with a 
maximum of about 27,000, while the steam locomotives 
average about 12,400 miles with a maximum of about 
18,600. On the Santa Fé as of November, 1942, Diesel 
locomotives handled 7 per cent of the gross ton-miles 
of the system and 13 per cent of the passenger-car- 

In considering these figures, it should be borne in 
mind that the Diesel is handling preferred trains and 
that helper service on heavy grades and protection 
service against breakdowns is provided by steam loco- 

In many cases efficient operation is provided by dual- 
purpose locomotive which can handle both passenger 
and freight service. An example is given by the 4000-hp 
Diesel-electric locomotives on the New Haven. These 
make two round trips between Boston and New Haven 
daily, one trip in passenger and the other in freight 
service. The daily run of four times 157 miles is 628 
miles, and the monthly mileage is about 15,000. 

An excellent example of the useability of steam 
locomotives is given by the heavy 2-8-8-2 compound 
Mallets of the Norfolk and Western. Thirty-five of 
these are operated in a pool out of a roundhouse at 
Shaffer's Crossing, Roanoke. The average time required 
to service and refuel these engines between trips in 
December, 1940, was 3% hours at Roanoke, which is 
the maintenance point for these locomotives. At the 
other end of their runs, the time for servicing averaged 
2 hr. and 45 min. This figure represents the motive- 
power turning time which is the time the locomotive 
is out of service because of actual servicing require- 
ments. The total time between runs depends also on 
train schedules, demand for power, and the availability 
of crews. 

Some Representative Locomotives Handling 
War Traffic 

Passing from performance to design, Table 1 has been 
drawn up to show a number of representative locomo- 
tives which are handling war traffic. Table 2 shows 
three novel designs recently put into service which will 
undoubtedly influence the future. 

Table 1 includes two groups of four-cylinder Mallet 
articulated locomotives with respectively four and three 
driving axles in a set. In the rigid frame locomotives are 
three groups of two-cylinder locomotives having 



respectively five, four, and three driving axles. In each 
group, the various railroads differ somewhat in their 
choice of leading- and trailing-truck arrangement. In 
Table 1, the large 8-8-coupled Mallets have in one case 
four-wheeled trucks front and back, in one case two- 
wheeled trucks front and back, and in the third a four- 
wheeled front truck with a two-wheeled trailing truck. 
Even greater variety of truck arrangement is found in 
the 6-6-coupled Mallets. The C. & O. engine has a two- 
wheeled front and a six-wheeled trailer truck. In the 
rigid-frame locomotives, only the comparatively slow- 
speed ten-coupled locomotives have two-wheeled front 
trucks. All of the eight- and six-coupled engines have 
four-wheeled front trucks. All but two have four- 
wheeled trailer trucks. 

In grouping the locomotives, they have been separ- 
ated according to the number of driving wheels, but 
no attempt is made to divide them into freight and 
passenger service. No such division is practicable. The 
six-coupled locomotives, the Pacific, and the Hudson 
type are specifically designed for passenger, but a large 
proportion of the heavier locomotives from the eight- 
coupled 4-8-4 type up to the double eight-coupled 
articulated Mallets are designed and used for both 
freight and passenger service. The Norfolk and Western 
2-6-6-4 engines make 65 m.p.h. with tonnage trains in 
regular freight service, and the Southern Pacific 4-8-8-2 
locomotives with 633^2-in. drivers are reported to be 
capable of running 80 m.p.h. 

Attention is called to the usefulness of the 4-8-4 type 
for heavy-passenger or fast-freight service. With driving- 
wheels of 75 in. diameter, this locomotive can develop 
a tractive effort which will fully utilize the weight on 
drivers and at the same time can make passenger- 
service speeds without an unduly high rotative speeds. 
Present practice shows that the old idea that a low- 
wheel engine was to be preferred for freight service is 
obsolete and should be discarded. A small driving- 
wheel diameter has the minor advantages of less weight, 
particularly in the unsprung parts, and with a given 
stoke, a better leverage for changing piston thrust 
into tractive effort. These are much more than offset 
in a high-wheel engine by the lowered rotative speed at 
a given train speed in miles per hour and in the better 
opportunity for correct counterbalancing. Much is to 
be gained by making driving wheels of ample diameter 
for all classes of locomotives. 

Returning to Table 1, it is seen that in spite of the 
apparent diversity, the locomotives follow a fairly 
definite and uniform pattern. Although designers may 
express their personalities in details such as trucks, the 
logic of the engineering requirements is inescapable. 
The load on a driving axle ranges up to about 75,000 
lb., varying according to the road structure and the 
restrictions provided by the chief engineer. The number 
of driving axles is chosen to meet the tractive force 
desired, and when more than five axles are to be driven, 
they are split into two groups with two pairs of cylinders 
and an articulated frame. The general tendency is to 
use a four-wheeled trailing truck to provide carrying 
capacity for a large firebox and boiler. Exceptional 
boiler capacity is provided in the C & locomotive by 
the use of a 6-wheeled trailing truck. 

Driving wheels range in diamater from 57 to 70 in. 
in the multi-axle articulated groups, from 69 to 74 in 
the ten-coupled, 72 to 80 in the eight-coupled, and 79 
to 84 in the six-coupled group. 

To sum up Table 1 briefly, we may say that the 
representative steam locomotives have three, four, five, 
six, and eight pairs of driving wheels, ranging from the 

4-6-4 type used mainly for passenger service, up to the 
4-8-8-2 Mallet type used for both passenger and freight 
service. With a driving axle load of about 68,000 lb. 
and a maximum tractive effort of about one-quarter 
of this, say 17,000 lb. per driving axle, the loco- 
motives range in tractive effort from about 51,000 to 
136,000 lb. 

Table 1 lists four typical Diesel-electric locomotives. 
One freight locomotive rated at 5400 hp. is composed 
of four units, each with two four-wheeled trucks with 
all axles driven. Three 4000-hp. two-unit passenger or 
general-purpose locomotives are listed. They have two 
six-wheeled trucks, in each of which the center axle is 
idle and the outer axles are driven. One passenger 
locomotive has 36-in. wheels, the other three engines 
all have 40-in. wheels. All four locomotives have about 
50,000 lb. on each axle. Weight on drivers ranges from 
417,000 to 461,000 lb. in the passenger up to 924,000 
lb. in the freight locomotives. 

It will be noted that the weight on driving wheels 
and consequently the maximum tractive effort is high 
in relation to total weight if compared to that of the 
steam locomotives. This is accounted for by the fact 


Road Type 


Wheels, in. vers, lb 


on dri- Service 


per unit 

Steam, locomotives 

U. P. 
So. Pac. 
N. W. 
C. &0. 
U. P. 
N. & W. 

C. &0. 

D. & H. 









Diesel locomotives 
A.T.S.F. 2-unit 
A.T.S.F. 4-unit 
C.M.St.P. 2-unit 







Pass. 4000 2 6-wheeled 
Fit. 5400 2 4- wheeled 
Pass. 4000 2 6-wheeled 

2-unit 40 461,000 Genl. 4000 2 6-wheeled 





Diam. of Driving Weight on 
Wheels, in. drivers, lb. 



that the characteristics of the Diesel engine with its 
practically constant speed forces the use of electric 
power transmission. Relatively small motors are used 
and are applied to a larger proportion of the total num- 
ber of axles counting engine and tender than would 
normally be coupled if rods were used. Rapid accelera- 
tion at slow speeds is obtained, but this advantage may 
be more than offset by the limit to the horsepower at 
high speeds set by the electric motors. The steam 
locomotive has greater flexibility in overload capa- 

Table 2 lists three novel locomotive designs put into 
service by the Pennsylvania Railroad recently. All are 
rigid-frame locomotives with two pairs of cylinders 
driving two groups of driving wheels. This avoids the 
high machine friction with four and five pairs of rod- 
coupled wheels and produces a free running engine. 
The 4-6-4-4 engine provides five pairs of driving axles 



for freight service. The 6-4-4-6 locomotive was exhibited 
at the New York Worlti'sFair. With four pairs of driving 
wheels 84 in. in diameter coupled two and two and an 
exceptionally large boiler, it is designed to handle heavy 
passenger trains at high speeds. The 4-4-4-4 locomotives 
has also four driving axles coupled in groups of two 
each. It is equipped with the Franklin Steam Distribu- 
tion and poppet valves and has shown high efficiency 
in service. 

Freight Cars and Passenger Coaches 

A survey of railroad equipment cannot omit con- 
sideration of cars. Without cars to carry the pay-load, 
the motive power could earn nothing. 

The war effort has been well served by the earlier 
work on car design done by the railroads. Particular 
mention is made of the extensive research of the 
Association of American Railroads, Mechanical Divi- 
sion, on car trucks for high-speed freight service. The 
information obtained as to the desirability of snubbers 
has been of vital importance in the revival and accel- 
erated use of tank cars handling oil products. 

The A.A.R. Committee on Car Construction has 
recently issued a report listing seven emergency 
standard designs of open top freight cars. These designs 
prepared at the request of the War Production Board 
use wood to the greatest possible extent to save steel 
for war purposes. They include two 50-ton and one 
70-ton gondolas, one 50- and one 70-ton hopper car, 
and one 50- and one 70-ton flat car. 

Emergency drawings for two composite box cars have 
been prepared, but the A.A.R. committee points out 
the difficulty of maintaining such cars. 

Designs for troop coaches, troop sleepers, and com- 
mand, and kitchen cars have been prepared and put 
into construction. These are based on the A.A.R. 
standard 50 ft. 6 in. steel-sheathed box car and the 
framing can be used for such cars when troop move- 
ments are at an end. 

Some Predictions 

In trying to look into the future, I can do no better 
than call attention to some bold predictions made at 
the joint meeting of the A.S.M.E. and the Pacific Rail- 
way Club in Los Angeles on June 15, 1943, by Morris 
P. Taylor, Assistant Mechanical Engineer of the 
Southern Pacific Company. 

Mr. Taylor called attention to a possible shift in the 
relative supply of coal and oil for fuel and to the 
increased amount of cheap electric power that may be 
available. There are factors that may affect seriously 
the availability of the various forms of motive power. 

Dealing with locomotives and cars, Mr. Morris listed 
many possible developments. Some of these are already 
taking shape. In the case of the steam locomotive, care- 
ful consideration is being given to developments which 
will maintain its fundamental advantages and obtain 
higher efficiency and still greater usefulness. 

Higher steam pressures and temperatures to obtain 
better thermal efficiency are in the offing. The present 
top pressure of 300 lb. per sq. in. is about the maximum 
that can be carried with the conventional type of fire- 
tube locomotive boiler. Water-tube boilers for pressures 
up to 600 or 800 lb. per sq. in. are already on drawing 
boards and promise the advantages of lighter weight and 
greater safety. 

The opportunities offered by this better steam will 
be taken advantage of by better utilization of the 
steam in cylinders or in turbines. These things are 
definitely approaching. 

A possibility also to be considered is the combustion 
gas-turbine locomotive, one of which has been built in 
Switzerland. Still further over the horizon is the 
possibility of a combined steam-and-mercury. turbine 
locomotive which would cut water consumption in half 
and reduce greatly the fuel cost. These things may be 
termed visionary at present, but we have it on the 
highest authority that "without vision, the spirit 


{Continued from page'21) 

Thus, about 600 airports would be sufficient to serve 
over 90 per cent of the urban population, and at least 
20 per cent of the rural population. 

But to go on and put every urban community within 
50 miles of an air station, would require about 250 more 
airports, which would provide very complete geo- 
graphical coverage. 

About 850 air stations are therefore required for very 
complete population and geographical coverage. Less 
than 600 new airline stops would have to be added, for 
273 are already authorized, of which 12 are in rural 

Altogether, these 850 stops would serve an urban and 
rural population of well over 80,000,000 people, almost 
two-thirds of the national total. 

We would not, of course, have to start from scratch 
to obtain the necessary facilities for these 850 air sta- 
tions. A large number of them already have most or all 
of the necessary installations. 

The costs to improve the existing airports and to 
construct new ones would approximate $215,000,000. 
This is computed on the basis of Class II airports for 
most of the smaller places. 

To install the additional radio ranges, weather report- 
ing traffic control, and communication equipment, 
would cost an additional $12,000,000. 

The total, about $227,000,000, seems a moderate 
price to pay for the facilities needed for an adequate 
air transport system. 

The picture I have drawn has necessarily been based 
upon our experience in the United States. But subject 
to modification for local conditions, it is equally true, 
I believe, for all parts of North America. All of us have 
more or less the same problem to face, and I shall 
watch with lively interest how you go about solving 
yours. Whatever course you take, let me extend our 
sincerest wishes for unlimited visibility, a tail wind, and 
a happy landing. 





Secretary, Special Planning Committee, Canadian General Electric Company Limited, Toronto, Ont. 

An address delivered before the Montreal Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada, on November 25th, 1943 

Canadian Productive Capacity 

The war has shown the great extent of Canada's pro- 
ductive capacity. In 1942 over one and a quarter million 
persons were employed in the manufacturing industries 
alone, or about one-quarter of our total available work- 
ing force. 

Both employment and value of production have risen 
during 1943, but probably they are now close to the 
peak. The net value of manufactured goods produced 
during the year should be about four billion dollars. 

As the net value of manufactured products in prewar 
years was about one and a half billion dollars, it is ob- 
vious that the greater portion of our present production 
is for essential war purposes. 

Our great productive capacity is both an asset, and 
a problem. An asset because it assures us that we have 
the ability to produce most of what is required for a 
high standard of living. A problem because we must 
learn how to utilize it to the greatest possible extent. 

Lesson from Lack of Preparation for War 

Canada, particularly in her manufacturing industries, 
was almost entirely unprepared for war in 1939. Every- 
one will remember the sickening pause during 1940, 
continuing in many things through 1941, while we made 
our plans, adjusted our economy for war, and converted 
our industry to the manufacture of the goods of war. 
If we could have foreseen the course of future events, 
planning by comparatively few men in 1938 and 1939 
might have done much to solve the conversion problem 
during 1940 and 1941. 

The problem of conversion from war to peace will 
not be as severe as the former conversion from peace to 
war. For one thing, we can foresee more clearly what is 
likely to happen. On the other hand, we shall be re- 
suming the production of many things which we had 
manufactured in prewar days. Many of the troubles and 
delays of the wartime conversion resulted from being 
asked to produce, in a hurry, things we had not made 

So let us profit from past experience, and start now 
to prepare for peace. If we wait to make plans till 
peace comes, there will be a protracted conversion 
period. Delays in starting production of peacetime goods 
will aggravate the problems of inflation and unem- 
ployment after the war. 

Time Required for Planning 

Canadian industry today is going full out in the war 
effort and there is no suggestion that postwar planning 
should be allowed to interfere with it, in any way. That 
it need not, is shown by the example of an electrical 
manufacturing companjr where, with about 10,000 em- 
ployees, only one man is working full time on planning. 
About 100 men find a few hours a week, between their 
wartime activities, to think about plans for postwar 

Good planning can be done in this way because these 
are key men, with a breadth of experienced judgment, 
and a deep knowledge of the company's business. Many 
Canadian industries could carry out a planning pro- 
gramme on a similar basis, with a relatively small ex- 

penditure of time. Careful planning is not an easy un- 
dertaking, but it will yield large future returns. 

Postwar Planning Compared with 
Future Planning 

Many of the postwar innovations that are treated so 
glibly in the popular press are so visionary that we 
should distinguish clearly between postwar planning 
and what might better be termed future planning. 

Postwar planning should be concerned with develop- 
ments that are of a practical nature. These are the only 
things on which you can base concrete plans. Such plans 
should be worked out so completely that you could 
start to put them into effect tomorrow, if the war should 
end tonight. 

Future plans concern schemes or proposals that may 
be in any stage from a dream in someone's mind to an 
experimental model which may be close to being a 
definite development. While there is little doubt that 
many of these things may find common use eventually, 
we must not allow ourselves to be fooled by what we 
hear or by what we see in the press, into thinking that 
they are just around the corner. 

Desirable as they may seem to us, there will be much 
development to work out; many production problems 
to solve; and much hard sales resistance to overcome 
before they gain wide public acceptance. But do not 
underestimate the importance of these more visionary 
concepts, in future planning. They are the stuff from 
which we may distill products that will guarantee our 
continued future prosperity. On the other hand, do 
not confuse them with the definite schemes, which must 
be available for immediate action. 

Advertising Postwar Products 

There has been some criticism that the public may 
be misled by the exaggerated type of advertising of 
postwar products, which has been indulged in by a few 
concerns. There may be widespread disappointment, 
when it is found that these startling innovations cannot 
be purchased the day after the war ends. Oddly enough, 
this may have a beneficial result in checking purchasing 
in the immediate postwar period. A surging desire to 
buy before stocks are adequate would have an infla- 
tionary effect. As long as people are convinced that 
really improved models are just around the corner, 
some of them may be content to wait a little longer 
before they purchase. 

Manufacturers have not been allowed to make tools, 
or carry on development work during the war. Thus, 
goods can only be put on the market quickly by using 
existing equipment to make prewar models. For this 
reason, there has been curiosity as to why some adver- 
tisers are featuring goods that they know cannot be 
produced in the immediate postwar years. There have 
been a number of explanations. Companies with greatly 
expanded volume of war production may be trying to 
build prestige that will assure them a share of the re- 
duced postwar market. 

Other companies may do it because their postwar 
plans must be kept secret for military or other reasons, 
and they may as well be fancy-free. 

In some cases, it may be done more to confuse com- 
petitors than to inform the public. 



Need for Planning 

The saying that "the future belongs to those who 
prepare for it" is an apt argument for the value of plan- 
ning at any time. A successful industry should be plan- 
ning continuously. Postwar planning is really not a 
new problem, but an old one with a new name. It in- 
volves few new factors. It does require a more com- 
prehensive understanding of our economy, and a little 
greater pressure for accomplishment, than is usual in 
normal development. Planning should put you in a 
position to shift to postwar conditions, smoothly and 
in high gear. 

An industrialized country cannot be prosperous, un- 
less its industries are also prosperous. 

There is a reason for wanting to see all Canadian 
industries plan for greater future prosperity. The largest 
companies form only a small part of the whole Canadian 
industry. In very few cases does their output exceed 
one per cent of the gross output of manufactures in 
Canada. The sale of their products is dependent on the 
prosperity of all the other industries, and the jobs they 

Free Enterprise 

If the government should continue, and extend, the 
control and regulation of business after the war, and 
if it should operate the large plants that are now owned 
by the nation, there would be less need for planning 
by industry now. But it must be assumed that business 
will be free from government control in postwar years ; 
that individuals will be free to exercise initiative; and 
business free to show enterprise. 

Most of us believe in the system of free enterprise 
for industry, and resent unnecessary government con- 
trol of, or interference with, business in normal times. 
If we are to keep our present business system free after 
the war, we must show enterprise now. While many 
postwar problems will require close co-operation be- 
tween government and business to find a satisfactorj r 
solution, we believe that the main planning job for 
industry must be done by industry itself. The first 
step is for each individual concern to put its own house 
in order. 

Planning by Government 

Postwar planning covers a very broad field but it 
may be divided into five categories: international; 
national; regional; industrial, and individual companies. 

In the international field, we have organizations such 
as the Canada-U.S. Joint Economic Committee of which 
Dr. W. A. Mackintosh is chairman. 

The Dominion Government was quick to recognize 
the necessity of national planning. Starting early in 
1942, they set up a variety of committees to investigate 
postwar problems. These include the Cabinet Com- 
mittee on Reconstruction with its Advisory Committee 
on Economic Policy (usually known as the Clark Com-* 
mittee), its Advisory Committee on Reconstruction 
(called the James Committee) and its General Advisory 
Committee on Demobilization and Rehabilitation under 
Brigadier-General H. F. McDonald, deceased recently 
and succeeded by Associate Deputy Minister W. J. 
Woods of the Department of Pensions and National 
Health. The Senate have a Committee on Economic 
Re-establishment, under Senator Norman P. Lambert; 
while the Commons have their Committee on Recon- 
struction and Re-establishment, with Mr. J. G. Turgeon 
as chairman. 

In the regional phase, most of the provinces and 
many municipalities have set up organizations for post- 
war planning. They are interested particularly in de- 

velopment of local natural resources; in construction; 
and in public works or public services. 

For our own good, we should individually and col- 
lectively endorse all constructive plans made by gov- 
ernmental bodies. If the programmes they devise pro- 
vide employment at the right time, it will take much 
of the load from the shoulders of industry, and con- 
tribute to raising the general level of prosperity. 

They will probably spend a great deal of our money 
on these things, and the taxes necessary to carry them 
may be a heavy load in the future. We are interested 
in seeing that this money is put into projects that are 
either self-liquidating, or at least pay the intangible 
dividends that are provided by enterprises that are of 
genuine service to the community. 

Planning by Business and Industry 

In the field of business and industry, organizations 
such as the Canadian Chamber of Commerce, the 
Canadian Manufacturers Association, The Engineering 
Institute of Canada and others, are carrying on valuable 
studies in postwar planning. 

We should not forget that labour has a great interest 
in continuing prosperity in Canada, and intends to 
have something to say about it. Both the Canadian 
Congress of Labour and the Trades and Labour Con- 
gress of Canada have submitted their recommendations 
to the Commons Committee on Reconstruction. 

As yet, there has been little co-operative industrial 
planning in Canada, comparable to that done by organ- 
izations such as the Committee for Economic Develop- 
ment in the United States. Anyone familiar with the 
work of the C.E.D. will realize the needs and oppor- 
tunities for correlating industrial planning in Canada, 
and extending it beyond the point to which it can be 
carried by individual concerns. Such an organization 
also provides a good channel for co-operation between 
government and industry. 

In Canada industry is carried on in over 25,000 estab- 
lishments, large and small. Each individual company 
must accept its share of the responsibility for making 
and maintaining the national prosperity. Each concern 
must help to create the prosperity in which it hopes to 

In planning by industry, the work done by individual 
concerns is of paramount importance, because you must 
build up from the bottom and not down from the top. 
Many companies in Canada are doing outstanding 
work, but we do not think that planning is as wide- 
spread as it deserves to be, particularly among the 
smaller companies. You cannot hope to deal with post- 
war problems successfully, if you do not know what 
problems to expect. To be prepared for them requires 
study, analysis and planning. 

Industrial Employment 

While the purpose of this paper is to discuss industrial 
planning, perhaps the role to be played by the manufac- 
turing industries has been over-emphasized. In the past, 
there has been a tendency on the part of many who 
have spoken, or written, about planning, to imply that 
industrial expansion alone can assure full employment, 
after the war. Actually, this is impossible, because the 
manufacturing industries in normal times employ only 
about 15 per cent of the total available working force. 
It is doubtful whether industry of every type, excluding 
agriculture, could possibly be expanded so as to em- 
ploy more than one-third of the total working force. 

The remainder of the gainfully employed are in occu- 
pations that process or produce primary goods, such 
as construction, mining, pulp and paper, lumber, elec- 



trie power, fishing, cattle raising and agriculture; or in 
occupations that facilitate the exchange of goods and 
material, such as wholesale and retail trade, transporta- 
tion and communication, accounting and financing; or 
in miscellaneous personal services, such as government, 
law enforcement, education, recreation, health or re- 
ligion. To maintain a balanced state of full employ- 
ment, all forms of the production of goods and services 
must be increased as compared with prewar years, 
and in many cases by a greater ratio than in the manu- 
facturing industry. 

This means that there must be many other forms of 
planning than that by industry, and in many cases 
such planning is clearly the responsibility of govern- 

Effect of National Conditions 

In connection with postwar planning it is natural to 
ask how plans can be made now that are of any value, 
when national and international events may have such 
a profound effect on the future business and economic 
structure of Canada. Many things may affect business 
conditions after the war. There may even be what might 
now be considered radical changes in the economic situa- 
tion, but we are convinced that few of them will happen 
overnight, and without some warning. Human nature 
being what it is, it is believed that things will not be 
very different in the years immediately after the war; 
and that is the period of particular concern in our 

A general in command of an army in the field cannot 
possibly know everything about the future strength 
and movements of the enemy. How little progress would 
be made, if he refused to plan his campaign because he 
lacked complete information about such factors. We are 
in a somewhat similar position. We must muster all of 
the facts that are at hand, and make a plan based on 
reasonable assumptions. Planning must then be kept 
fluid so that it can readily be adjusted to meet changing 
conditions as they develop. 

C.G.E. Planning Committees 
Discussion of postwar planning is often in such broad 
generalities that many people fail to grasp its applica- 
tion to their own problems. Now how should a manu- 
facturing industry make plans for postwar years ? In- 
stead of laying down an abstract set of rules and routine. 
I would prefer to describe briefly what is being done 
by our company. While in many respects our planning 
may not suit your conditions, this course has the ad- 
vantage of allowing me to speak from actual experience. 
To direct the postwar planning of our company, the 
management appointed a Special Planning Committee. 
This is a group of eight men, including two managers 
of commercial departments two works managers and 
three works engineers. They are all key men in the 
organization and well fitted to this work by their ex- 
perienced judgment and knowledge of the company's 
affairs. As you no doubt know, the products of the 
company cover a very wide field. They range from large 
pieces of custom built apparatus, of which only one 
may be built, to small products of repetitive manu- 
facture which are made by the million, and sell for a 
few cents each. It is apparent that no one person, or 
small group, can have a sufficient breadth of knowledge, 
and experience of the details of all phases of the Com- 
pany's activities, to enable them to gather all of the 
information, and make all the estimates, which would 
be necessary to build up a comprehensive plan for 
postwar years. 

For many years it has been the practice of the com- 
pany to appoint a small product committee for each 

major group of product lines. Such committees average 
about five members and always have representatives 
from the commercial, engineering and manufacturing 
groups that are concerned with their particular product 
line. It is their function to assure full co-operation be- 
tween the commercial, engineering and manufacturing 
phases ; to review all activities in connection with their 
products; and to make any possible recommendations 
for their continued successful operation. 

At the present time, there are thirty-five of these 
Product Committees, with a total membership of about 
ninety. It was felt that they were in the best position 
to make, the detailed studies and gather the data re- 
quired for postwar plans. 

Committees have certain weaknesses at times, but 
nothing has been found better for work of this kind. 
To do planning, commercial, engineering, manufactur- 
ing and often other phases of the business must be con- 
sidered. Bring together a representative from each to 
talk things over, and you have a committee, whether 
or not you call it one. Giving them the formal status 
of a committee assures greater regularity and continuity 
in their work. 

The secretary of the Special Planning Committee 
spends his full time on planning activities, and acts as 
liaison between the Product Committees and the Special 
Planning Committee. 

Good planning must be based on creative thought 
and should not be spoilt by too much hurry. Unfor- 
tunately, the timing of planning is now so urgent that 
it must be speeded up, even at the risk of making it 
less effective. As the planning committees outlined each 
section of their work, they found it best to assign re- 
sponsibility to one man, and set a definite date for 
completing it. 

Engineering Development 

The first step in the programme which was given to 
the Product Committees was to review engineering de- 
velopment. The members of each product committee 
were asked to check the possibility of redesigning each 
of their products, so as to secure greater utilization of 
new material which will be readily available after the 
war; to give greater styling and sales appeal; to meet 
anticipated competitive development ; to allow extended 
applications; to conform to standardization and simpli- 
fication programme; to improve quality and service- 
ability; or to take advantage of manufacturing equip- 
ment installed during the war. In short, to reduce our 
manufacturing cost or give greater value to the con- 

Developments in materials will include entirely new 
material; materials available in large quantities which 
had been relatively scarce before the war; reduction in 
the price of materials from expansion of manufacturing 
facilities during the war; and extended applications re- 
sulting from wartime experience. Similar developments 
and extended applications have occurred in manufac- 
turing processes and finishes. 

In most lines, postwar manufacture will start with 
old designs and materials, but in many cases compe- 
tition between producers of raw materials and our urge 
towards constant product improvement, will force us to 
modify designs and adopt new materials, as soon as 
possible after the war. 

Engineers in manufacturing industries can make one 
of their principal contributions to postwar planning by 
keeping informed about new developments. They should 
keep thinking about where they could be used to good 
advantage in their products. In many cases, such de- 
velopments may have a revolutionary effect on the 



design and manufacture, and consequently quality and 
cost, of products in future years. 

Engineers should do everything possible to improve 
their co-operation with the commercial and manufac- 
turing members. If sales for a product are slipping, the 
engineers are in the best position to make modifications, 
or improvements, that will reverse the trend. 

On the other hand in dealing with the factory, engi- 
neers must avoid the attitude of "I've designed it, now 
you make it." Wherever possible, designs should be 
suited to existing factory equipment and production 
methods, particularly to take advantage of changes in 
equipment and methods introduced during the war. 

Postwar Volume of Sales 

The second step in the programme was to make an 
estimate of sales volume in postwar years. We usually 
refer to this year as V-f2. The figure 2 does not mean 
two years after victory. It is the first year after we 
have passed through the immediate postwar conversion 
period and when supply is substantially equal to 

Your first impression of making an estimate of 
sales volume in the V + 2 postwar year may be that 
you should perhaps employ an astrologer. Admittedly, 
you have only an estimate, but a carefully prepared 
estimate is very much better than a guess, or no esti- 
mate at all. 

Three ways were considered for making this estimate. 
The first was to make a detailed survey of the market 
for each product, and contact every possible customer. 
From their future plans, a picture of postwar demand 
might be built up. The difficulties of making this type 
of estimate, under present conditions, are obvious. 
There would be so many gaps in the information that 
the total would be of little value. However, every pos- 
sible effort is being made to keep in touch with cus- 
tomers, and their information is being used to check 
and revise estimates made in another way. 

Another method of estimating has been widely used 
in the United States. They put together data on the 
gross national output in past years, and on the com- 
ponents of this output. They start with the assumption 
that there will be substantially full employment in the 
year V + 2. Knowing the size of their total working 
force, and the average output for each person gainfully 
employed, they can project their figures for gross 
national output of goods and services into an estimate 
of the total for the year V -+ 2. For example, if V + 2 
should be the year 1946, the total would be 165 billion 
dollars. From their knowledge of the components of 
this total, the production of producers' goods and equip- 
ment would be 15 billion dollars. Breaking this down 
again, the electrical industry would make 134 billion 
dollars of electrical apparatus and equipment. From 
past figures for the electrical industry, General Electric 
can then determine their share of this volume and fur- 
ther make an allocation of this share among the various 
product lines. If you are interested in this method of 
attack, I suggest that you read "An Approach to Post- 
war Planning" by Messrs. R. P. Gustin and S. A. 
Holme, which was published in the Summer of 1942 
issue of the Harvard Business Review, and also a 1943 
publication of the U.S. Dept. of Commerce entitled 
"Markets After the War." 

As far as we have been able to determine, Canadian 
figures for gross national output and its components 
are not as complete as those for the United States, and 
industry figures often do not exist. For these reasons, 
we have not attempted to use the method. We do in- 

tend to investigate it in more detail later, and use it 
as a check on the estimates we have made. 

The third method, and the one we decided to use, is 
to review figures for the dollar volume of sales of each 
product line during prewar years. In order to get the 
trend as well as the volume in any particular year, 
figures were obtained for the period 1928 to 1942. As 
a basis for estimating, each committee then selected 
their best year during the period 1937 to 1939 inclusive. 
This figure represented what they had been able to 
sell in a year when business was good; when unem- 
ployment was relatively low; and which was not in- 
fluenced by the effect of war orders. 

Don't be misled by these estimates of sales volume 
in postwar years. No one can tell you how much you 
as an individual will actually sell in the year V -f 2. 
The figures do tell you how much you might expect 
to sell if you get your share of the available market, 
when business is good and employment is high. In a 
sense, it is a maximum figure or a goal toward which 
you should strive. It is a level which you will exceed 
only in exceptional circumstances, as for example, if 
unusual export demand should make it desirable to 
continue to use overtime and marginal labour, after 
the war. 

The Product Committees then evaluated factors 
which might change this estimated sales volume, in 
postwar years. First, they investigated the possibility 
of new markets after the war, and estimated how much 
they might expect to sell in fields not touched before 
the war. 

Second, they surveyed extended or new uses of their 
products which might result from experience and new 
applications during the war, and estimated how much 
this might add to postwar sales. 

Third, they investigated new products which have 
been developed during the war years to the point at 
which they can be readily adapted to peacetime appli- 
cation, and estimated the volume they might be ex- 
pected to reach in postwar years. 

Fourth, they investigated the effect of purchasing, 
or lack of purchasing, during the war. In some cases, 
this may result in an abnormally high, or low, volume 
of production after the war. Estimates were made of 
the time during which abnormal conditions are likely 
to exist. The effect of war purchasing varies widely, 
from apparatus for which there may be a surplus after 
government-owned war plants are closed, to appliances 
and other consumers goods which have not been manu- 
factured for some time, and for which a large postwar 
demand is building up. For each product an estimate 
was made for the effect of this factor. 

Fifth, other factors that might affect postwar volume 
were reviewed. An example is the competitive situation. 
Sales may be affected by new competition, and an esti- 
mate was made of its probable scope and activity. 

Then taking the sales volume for the base year and 
adding to it the net effect of new markets; extended 
applications for old products; entirely new products; 
the effect of purchasing during the war; the competitive 
situation and other factors, gives an estimate for the 
sales volume in our postwar year V + 2. 

This estimate gave the factories a definite picture of 
the manpower, floor space and manufacturing facilities 
which should be provided for postwar production. 

Adding the estimates from the 35 committees gives 
the total estimated sales volume for the company in 
postwar years. 

Commercial Activities 

But it is not enough to simply estimate how much 
we might, or should sell, in a postwar year. To create 



the sale we must gauge the demand, and make the 
right thing, at the right time, to sell at the right price. 
So the next step was to ask the commercial members 
of each product committee to survey their sales ac- 

In most lines, products have been scarce or unob- 
tainable during the war. The ordinary relations between 
buyer and seller have been suspended. This break in 
normal conditions gives an opportunity to make a 
thorough appraisal of methods of sales and distribution. 
Where changes seem desirable, they can be put into 
effect with the minimum of dislocation. 

Factory efficiency has been increased during recent 
years, and manufacturing costs have been decreased, 
by the efforts of methods men and cost investigators. 
In many lines, costs of sales and distribution exceed 
the manufacturing cost. Consequently, the competitive 
conditions in postwar years may tend to emphasize 
the need for lower cost of sales and distribution. 

First, the committees considered whether it is de- 
sirable to make changes in their sales methods. 

Second, they surveyed changes in commercial office 
and field organization that would be more effective in 
meeting postwar conditions. 

Third, they investigated the possibility of more 
efficient channels or methods of distribution. 

Fourth, the commercial men have been trying to 
determine probable changes in customers' requirements 
for postwar products, because many customers are con- 
cerned about postwar development. They are anxious 
to co-operate with them on development or experi- 
mental work, so that electrical equipment can be in- 
corporated into their products in the most efficient 

Fifth, they have been trying to determine which 
customers are likely to show hesitancy about placing 
orders in the immediate postwar period and to devise 
sales promotion programmes that might stimulate sales 
from such customers. There has been a lot of talk about 
the excess capacity that has been installed during the 
war. Many customers would be reassured if they made 
an actual appraisal of their electrical equipment, to 
see where new apparatus could be used to good advan- 
tage. It should replace obsolete or inefficient machines, 
man}' of which have been given punishing service 
during the war. 

Manufacturing Problems 

The fourth step in planning was to apply the in- 
formation on products and sales volumes to the factory 
problems. First, the factory members of the Product 
Committees prepared figures for the personnel, both 
direct manufacturing and indirect, used for each pro- 
duct line in a number of prewar years. Since skill and 
training is of importance, these figures were broken 
down into major occupational groups. 

Second, they determined the floor space, both manu- 
facturing and non-manufacturing, required for the 
known volume of factory output in a number of prewar 

Third, notes were made of special equipment, types 
of building and other manufacturing facilities in prewar 

Fourth, a close check was made on the probable con- 
dition of existing tools and equipment at the end of 
the war, and a programme for replacement or rehabili- 
tation was drawn up. Where new equipment will be 
required for postwar products, it was specified. 

Fifth, factory layouts were surveyed to see whether 
changes or new layouts would give greater efficiency 
in manufacture. 

Sixth, they drew up a time schedule for conversion 
to peacetime production. Speed will be essential in get- 
ting into production after the war. In order to arrange 
for sales outlets and distribution; for advertising and 
sales promotion; and to build up stocks in the field, 
the commercial men must have a definite schedule. 
It should tell them just what, when, and how much, 
will be available for sale in the immediate postwar 

While in some lines a decade or more of technological 
progress has been crowded into the war years, the effect 
cannot be apparent during the immediate postwar 
period. It will take time to apply this new knowledge 
to peacetime products. 

There will be a few major industries in which as 
much as one-fifth of the output in V + 2, will be new 
products that did not exist before the war. The rest 
will be old products, or redesigns and modifications of 
older lines. 

The extent of this conversion problem and the time 
required for conversion is often exaggerated. Aside from 
special war goods which have no possible peacetime 
application, a large fraction of Canadian industry made 
about the same products during the war as they made 
in prewar years and will make in postwar years. There 
are a number of industries in which conversion is a 
severe problem, but it is difficult to escape the impres- 
sion that too much emphasis has been given to them. 
In our company the period between V and V + 2 will 
vary from a few weeks to three years. In many product 
lines, the conversion problem will be simply that of 
securing allocation and delivery of material for the first 
peacetime orders. 

Using the statistics and information that have already 
been detailed, each Product Committee estimated the 
number of employees, factory floor space, equipment 
and other manufacturing facilities necessary to manu- 
facture their estimated postwar volume of products. 

Company Plan 

It then becomes the function of the Special Planning 
Committee to integrate all of the Product Committee 
reports into an overall plan for the company. 

First, figures were obtained for the estimated peak 
employment and floor space in each plant. 

Second, estimates were made of the total number of 
employees who may wish to stay with the company 
after the war. These figures were segregated by factories. 

Third, figures for the estimated postwar personnel 
required for each product line were segregated into the 
factories where these products are built. Comparing the 
totals with the figures of the number of employees who 
wish to have employment gives probable shortages and 
excesses of labour in each plant. 

Similarly, a comparison of existing floor space with 
requirements estimated for postwar years gives the 
probable shortages or excesses in each plant. Manu- 
facturing equipment and other facilities are dealt with 
in similar fashion. 

These studies show where changes of manufacturing 
location are desirable and enable the Special Planning 
Committee to draw up a master recommended manu- 
facturing plan for the company. 

Other Effects of Planning 

Any possible strengthening of your company organ- 
ization will aid in meeting the stress of postwar years. 
It has been found that several interesting by-products 
of planning have this desirable effect. 

First, it leads men to concentrate on their future 
problems in a way that they would seldom do if the 



effort were not organized. At the same time, they tend 
to make a more comprehensive review of their problems. 

The second is that more of our men become familiar 
with the company's affairs. 

A third is that it tends to promote greater co-opera- 
tion between the commercial, engineering and manufac- 
turing departments in dealing with postwar problems. 
It tends to break down their preoccupation with their 
individual problems, and take a renewed interest in 
the company as a whole. It gives them an opportunity 
to advance dormant ideas for consideration. 

The chances are that any company that carries 
through a planning programme of this type will be 
satisfied that these secondary effects, and the data and 
statistics which have been assembled, make the plan- 
ning effort worth while. This would be so, even if 
activities were stopped at that point and no further 
effort were made to put the plans into effect. 

Problem of Full Employment 

So our planning has told us what we may expect to 
produce if business is good in postwar years, and has 
allowed us to plan the personnel and manufacturing 
facilities to make it. But this is by no means the end 
of the problem. 

A census of troops in the field showed that the thing 
they have uppermost in their mind is a job when they 
return home. Unless there are jobs for them, it will be 
difficult to explain how the economy of the country 
could run full out during the war and produce enormous 
quantities of goods for them to waste on the battle 
field, but cannot provide jobs for everyone in the pro- 
duction of useful goods in time of peace. Desirable as 
this goal of full employment may be, it will not result 
automatically from just wishing for it, or even saying 
in the most determined manner that you must have it. 
It will result only from planning for it and working for it. 

Full employment is a deceptive term. It is undesirable 
to attempt to maintain the present high level of em- 
ployment, because it depends too much on marginal 
labour — adolescents who should be completing their 
education; older men who should be pensioned; house- 
wives who should be looking after homes and families; 
and people drawn from less essential occupations. 

Even in normal times you cannot hope to have jobs 
for the entire available working force. Some are unem- 
ployable, and a certain number of people are out of 
employment through sickness, accidents, or while 
changing jobs. A better term for the goal might be 
"substantially full employment." 

Many people have secured better paid or more con- 
genial occupations in war industry. There is not only 
the prime problem of attempting to provide jobs for 
them, but also the secondary problem of their reluctance 
to return to work which may seem less desirable to 

The best way to create the desirable condition of 
high employment is through the exchange of goods and 
services which will result in a higher standard of living 

in Canada. Aside from what must be done by govern- 
ment and in other ways, the solution to the part that 
industry can play in providing employment lies in pro- 
duction and distribution. We must plan what we are 
going to sell in postwar years and then do the best 
possible merchandising job to build up public demand 
for our products. Production to satisfy this increased 
demand will automatically result in employment for a 
greater number of people. 

To maintain substantially full employment in in- 
dustry in Canada, it would be necessary to produce 
roughly 50 per cent more than before the war. It is 
doubtful whether entirely new products could possibly 
account for more than 10 to 15 per cent, so 35 to 40 
per cent of the increase must come from extended uses 
of old products. 

Effects of National Events 

Assuming that we secure our share of the available 
market in a year when business is good in Canada, our 
plan tells us how much we may expect to sell, where 
it will be produced, and the number of people required 
to make it, and the equipment and factoiy floor space 
that must be provided. 

Carrying the plan to this stage does not mean that 
planning is finished. Every international and national 
event that affects the national economy of Canada 
affects our planning, in greater or lesser degree. So we 
must keep informed about probable changes during 
postwar years in gross national output and income, 
employment, hours of work and working conditions, 
availability of capital and investments in durable equip- 
ment, government measures to promote re-establish- 
ment and reconstruction, government policies or tariffs 
and trade, taxation, price and commodity controls, im- 
migration, money and inflation, disposal of surplus 
materials and equipment in government-owned plants, 
and all the other factors that will shape the conditions 
likely to exist in Canada in V + 2. As the national 
picture changes, we must conform by changing our 

Assembling the data for your plan will lead to a 
natural curiosity as to what others are doing. Your 
planning can be supplemented and additional infor- 
mation of value can be obtained by working with the 
vendors from whom you purchase and the customers 
to whom you sell. In some cases you may also wish to 
contribute to industry planning through trade or busi- 
ness associations. 

Engineers should be interested in planning because 
they are well suited to the work. Their training fits 
them to handle facts and figures in a logical, analytical 
way that disregards dreams and fancies. Facts are the 
only thing from which you can fashion a practical 
workable postwar plan. 

They say that good men do their best work when 
challenged by a big problem. There is no doubt that 
in postwar years engineers will continue to prove that 
this saying is true. 





M. A. MACKENZIE, m.a. 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 

N. E. SHEPPARD, m.a. 

Faculty of Arts, University of Toronto 

Fellows of the British Institute of Actuaries 

An article written at the request of the Institute Committee on Industrial Relations, being one of a 

series prepared for the Journal 

Primitive man was mainly concerned in supplying 
his own daily nourishment. If he had freedom to wander, 
he cared little about the future and used nature to store 
his food for him on the hoof. On the other hand, if he 
was restricted to a local area by natural or human 
barriers he generally chose some place where the food 
was supplied by nature at one or more times in the 
.year; his mate looked after the storage of the excess 
food for the unproductive seasons of the year. As an 
example of the first type of man we have only to look 
at the Eskimo who moved to where food could be found 
in each season of the year. For the second type we 
might consider the Indian on the Pacific coast who 
stored up the salmon by drying in the fall of the year 
when the fish returned to their original rivers. But 
with these primitive types doubtless only a small pro- 
portion of the children born reached maturity. More- 
over the old or crippled who managed to survive had 
to rely upon their relatives for sustenance and protec- 
tion. Nowadays we have taken it as a matter of course 
that the state will look after the education and to 
some extent the health of the young; and the modern 
tendency is for the aged to be maintained not by their 
own descendants but by society in general. 

Need for Benefit Plans 

As man obtained protection from outside physical 
violence he applied his energies to working up a business 
or trade in which he often became an expert. In more 
modern times we have, for example, the retailer, crafts- 
man, or independent professional man who finds success 
coming his way and who then sees the necessity of 
employing others to help him. So long as the number 
of such employees was small, and the proprietor was 
able to choose proper individuals, he seldom had to 
contend with the care of their families, though he some- 
times did look after his old employees when their work- 
ing days were over. If, however, the business prospered 
greatly and the number of employees became large, and 
especially if the business became incorporated, the or- 
ganization found it necessary to look into some of the 
risks to which an employee might be subjected. These 
risks are, 

early death in service, leaving dependents; 
disability while employed; and 

a long period of old age after working days are no 
longer possible. 

Many plans have been developed to give the employee 
security against these three risks, but the principal dif- 
ficulty encountered is that of finding out what the cost 
of any set of benefits will be and how this cost should 
be divided equitably between the interested parties. 

Dependents After Death of Wage-earner 

In the case of death the matter is rather simple if a 
lump sum of money is all that is required. During past 
years many sets of experiences have been examined 

from which proper mortality rates have been estab- 
lished. If, however, even in the case of death, periodic 
payments are to be made to a widow, the matter be- 
comes very involved, as many further contingencies 
must be taken care of. Many employers have adopted 
group insurance to cover this contingency, providing 
for the payment of a lump sum at the death of an em- 
ployee. There are, however, not many widows in a 
position to obtain proper advice on the spreading out 
or spending of such a payment. 

Disability of Wage Earner 

With regard to disability encountered during service, 
the real problem is to find the person who can with 
unerring judgment say when an employee is disabled 
and to what extent. Also mortality rates for disabled 
persons are very difficult to obtain, partly because of 
faulty classification and partly also because in many 
instances a disabled person who has been granted a 
pension has been able to adjust himself and as a result 
to claim his pension for a large number of years. Some 
employers take care of this risk out of current revenue 
year by year, either directly or to some extent through 
Workmen's Compensation facilities. Others try to in- 
corporate it in their pension plans. 

Retirement on Pension 

The main risk that we wish to consider in this article 
is that of the retirement of an employee on pension 
after many years of faithful service. It should be pointed 
out that firms, organizations and municipalities do not 
run into this problem until they have been in operation 
from 30 to 50 years. Even then it may be a serious 
matter if the concern has been growing rapidly, as the 
number of original employees who survive their days 
of useful service will naturally be very small compared 
to the total number of active employees ; and moreover, 
the old inefficient employee is sometimes given a less 
exacting job. However, as those cases begin to increase 
in number the directing body is unable to find enough 
suitable jobs and they proceed to establish a pension 
scheme in order to avoid having to decide each case on 
its merits. We have often found that while the benefits 
of such schemes may appear on the surface to be fairly 
generous, their ultimate effect and ultimate cost have 
not been looked into. In this connection, in looking 
over the annual statements of some of our Canadian 
businesses, one is struck by the absence of any reference' 
to a liability covering pensions payable in the future 
to present employees, although a detailed pension plan 
may have been in operation for many years. Auditors 
are insistent upon building up depreciation for machin- 
ery and equipment but not much seems to be done 
about the depreciation of the human machine. 

Contributory and Non-contributory Schemes 

This problem of growing old in service is difficult to 
solve because conditions vary so greatly from one busi- 



ness to another. The first question to be decided is 
that of who is to pay for the pension benefits. The 
easy road is to make the present working generation 
provide the pension payments for the immediate past 
generation of workers. On the other hand the ideal 
situation would be that in which each man accumulates 
his own deposits sufficient to cover any pension pay- 
ments he may require. The modern trend is for the 
employee and the employer to pay dollar for dollar 
currently during the working days of the employee. 
The cost part of the scheme, however, especially for 
the older employees, is generally left unsettled or 
allowed to drift along after the scheme has been put 
into operation. Naturally the employee is only con- 
cerned with the size of his annual pension, which gen- 
erally bears, or ought to bear, some relation to the 
immediate salary before retiring. 

The big problem in finding out the appropriate cost 
is to preserve equilibrium between what will be ulti- 
mately paid out in pension payments and the accumu- 
lation of the contributions paid in by and on behalf 
of the average employee. Several factors enter into the 
determination of the adequate rate of contribution. 
Some of them are, for instance, the rate of interest 
which can be counted upon, the age at entry into service, 
the determination of the normal retirement age, the 
rates of leaving service for any reason up to this age, 
according to the sex of the employee, and the mortality 
rates applicable to pensioned employees. Data bearing 
on the above points must be collected from reliable 
sources to form a basis for projecting the present and 
past experience into the future. Even as to the normal 
retiring age one encounters considerable variation. One 
man may be ready for pension at 60, another should 
be pensioned at 65, while a third man may be able to 
give good service even after he is 70 years of age. Again, 
moneys must be accumulated by investment, but the 
rate of interest earned or to be earned varies with the 
times and the type of investment. The tendency is for 
mortality rates to decrease as time goes on. 

Pensions for Women 

In days gone by, not many women stayed in the 
service of an employer long enough to obtain a pension 
but employers are now finding it necessary to extend 
their pension schemes to take care of an increasing 
number of women who will become eligible for pension. 
Pensions for women cost more than those for men. As 
an example, in round figures, $10,000 in cash will pro- 
vide roughly $100 a month for life to a man aged 70, 
whereas the same $10,000 would provide only $85 a 
month for a woman of the same age. These are the 
rates at present charged on a 4 per cent interest basis 
by the Annuities Branch of the Dominion Government. 
One might think that if age 70, for example, were 
taken as the retiring age your problem would be settled 
if you could provide the $10,000 in a lump sum and 
allow the employee to do what he liked with it. At 4 
per cent if a male employee took out $100 a month 
from the original fund of $10,000 he would find out in 
a little over ten years that he had no fund left on which 
to live. This example illustrates the use of the life an- 
nuity as against the individual trust or endowment 
fund to provide pension benefits. But no employer who 
has a pension scheme dares to allow the annuity pay- 
ments to be commutable into a lump sum. Nor can he 
afford to allow borrowing privileges to the contributor. 
For if he does the one or the other, and if the employee 
loses or spends such money, the employee either falls 
back on his old employer or is a bad talking advertise- 
ment for the employer's business. 

Cost of Annuity Schemes 

If as time elapses the rate of interest falls, the cost 
of providing the same set of benefits increases, also the 
longer the duration in which annual benefits are to be 
paid the bigger the increased cost will be. A more serious 
factor however comes in with the lowering of the initial 
pension age. To illustrate this point we give the follow- 
ing quotations on the present Dominion Government 
annuity basis. 

Cost of providing at retirement age an 
annuity of $100. a month for life for a 
Age at retirement Male Female 

70 $10,160 $11,860 

65 12,120 14,020 

60 14,050 16,020 

Let us for a moment consider a non-eontributory 
pension plan, that is, where the whole cost is borne bj' 
the employer. This would be an illustration of an un- 
funded pension scheme. If pension benefits are set nor- 
mally about one-half the final year's salary with a nor- 
mal retirement age of 65 and also if we assume a sta- 
tionary condition in the number of employees, an em- 
ployer would probably find after 40 or 50 years that 
his pension payments would be in the neighbourhood 
of 20 per cent of the amount payable in annual salaries. 

If, on the other hand, such an employer had paid 
level contributions with or without the aid of his em- 
ployees from the beginning of service of each employee, 
the same pension benefits might have been covered by 
a total annual contribution of 8 to 10 per cent of 
salaries. His pension plan would now be considered as 
a funded plan provided he had set up the necessary 
machinery to accumulate the contributions paid into 
the fund each year. This investment operation requires 
great care initially, with continued supervision as time 
goes on, since the best rate of interest procurable is 
desired while at the same time there should be no de- 
preciation in the invested funds. 

Security of Investment 

Some employers have obtained a high rate of interest 
by investing these moneys in their own business. This 
is a dangerous course and to overcome it a third party, 
such as an insurance company or the Annuities Branch 
at Ottawa, should come into the picture so as to guar- 
antee (if only for a limited period) a definite interest 
return and to overcome the risk of depreciation of funds 
and the risk of exceptional longevity among the pen- 
sioned persons. These are very desirable things to have 
covered by a third party. But it has been also found 
that such plans are not as flexible as those set up and 
cared for by the employer in conjunction with his em- 
ployees. Experience has shown that it is very difficult 
to sell annuities and make a profit, so that the insurance 
company generally overloads the plan by attaching a 
number of so-called frills in the nature of insurance 
benefits, in order to at least break even. The trend of 
increasing longevity of pensioners and annuitants has 
been well known for a long time. Over a hundred years 
ago the poet Byron described the situation in these words : 

'Tis said that persons living on annuities 
Are longer lived than others, — God knows why, 
Unless to plague the grantors, — yet so true it is, 
That some, I really think, do never die. 

The rates charged by many insurance companies are 
also loaded to cover in some measure expenses of opera- 
tion. On the other hand the Annuities Branch at 
Ottawa does not sell insurance. Their rates for annuities 
are net, as expenses of operation are borne by the tax- 
payer in general. 



As we have tried to explain in the foregoing notes, 
the question of providing benefits which may become 
payable to either the employee or his dependents is a 
delicate one. Moreover it is not a static problem but 
changes with the industrial situation. As we have also 
pointed out above, there are difficulties and drawbacks 
connected with each of the three methods described, 
namely, a fund run by the employer, coverage through 
an insurance company, or a plan purchased through 
the Annuities Branch of the Dominion Government. 

When an attempt is made to take into consideration 
all the factors bearing on the particular situation for 
which a pension plan is proposed, it should be easily 
seen that no one can be dogmatic in his views nor can 
he prescribe an ideal type of fund which can be adopted 
to any situation. 

Combination Schemes 

After stating the above qualifications we venture 
(with some misgiving) to indicate the procedure needed 
in handling any Canadian situation, so that a combina- 
tion of the possible facilities outlined earlier may be 
used. The level or uniform cost expressed as a percent- 
age of salaries would however have to be estimated 
for each group of employees after the size and variety 
of benefits have been fixed. No insurance company in 
Canada can sell annuities as cheaply as the Dominion 
Government, but there are two handicaps to be over- 
come in buying pensions from the Government. The 
first is that no refund of employee's contributions will 
be made except upon death, and the second is that 
the maximum annuity which can be purchased is one 
for $1,200 per annum on any one life. The first restric- 
tion leads us into difficulty, especially where women 
are employed, because it seems natural for them to de- 
mand a return of their contributions as soon as they 
leave their employment. And the second may become 
a serious handicap for the executive or higher paid em- 
ployee of a eompanj', whose pension should exceed $100 
a month. 

We are convinced that any pension scheme should 
be contributory in nature and if possible the cost in 
respect of current service should be divided more or 
less evenly between the employer and the employee. 
Further we believe that so-called disability pensions 
should not be large in amount in comparison with the 
regular service pension. Otherwise there will be a tend- 
ency for employees to quit service on the plea of dis- 
ablement so as to claim their pensions. Especially will 
this be true if any such employee can obtain another 
position and so increase his annual income. We there- 
fore believe that all contributions should be accumu- 
lated to the credit of the person for whom they are 
paid; also in the case of employer's contributions a 
proper period should elapse before such contributions 
will vest in the employee. 

Methods or Handling Contributions 
All contributions can be deposited quarterly with the 

Dominion Government under a master contract in the 
case of male employees who have attained say age 25 
or have two or three years of continuous service. When 
the contributions paid in are sufficient to purchase the 
maximum annuity on the life of the employee arrange- 
ments can be made to have a supplementary contract 
through an insurance company. 

With regard to female employees it might be well to 
adopt the same rule so far as deducting contributions 
from their wages is concerned, but to withhold the 
turning over of these moneys to the Government until 
the woman has reached say age 35, when it might be 
presumed that there would be a reasonable chance of 
an ultimate pension. These accumulated sums held by 
the employer for his female employees might be allowed 
such interest as could be earned and any employee 
could of course be given an opportunity to have a 
contract with the Annuities Branch prior to age 35. 

Since accumulation of contributions if only begun in 
middle life will not produce a very large pension the 
employer might, out of his current revenue, supplement 
to some extent the pension purchased. For the older 
employees in service at the inception of a pension plan 
it has been customary for the employer to take care 
of what is called the accrued liability due to their past 
service. What can be done for such cases will depend 
on what funds are available for the purpose. 

Deferred annuities are generally issued with a normal 
quinquennial retirement age such as age 60, 65 or 70, 
but as the contributions are accumulated at interest 
alone, the Annuities Branch will start a pension on 
any anniversary before the due date. The due date 
will not, however, be extended unless such extension is 
applied for at least five years prior to the normal age 
stated in the contract. Life annuities may also be issued 
with a definite number of pension payments guaranteed 
after the annuity begins. Since the contribution rate is 
very seldom more than 5 per cent of each individual 
salary, the contributor will in 40 years time have ac- 
tually contributed two years average salary, so that if 
his pension is roughly one-half average salary he will 
have obtained all his money back in approximately 
the first four years of his retired life. It has therefore 
been customary to have such deferred annuity con- 
tracts issued on the plan whereby the pension payments 
are guaranteed for five years after retirement. 

Caution and Common Sense Needed 

It would be well to round off this rambling record 
of thoughts and ideas by again appealing for caution 
and common sense in tackling this pension question. 
The interest of each person concerned may be different. 
One man's desires may be directly opposed to another's 
interests. One item may be unduly stressed or partially 
ignored. But this much is sure, it takes money to 
provide for old age and the earlier the age at which 
contributions are begun the smaller will be the annual 





Excerpts from the brief presented on November 25th, 1943, by the Canadian Construction Association to the Special 
Committee on Reconstruction and Re-establishment of the House of Commons of Canada 

There is no certainty as to Canada's postwar future ! 
There are to-day two schools of thought; one is repre- 
sented by those who see deflation and unemployment 
ahead, and seek some "New Deal" as a way out. Another 
group believes planning can assure us full employment 
once the short period of adjustment is over. They talk 
of dammed up purchasing power, of the pent-up demand 
for both consumer and capital goods. 

It is only the policy of prudence to go on the assump- 
tion that we shall have to create employment to carry 
our people through the years involved in changing over 
from war production to peacetime production and in 
re-absorbing our armed forces into civilian occupations. 

Construction is an industry that offers help, without 
delays and in measurable doses. If properly planned 
and prepared, it provides a method of creating employ- 
ment exactly when and where and to the extent re- 
quired, a method that may be applied almost at will. 

Immediate Planning Imperative 

The construction industry desires to emphasize the 
urgent necessity for expediting the preparation of com- 
plete plans and specifications for post-war projects of 
both a private and public nature, ready for calling for 
tenders at an hour's notice. Even though construction 
projects in such a reconstruction programme may not 
be needed for providing employment until well along 
in the future, much time is required for expropriation 
of lands at sites, negotiations in connection with pur- 
chase of property, materials, machinery and equipment, 
and for designs, final estimates and lastly financing. 

There are many competent architects, engineers and 
departmental staffs presently short of work who could 
and should be utilized now for such planning and design. 
Not to utilize such skills at a time when there is so 
much to be done is shortsighted indeed. 

Private Construction Should Come First 

Construction by private enterprise should be given 
the first chance to create employment. We believe the 
government should give every encouragement possible 
to private industry, through loans at a low rate of in- 
terest, incentive taxation and other means, to initiate 
private construction. Publicly financed construction 
should supplement this private construction only in the 
event of the latter failing to provide the required 
amount of employment. It should not be looked upon 
as a substitute for private construction, but held in 
complete readiness for instant use whenever needed. 

It is important that such industries should be en- 
couraged to make plans and designs by allowing them 
to use their own funds up to 3 per cent of the cost of 
the proposed work, for such projects as are approved 
or certified by some suitable authority, such funds being 
deducted from the taxpayers taxable income, sums so 
deducted automatically lapsing if construction does not 
proceed within a specified time. 

Efficient Methods Preferable to Relief 

Our industry should not be obliged to function as a 
relief agency. It is all too easy to do this, since construc- 
tion absorbs unemployment so readily. We do not want 
to see a reversion to the old policies of the depression 
years, involving relief projects containing a maximum 

of hand labour. On the other hand we urge that the 
most efficient methods possible be used, to the end that 
the greatest value is obtained for every dollar spent. 

Post-war construction contracts should be awarded 
as far as possible on a competitive tender basis, as evi- 
dence shows that this is the most efficient and econo- 
mical way of carrying out work. Advanced planning will 
make this possible. 

Planning a Construction Programme 
There are a number of very important phases of this 
question. No matter how much construction we list 
and plan for, whether it be public works, or privately 
financed works, (a) will there be enough funds avail- 
able ? (b) will there be enough tools and plant ? (c) will 
there be enough trained men ? (d) will there be enough 
materials ? (e) will the industry's capacity be sufficient ? 
If the available quantity of any of the above items 
is limited or inadequate, what can be done to bring 
these shortages of money and plant and men and ma- 
terials up to the required level ? 

The Federal Government, through a commission or 
board, could examine and pass on the various public 
construction projects which are proposed, rating them 
in order of priority and later relating them to proposed 
private construction, and to reconversion and demobil- 
ization plans, timing their start and progress, acceler- 
ating or retarding them as the need arises in each region. 

Provision for Funds 

Wartime corporations under government ownership 
have proved successful in war years both in Canada 
and in the United States. While a corporation under 
government ownership, for the express purpose of giving 
financial assistance to both private industries and gov- 
ernment projects has not yet been attempted in Canada, 
experience in the United States with the Reconstruction 
Finance Corporation suggests that something along 
similar lines would be practical for Canada during the 
reconstruction period. 

It may be that such powers could better be vested 
in the Bank of Canada, but it is respectfully suggested 
that some type of organization such as this, in close col- 
laboration with existing financial organizations, would 
provide more and longer postwar jobs, at less ultimate 
cost to the Canadian taxpaj'er than would be possible 
by any other method. 

Through such an agency, financial assistance for both 
private and public construction could be effected at the 
same time, stimulating one or the other as the need 
arises, keeping the proper balance between public and 
private spending, and dispensing with the necessity for 
many of the present wartime controls. It is not sug- 
gested that controls should be exercised over private 
construction which does not require Government assist- 
ance, other than to record in advance the employment 
it will furnish. 

Working closely with such an agency for providing 
funds, a Commission or Board, by making advance 
filing of plans for approval a prerequisite for financial 
assistance to private or public projects, could forecast 
employment opportunities more accurately by regions, 
and time the release of public projects more intelli- 



Equipment, Labour and Materials Supply 

Total equipment now on hand is estimated to have a 
replacement value of close to $100 millions. Since the 
value of construction equipment required represents 
about 10 per cent of the value of the construction 
being done, on an average, provided it is all in use, it 
would appear that sufficient equipment is on hand for 
carrying out a construction programme of any volume 
likely to be undertaken. 

It is the opinion of this Association that the supply 
of construction craftsmen will not be a limiting factor 
in early postwar years for any volume of construction 
likely to be reached, so long as the proportion, as be- 
tween building and engineering projects, remains rela- 
tively similar to that obtaining heretofore. 

With the return of the lumber industry to peacetime 
operations after the war, it is not anticipated that the 
lumber supply will give cause for apprehension, pro- 
vided encouragement can be given to that industry to 
attain full capacity. 

On the other hand, priorities, if established, for the 
supply of materials for rebuilding devastated areas 
abroad, might limit certain domestic supplies on which 
a postwar construction programme depends. 

Will the Industry's Capacity be Adequate 
From the volume of work carried out previously and 
the availability of machinery, labour and materials, the 
possible construction volume, expressed in millions of 
dollars, that can be carried out by contractors, govern- 
ments, the Harbours Board and municipalities is esti- 
mated as follows : 

Last war year $250 to $350 millions; first postwar 
year: $450 to $500 millions; second postwar year: $650 
millions; and $800 millions for each of the third, fourth 
and fifth postwar years. 

The capacity of the construction industry to give 
employment for various annual volumes of construction 
is estimated by us to be as follows: 

Total Number 

Gross Employed on the 

Construction job, and in factories, 

Volume mines, woods, 

per year mills, etc., and 

(D.B.S. Index) transportation 

$300,000,000 287,000 persons 

$400,000,000 383,000 

$500,000,000 479,000 

$600,000,000 575,000 

$700,000,000 671,000 

$800,000,000 767,000 " 

Labour Relations 

The good relationship existing between management 
and labour in the construction industry has developed 
to the present standard over a long period. Forty years 
ago or more, employers and labour unions representing 
the fourteen different trades in the industry began mak- 
ing collective agreements governing wage rates, hours 
of labour and working conditions. 

The National Joint Conference Board, established 
in 1921 and re-established in February, 1941, has been 
actively in operation ever since, and is composed of 
nine representatives of trades unions and nine employ- 
ers. The chairman is an officer of the Department of 
Labour, and the secretary is also provided by the 

We are desirous that in the future these relations be 
maintainted and improved. For this reason we believe 
and respectfully recommend that this National Joint 
Board be continued in the post-war period under the 
provisions now made by the Department of Labour 
and, as in the past, problems affecting our industry 
be dealt with by this Board, and their recommendations 
be sent on to the Department of Labour for its serious 


This Association believes there is need for a maximum 
of some 300,000 houses in Canada, to be built over the 
first five postwar j^ears. 

The National Housing Act has made it possible for 
people of fairly low incomes to own their homes, but 
this can only apply to a small percentage of people. The 
greater part of these 300,000 homes will be for low- 
income families, and will involve government ownership 
and assistance in some form. 

Many existing houses are still very useful and only 
need some assistance to make them available for many 
years to come. A government policy that would create 
new housing within the reach of low-income families 
should bring suitable old housing also within the reach 
of these families. Any other policy would be a violation 
of the rights of owners and mortgage investors. 

No study of housing conditions and housing require- 
ments in Canada can proceed very far without the 
necessity of proper town planning becoming apparent. 
Properly constituted town planning committees, oper- 
ating under Federal Government direction or regula- 
tion, should be a necessary prerequisite to any Federal 
Government housing assistance. 

This Association suggests that a special department, 
commission or corporation, be placed in charge of this 
assisted housing which shall be charged with the crea- 
tion, management and maintenance of these projects. 
Acting in conjunction therewith will be town planning 
committees in the larger centres. 

Any national housing plan cannot possibly ignore 
the housing conditions that exist on many of our farms. 
Provincial commissions would have to be established 
to pass on the ability of the farm to produce, and the 
ability of the farmer to pay. 

The replanning of cities, the furnishing of homes for 
low income groups, and the tying-in of the necessary 
community facilities, are problems we must face after 
the war. In their solution a very constructive field of 
employment and rehabilitation may be furnished. 

Smoothing of Cyclical Fluctuations 
Should be Sought 

Earliest consideration should be given to the forma- 
tion of a policy by Dominion, provincial and municipal 
governments to the deferment of public works during 
periods of prosperity to those periods of depression 
which periodically strike the construction industry. 
The industry has become known as a "peak and valley" 
one. The smoothing out of these cyclical fluctuations, 
thereby assuring a more balanced economy for the 
whole country, can best be accomplished by the proper 
timing of public works programmes. 

(Copies of the complete brief along with appendices 
may be secured from Mr. J. Clark Reilly, general man- 
ager, Canadian Construction Association, 414 Ottawa 
Electric Building, Ottawa.) 




Cabinet du Maire, 
Québec, 3 janvier 1944. 

L'institut Canadien des Ingénieurs tiendra 
à Québec, en février 1944, son Cinquante- 
huitième Congrès Annuel. 

C'est un événement de grande importance 
dont notre ville peut être fière de devenir 
le théâtre. Au nom de mes 
collègues du Conseil de 
Ville et de la popu- 
lation de Québec, je 
suis heureux d'offrir dès 
maintenant nos souhaits de 
chaleureuse et cordiale bien- 
venue aux ingénieurs cana- 
diens et aux chefs de la 
grande industrie de notre 
pays, qui nous honoreront 
de leur visite à cette oc- 

L'ingénieur canadien 
figure au premier rang des 
techniciens dont la colla- 
boration scientifique a rendu 
possible l'effort gigantes- 
que du Canada dans le 
conflit actuel. Grâce à son 
travail, à ses connais- 
sances et à ses talents, 
l'industrie canadienne a 
pu atteindre une produc- 
tion phénoménale, 
qui restera comme l'un des 
faits les plus remarquables 
de l'histoire de la deuxième 
guerre mondiale. 

Ce qu'il a si magnifiquement accompli quand il fallait 
s'ingénier à produire des engins de destruction et tout 
l'équipement nécessaire pour écraser l'ennemi, l'ingé- 
nieur saura assurément le répéter lorsqu'il s'agira de 
rebâtir. Il sera demain le grand artisan de la recons- 
truction économique de l'après-guerre au Canada. 

On conçoit facilement la bonne fortune de notre ville 
de pouvoir être le lieu de réunion du congrès de l'Institut 
Canadien des Ingénieurs à une heure aussi importante 
où se joue l'avenir de notre pays. Je souhaite de grand 
coeur que ce congrès obtienne tout le succès possible, 
et que les ingénieurs y viennent en très grand nombre. 
Nous les accueillerons avec joie tout en nous efforçant 
de rendre leur séjour parmi nous aussi agréable qu'ils 
sauront le rendre utile et profitable à leur profession et 

" c y ' LeIMaire de Québec, 

Son Honneur le Maire Lucien Borne 

Mayor's Office, 
Québec, January 3rd, 1944. 

The Engineering Institute of Canada 
will hold, in February, 1944, its Fifty- 
Eighth Annual Meeting in Québec. 

Our city feels justly proud of being made 
the seat of this very important event. In the 
name of my colleagues of 
the City Council and the 
people of Québec, I am 
pleased to extend our warm 
and cordial wishes of wel- 
come to the Canadian en- 
gineers and the chiefs of 
the manufacturing industry 
of our country, who will 
honour us with their visit 
on this occasion. 

The Canadian engineer 
occupies the first rank 
among the technicians 
whose scientific collabora- 
tion has made possible the 
gigantic effort of Can- 
ada in the present con- 
flict. Thanks to his work, 
his knowledge and his 
talent, Canadian industry 
has achieved a phenomenal 
production which will re- 
main as one of the most 
remarkable feats in the 
history of the Second World 

This magnificent achieve- 
ment in the production of 
destructive machines and all the equipment required 
for crushing the enemy, the engineer will surely be 
able to repeat when time comes to rebuild. He will be- 
come to-morrow the great artisan of the post-war 
economic reconstruction in Canada. 

We appreciate the good fortune of having our city 
selected to be the meeting place of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada at such a crucial time when the 
future of our country is at stake. I heartily hope that 
the conference will meet with every possible success 
and that the engineers will attend it in very great 
numbers. They will be greeted with joy and nothing 
will be spared to render their stay amongst us as agréer 
able to them as it will be useful and profitable to their 
profession and their Country. 


Mayor of Quebec. 




General Chairman 


General Vice- Chair man and 
Chairman of Papers Committee 




9.00 a.m.— REGISTRATION. 

Announcement of election results. Address of retir- 
ing president, K. M. Cameron. 

12.30 p.m.— LUNCHEON— Speaker: J. B. Carswell, M.E.I.C. 

OPMENT, by Dr. H. G. Acres, M.E.I.C, Consulting 
Engineer, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

8.15 p.m. — Special convocation at Laval University for the pur- 
pose of conferring honorary degrees upon prominen t 
members of the Institute. All persons registered at 
the Annual Meeting are invited. 


9.30 a.m.— POST-WAR PLANNING— A session of five papers 
(All with discussions by leading engineers and indus- 

morning) trialists which will define the problem in under- 
standable terms; will point out the part to be played 
by private enterprise, by the government and by 
labour. The object is to emphasize the part belong- 
ing to each group and the necessity of including 
labour in the planning. 




Chairman of Hotel Arrangements 



Chairman of Entertain men T 
and Visits Committee 

Plant and olher visits will be arranged. 

Chateau Frontenac 

FEBRUARY 10th and 11th, 1944 






FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 11th— Continued 

TION AT ARVIDA, by M. G. Saunders, M.E.I.C., 
Mechanical Superintendent, Aluminum. Company 
of Canada, Limited. 

.00 a.m.— IMPROVED SOIL STABILIZATION, by Guillaume 
Piette, Jr.E.I.C, Soils Engineer, Department of 
Highways of the Province of Quebec. 

.30 p.m.— LUNCHEON— Speaker: W. L. Batt, Hon.M.E.I.C, 
vice-chairman, War Production Board, Washington; 
and president, SKF Industries, Inc., Philadelphia. 

.15 p.m.— POST-WAR PLANNING— Continued (All afternoon). 

SPEAKING WORLD, by Mr. Maurice Stack, Techni- 
cal Advisor on Social Insurance, International La- 
bour Office, Montreal. 

.45 p.m.— ELECTRONICS. 

.30 p.m.— ANNUAL BANQUET — Speaker : The Honourable 
Adélard Godbout, Prime Minister of the Province of 
Quebec, on "The Engineer and the Province of 

,00 p.m.— DANCE. 


Chairman of Registration Committee 



Convenor I^adies* Committee 



Chairman of Reception Committee 


Chairman of Publicity Committee 


Chairman of Finance Committee 

Special entertainment is being provided for Ladies. 


Premier Ministre de la Province 
de Québec 


Prime Minister of the Province 
of Québec 

Cabinet du Premier Ministre 

Je suis très heureux que la ville de 
Québec ait été choisie comme siège du 
congrès de l'Institut Canadien des 

La capitale de cette province est le berceau de la 
civilisation au Canada, le modèle de l'harmonie entre 
les races, et elle est devenue un centre renommé de 
culture générale, et particulièrement de culture scien- 
tifique, comme en témoignent les Ecoles de Chimie, des 
Mines et de Génie Electrique groupées sous l'égide de 
la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université Laval. 

En honorant Québec, l'Institut Canadien des In- 
génieurs honore la province toute entière, car les 
sciences ont une part de plus en plus grande dans nos 
universités et nos collèges. Nous voulons contribuer 
au développement économique de notre province et 
du Canada, dans toute la mesure du possible, et aider 
ainsi généreusement à préparer le brillant avenir qui 
est réservé à notre pays. 

Que les membres de l'Institut Canadien des Ingé- 
nieurs soient les bienvenus. Ils trouveront ici la vieille 
hospitalité québécoise si caractéristique et une ville ex- 
trêmement pittoresque, dont l'histoire est intimement 
liée à celle de tout le Canada et même de toute l'Amé- 
rique du Nord. 

Je veux féliciter les nouveaux docteurs es science de 
l'Université Laval et souhaiter le plus grand succès à 
tous les congressistes, dans les discussions des divers 
problèmes qu'ils aborderont, comme aussi dans la car- 
rière où ils tiennent une place si avantageuse. 

Que le congrès de Québec fasse époque dans les an- 
nales de votre Institut et dans celles du Canada! 

Cabinet of the Prime Minister 

I am greatly pleased that Québec 
City has been selected as a meeting 
place for The Engineering Institute of 

The capital of this ancient province is the cradle of 
Christian civilization in Canada, the model of racial 
harmony and friendship, a noted cultural centre, 
especially in science as evidenced by the Schools of 
Chemistry, Mines and Electrical Engineering all 
grouped under the aegis of the Faculty of Science at 
Laval University. 

By honouring Québec, The Engineering Institute of 
Canada honours the entire province, because science is 
assuming an increasingly important role in our colleges 
and universities. We are anxious to promote, to the 
greatest possible degree, the economic development of 
our province and of Canada, and to contribute as much 
as possible in preparing for the brilliant future reserved 
for our country. 

Members of The Engineering Institute of Canada 
are more than welcome in our province. They will find 
here the traditionally characteristic Québec hospitality, 
as well as a picturesque city whose history is closely 
linked with that of all Canada, and of the whole of 
North America. 

I want to congratulate the new Doctors of Science 
of Laval University, and I sincerely wish success to all 
delegates in their discussions of important problems 
and in their careers where they hold such commanding 

May the Québec meeting prove to be a landmark in 
the annals of your Institute and in those of Canada! 



From the deep, untouched wilderness of 
this famous old Province, a million and a 
half more white horses are stampeding 
along the road towards Victory for the 

Big ? This new dam — completed by 
engineers and workers in the record time 
of 18 months — is the nucleus of a power 
development greater than Boulder Dam 
in the U.S.A. or the Dnieper development 
in Russia. This rugged corner of La 
Province de Québec is now the greatest 
hydro-electric centre in the world. 

Here's horsepower against Hitler. The 
electricity generated here will go into pro- 
ducing 80 per cent of the total aluminum 
required by the British Commonwealth of 
Nations — approximately 40 per cent of 
the amount required by all the Allied 
Nations including the U.S.A. 

But let Shipshaw speak! 


Ultimate power capacity 1,300,000 H.P. 

Cost $105,700,000 

Height of dam 155 feel 

Operating head 210 feet 

Length of main power 

house 800 feet 

Ultimate number of 

generators 16 

Maximum number of 

men employed 10,595 

Average monthly pay- 
roll $2,101,000 

Amount of excavation . . . 7,321,250 cu. yds. 

Volume of concrete 

masonry 1,408,082 cu. yds. 


Average amount of cem- 
ent required daily dur- 
ing height of construc- 
tion 31 carloads 

Total storage capacity of 
reservoirs, upper water 
shed 425 billion cu. ft. 

Shipshaw, Chute-à-Caron 
and Ile-M aligne hydro- 
electric stations 2,000,000 H.P. 


Beauharnois 705,000 H.P. 

Gatineau 238,000 H.P. 

Les Cèdres 206,400 H.P. 

St-Maurice 529,000 H.P. 

Rivière du Lièvre 256,000 H.P. 

Outaouais 160,000 H.P. 

Baie Comeau (North 

Shore) 77,000 H.P. 


(as to January 1st, 1944) 5,700,000 H.P. 

Total possible 
in La Pro- 
vince de Que- 
bec 17,000,000 H.P. 

Shipshaw is a bright page in 
this Province's war history. It's 
only one of our answers to 
Hitler. Significantly, Shipshaw 

January, 1944 

is located in the same region as the town- 
ship of Lidice, named by the Québec 
Government in order to perpetuate the 
name of the Czech village so ruthlessly 
destroyed by Hitler's troops. Both Ship- 
shaw and Lidice lie in the famous land of 
"Maria Chapdelaine," familiar to tourists 
as the country on which Louis Hémon 
based his novel of the same name. 

Shipshaw is a stirring landmark in 
Canada's industrial history. . a dramatic 
concept of the success of man's struggle 
to turn the forces of nature to his use. 
\ isitors to this Province after the war 
may well note the Shipshaw dam as a 
new wonder in Canada . a monument 
to industry that must be seen to be 

Now — Shipshaw joins the battle of pro- 
duction and lends its might to our share 
of the struggle for freedom. It's pledged 
to do an all-out war job. But when peace 
comes back again, the power that is 
Shipshaw will flow smoothly into pro- 
duction for that brighter, better, world of 


Tourist and Publicity Bureau 
Parliament Buildings, Quebec 


From Month to Month » 

J^teto Jiear'£ (greeting* 

another pear has paSSeb, a pear ttjat bas seen great 
accomplishments anb great sacrifices. We enter a 
net» pear toljict) totll bemanb eben more, but toe babe 
seen tbe turning of the ttbe, anb our faces reflect tfje 
bision of tije final bictorp. 

Che acbiebements of the institute buring the past 
pear babe been substantial. We babe steabilp progresseb 
in the fielb of serbice to tbe poung engineer, anb to those 
baliant members tobo foliota tbeir gallant leabers in tbe 
tbeatres of toar. We babe expanbeb the spirit of mutual 
co-operation anb goobtotll totoarbs our sister societies 
both at borne anb abroab. ilt babe bone much to meet 
anb solbe tbe problems of tbe postwar pears. Cbere ba* 
been no relaxation in tbe contributions of tbe institute 
or of tbe inbibibual member to tbe toinning of tbe toar. 
Me must continue to make ttjat our main object anb be 
unceasing in our efforts. 

Snspireb bp the accomplisbments of tbe past, toe greet 
tbe Jfreto gear toitb its ijeabp obligations, betermineb to 
acbiebe greater heights from tobicb to see more clearlp the 
challenging obligations anb possibilities of tbe future. 



This issue of the Journal inaugurates the format 
which has become inevitable as a result of the restric- 
tions on the use of print paper enacted by the Wartime 
Prices and Trade Board. Like newspapers and most 
other periodicals The Engineering Journal is now on a 
paper quota based on the 1942 consumption. 

The regulations have actually been in effect since 
early in 1943. However, by resorting to drastic cuts in 
the circulation list, and the use of lighter paper stock 
it was possible to avoid changing the format of the 
Journal in the middle of Volume XXVI. 

This first number in Volume XXVII and subsequent 
issues will be trimmed to the new size which has become 
more or less standardized for publications of similar 
nature: %Y% x 1134 in- The previous format was 8^ x 
11M in. 

In order to maintain the space allocated to papers 
of lasting interest, and thus retain the full value of the 
Journal as a record of Canadian engineering accom- 
plishments, it has been necessary to condense and re- 
arrange the matter in other sections. For the benefit 
of those readers who retain only the sheets containing 
articles that have particular application in their field 
of work, it was the editorial practice in the past to 
avoid breaking the continuity of technical papers. 
Under present restrictions it is not possible to continue 
this policy. It has been thought desirable to omit the 
Abstracts section at certain times when there is an 
abundance of technical material awaiting publication. 
Reports of meetings under the heading News of the 
Branches will be condensed. Summaries of papers pre- 
sented at such meetings that are scheduled for publi- 
cation will be omitted. 

These changes in editorial policy have been adopted 
by the Publication Committee. They were designed to 
meet the present situation without impairing the 
Journal's usefulness to members. The paper restrictions 

News of the Institute and other 
Societies, Comments and Correspon- 
dence, Elections and Transfers 

come at a time when there is much valuable material 
available both as a result of wartime developments and 
increased activities within the Institute. In spite of 
circumstances, an endeavour will be made to maintain 
the full value of the Journal. Comments and suggestions 
will be appreciated. 


Herewith are reproduced two letters dealing with the 
salaries of the engineers working for the Federal 
Government. They are self explanatory. 

December 11, 1943. 
The Hon. Norman H. McLarty, K.C., 
Secretary of State, 
House of Commons, Ottawa. 
Dear Mr. McLarty, 

Herewith is a copy of a brief which a special com- 
mittee of The Engineering Institute of Canada pre- 
sented to the Coon Committee on behalf of the 
engineers in the Civil Service. Enclosed also is copy 
of a letter which this committee delivered to Mr. 
Ilsley on September 17th. 

I have been asked by the committee to submit this 
evidence to you so that it may be easily available to 
you for the deliberations of your committee when 
dealing with this same subject of the remuneration of 
civil servants. 

A glance at the chart gives ample evidence of the 
inadequacy of the salaries paid engineers. We believe 
this group is one of the most deserving of increases in 
the entire Civil Service and we sincerely hope that the 
support of your committee may be added to that 
already given to the proposal. 

Yours sincerely, 
(Signed) N. B. MacRostie, Chairman. 
Committee on the Engineer in the Civil Service 
The Engineering Institute of Canada. 

Dear Mr. MacRostie, December 13, 1943. 

I have your letter of the 11th instant enclosing copy 
of brief presented to the Coon Committee on behalf of 
the engineers in the Civil Service, together with a copy 
of a letter written to the Honourable Mr. Ilsley. 

This whole matter is, as you know, under con- 
sideration. While I cannot promise that any results will 
accrue along the lines you suggested, I know that your 
representations will receive consideration. You are, of 
course, aware of the general policy of the Government 
in regard to both salaries and wages, and it is pretty 
difficult to make fish of one and flesh of another in a 
matter of this kind. 

Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) Norman McLarty. 

Readers will note Mr. McLarty's comment about 
the difficulties of "making fish of one and flesh of 
another." From the civil servants' point of view this is 
an interesting quotation. For years they have been 
"made fish of" and it would seem to be a reasonable 
expectation that sometime soon they should be "made 
flesh of." 



The legislation establishing wage ceilings made pro- 
vision for adjustment for those groups that were 
caught by the freezing order at abnormally low levels. 
Surely senior engineers getting salaries as low as those 
paid by the civil service come within this provision, 
and an adjustment of their scale would not be breaking 
the ceiling. 

The only argument ever given the Institute com- 
mittee has been the one about breaking the ceiling, 
and no answer has ever been received to the claim that 
the legislation provides for such cases. There have been 
so many flagrant cases of abandoning the ceiling when 
organized and demonstrative labour groups have been 
involved that it seems ludicrous to tell this small non- 
striking professional group that they have to hold the 
fort for stabilization. 

Nobody has denied that their wages are inadequate 
or that they are not a fair return for services rendered. 
In fact all these things have been admitted, but the 
old scale is adhered to, under the cloak of maintaining 
the ceiling. It seems too bad that an injustice which 
has existed almost since time immemorial should be 
continued with no more explanations than that "It is 
pretty difficult to make fish of one and flesh of another." 
That is exactly what has been going on for years. 

In the United States there is a definite move towards 
unionizing engineers and technicians. No one wants to 
see this in Canada, but employers who take advantage 
of special conditions to hold groups at no more than 
mere sustenance levels are "asking for it." If the law 
of the country attempts to perpetuate an injustice, the 
law of nature will take its course. Such things cannot 
go on forever. 


Canadians have learned with keen regret of General 
McNaughton's ill health. Engineers in particular will 
feel they share with him the disappointment that must 
be his. They have been proud of his leadership because 
his work was so well done and because he was an engi- 
neer. He is a credit to the profession. 

Those who were fortunate enough to see and hear 
General McNaughton at the annual meeting of the 
Institute, in 1942, in Montreal, will recall the thrill 
that his presence and his words imparted to the audi- 
ence. They may recall also that his appearance gave 
indications of fatigue and possible disturbances to his 
health. The earnest wish of everyone that he might be 
restored quickly to health appears to have been in 
vain. It is evident that he would not spare himself 
from his great task and now he pays the price for his 
zeal and his loyalty. 

For Canadians at home the news is not so bad. The 
Army's loss will be their gain, for the need of great 
men in Canada now is very pressing. His intelligence, 
his integrity and his industry should do great things 
for his homeland. He will be welcomed warmly as a 
great soldier, and outstanding scientist and a fine 

Upon receiving the news of General McNaughton's 
retirement the president of the Institute cabled the 
following message in which all members of the Institute 
will wish to join: 

Engineers throughout Canada learned with pro- 
found regret that your health necessitates relinquish- 
ing your command. They are encouraged to believe 
you will completely recover and not only will see 
the accomplishment of your great objectives but will 
take the leading place in Canada's future for which 
your outstanding talents so adequately qualify you. 


The Journal has been informed that word has been 
sent out to all Canadian universities having faculties 
of pure or applied science, giving instructions as to the 
requirements of the armed services for technical gradu- 
ates and the methods by which selections will 
be made. 

The procedure is that travelling boards representing 
the three services and the Wartime Bureau of Technical 
Personnel will travel together across Canada, visiting all 
universities and interviewing all candidates. The boards 
will be made up of representatives for the Navy, the 
Air Force and the Army respectively, and represent- 
atives of the War Time Bureau of Technical Personnel 
will also be present. All universities will have been 
visited by the end of February, so that all students 
will know by that time whether, after graduation, they 
will be in the services — and which service, or in 
civilian occupation. 

It is arranged that medical examinations will be com- 
pleted before the arrival of the boards, so that clear 
and final decisions can be made without delay, and 
what is more, these examinations will be accepted by 
all services as a basis for preliminary selection. 

In the event that a student desires to change the 
service preference which he indicated in his declaration 
form, arrangements may be made with the representa- 
tives of the Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel 
when they arrive at the university. Such changes cannot 
be considered before that time. 

In addition to the number of 1944 graduates required, 
there will be opportunities for members of the 1945 
class to arrange for summer training, but for Army and 
Navy only. These selections will also be made by the 
travelling boards. 

These arrangements are so simple and apparently so 
complete that one may well wonder why they were not 
evolved long ago. By such a procedure the student may 
have this all-important matter thorough^ settled before 
he has to undertake the grind of preparation and writing 
final examinations. No doubt all results will be improved 
greatly thereby. 

It is encouraging to see these signs of co-operation 
between the services. 


University students always find something about 
which to grumble, but never has there been so wide- 
spread and so common complaint as that about the 
Canadian Officers Training Corps. A visit with the 
students in any university reveals that this is the first 
thing they are ready to talk about. 

The Institute's interest in this lies principally in the 
fact that engineering students from practically every 
university have brought their questions and complaints 
to its attention and have asked for assistance in exposing 
conditions which they claim are unfair, unreasonable, 
and wasteful of time and energy. The almost unanimous 
agreement among students of all universities indicates 
a state of affairs which requires thoughtful consideration 
by the proper officials. The opinion of members of the 
staffs seems to support the complaints of the students. 

The complaints are these : 

(a) The work is very elementary, and the same 
programme is followed every year for four years. The 
student in his senior year invariably feels that six hours 
a week have been totally wasted. He has learned 



nothing that would be of value in the event of an 
invasion, or that is of use to him if subsequent to 
graduation he joins the Army. This repetitive work, of 
high school cadet grade, bores the student of university 
calibre. Many claim that their performance is worse at 
the end of four years than it was when they started. 

(b) No credit is given for all this drill when the 
student enlists in the Army. On the other hand, the 
Navy and Air Force allow their candidates reasonable 
credit for the work they do in the University Naval 
Division and University Air Training Corps. What is 
even more, since their programmes are much farther 
advanced than that of the Army, the boys maintain an 
interest in them and actually get some benefit from 
them. If the training of the C.O.T.C. is not worth 
anything to the Army, it is a mild statement to say 
there would seem to be something wrong with it. 

(c) The time taken by drill could be used to 
better advantage in studies. Every engineer knows that 
an engineering course is not easy. Most students require 
all the time they can get to master it. Six hours a week 
is over 15 per cent of a work- week, and in four years 
amounts to almost a hundred work-days. That is a 
lot of time to spend at learning how to shoulder arms. 

(d) The regulations are not interpreted uniformly. 
Some universities have practically eliminated all 
C.O.T.C. work in the senior year. Others have been 
allowed to reduce the time requirement and others are 
still doing six hours. It is possible that the responsi- 
bilities for these variations lie with the universities 
themselves and not with National Defence, but the 
fact remains that the irregularities exist, to the dis- 
satisfaction of hundreds of students. 

At this late date it is not likely that the whole system 
can be changed for this term, but surely something 
can be done for the future. Unless the Journal has 
been badly informed, a lot of injury is being done to 
the morale of this group of useful citizens. Surely it 
is not necessary. 


The following is quoted from the annual report of 
McGill University over the signature of the principal, 
Dr. F. Cyril James. 

Although there is no student feeling against the 
idea of military training (which in fact evoked an 
enthusiastic response from the student body during 
the early year of the war) it must be confessed that 
there is a growing resentment against the monotony 
of the present syllabus and against the attitude of 
the Army authorities towards the whole scheme. The 
syllabus now in effect is not sufficiently progressive, 
especially when it is remembered that the university 
undergraduates are, on the average, more intelligent 
than other groups of young men; and the fact that 
the Department of National Defence does not give 
any credit for this military training when the student 
actually enters the Army has tended to create the 
impression that it is a waste of time. If, on his en- 
listment, a student who has had three or four years 
of training is placed in the same category as other 
recruits who have had no military training whatever, 
it is hard for him to think that military training at 
universities serves any useful purpose. . . . 

All of these influences upon student morale and 
esprit de corps must, of course, be appraised against 
the background of the atmosphere that war has 
created in Canada. Students share the general anxiety 

during periods when the outlook is dark, and partici- 
pate in the spiritual exhilaration that follows on the 
heels of victory. Many of them come from homes 
where one or more members of the family are on 
active service, and all of them are troubled from 
time to time regarding the usefulness to Canada of 
the work that they are doing. 


A short time ago an agreement was reached between 
the governing bodies of The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers and The Engineering Institute 
of Canada whereby the two organizations would en- 
deavour to develop further co-operative activities which 
would react to the benefit of the profession and the 

The principal features of the agreement are the decla- 
ration of a desire for closer co-operation, and the ap- 
pointment of a joint committee to work out a pro- 
gramme. The Institute's representatives on this com- 
mittee are J. B. Challies, past-president of the Institute 
and chairman of the Institute's Committee on Profes- 
sional Interests, John E. Armstrong, councillor and 
member of the Committee on Professional Interests, 
and John G. Hall, of Toronto, chairman of the Member- 
ship Committee. The A.S.M.E. representatives are 
James W. Parker, Vice-President, Detroit Edison Com- 
pany, past-president of the A.S.M.E., A. G. Christie, 
professor of mechanical engineering, Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, past-president A.S.M.E., and 
Albert E. White, director of engineering research, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 

This is the first document of this type drawn up 
with an American sister society. A somewhat similar 
agreement was made some time ago with the Royal 
Aeronautical Society. Such undertakings are a sign of 
wholesome progress, and it is to be hoped that these 
are but a beginning. The usefulness of all technical 
organizations can be enhanced by a reasonable inte- 
gration of programmes and policies. 

Relationships with American societies have always 
been close and cordial, and their helpful friendliness 
has been greatly appreciated by the Institute. This new 
agreement is the culmination of years of close associa- 
tion and co-operation, and marks the completion of 
conversations that were started years ago. It is hoped 
and believed that it also marks the beginning of a new 
era of sustained international goodwill and mutual aid 
that will be of great benefit to the profession of engi- 
neering. It is a non-commercial "lend-lease" agreement 
that deals largely with intangibles of great worth. 

The agreement is printed on the next page. 


Monthly Bulletin 

Enquiries are beginning to reach the Bureau covering 
needs for technical personnel to engage in the planning 
of various post-war projects. Typical examples are the 
requirements of the Dominion-Provincial War Emer- 
gency Training Programme for supervisors of rehabili- 
tation training and of a civic transportation system 
for rapid transit planning. The number of men so far 
involved is very small, and these posts can be filled by 
men of more mature years without drawing on essential 
production activities which can more readily absorb 
men who are younger and more adaptable to varied 
fields of engineering. 






A Report with Recommendations to the Councils of the Two Societies by a Joint Conference of 
Representatives of Both Sides (subsequently adopted by the two Councils) 

I. Introduction 

Accredited representatives of The Engineering Insti- 
tute of Canada and The American Society of Mechani- 
cal Engineers met in New York on August 23, 1943, to 
consider steps to be taken to develop the cordial rela- 
tionships for over thirty years between the two societies 
into a programme of active cooperation. This unani- 
mous report, which resulted from the conference is pre- 
sented to the two councils with the request that its 
recommendations be adopted as a first step in the de- 
velopment of a tradition for working together that may 
have far-reaching influence in enhancing the effective- 
ness of the professions in both nations. 

II. Premises 

The Engineering Institute of Canada is the only all- 
embracing, purely engineering national society of Can- 
ada, and has a cooperative interchange of memberships 
and other privileges with four of the eight provincial 
associations (the licensing bodies) of Canada. It has 
about 200 members in the United States. 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, de- 
voting itself to the mechanical specialty of engineering, 
has about 285 members in Canada, a Local Section, 
styled the Ontario Section, with headquarters atToronto 
and three Student Branches — at the University of 
Toronto, Queen's University and the University 
of British Columbia. 

The relations between the two bodies cover a wide 
field. A joint meeting is to be held in Toronto September 
30 through October 2, 1943. This is the first joint affair 
in the history of the two bodies — a previous venture, 
the 1939 British American Engineering Congress having 
been abandoned because of the war. A.S.M.E. Sections 
and E.I.C. Branches have held joint meetings in Tor- 
onto and at border points. A.S.M.E. has elected two 
residents of Canada to its Council and has conferred 
honorary memberships on three distinguished engineers 
of Canada. A fourth honorary membership is to be 
conferred at Toronto on October 1, 1943. Both secre- 
taries are members of both bodies. Members of E.I.C. 
are privileged to purchase A.S.M.E. publications at 
Member's rates. E.I.C. is a member body of the Engi- 
neers' Council for Professional Development which 
brings its representatives into frequent friendly contact 
with the A.S.M.E. representatives. From time to time 
Canadian engineers have participated in the meetings 
and technical committee work of A.S.M.E. and engi- 
neers from the United States have appeared before 

During the war, intimate cooperation has prevailed 
in research between engineers and scientists in Canada 
and the United States. The technical advances brought 
about by the war and the possibilities of engineering- 
development after the war provide a fertile field for 
active cooperation between the two socieites. 

The cordial working relations between the two socie- 
ties and the engineers of the two nations points to the 
desirability of an active programme of cooperation, 
keeping in mind that first each society has much to 

give and gain by cooperation which must be to the 
mutual interest of both, and second the engineer's first 
loyalty must be to his own national body. 

III. Recommendations 

The recommendations of the Joint Conference are in 
two parts — first those on which immediate action seems 
wise, and second the establishment of a continuing 
agency for implementing further cooperation with a 
list of items this agency may find it expedient to con- 

a. immediate action 

The Joint Conference recommends that the councils 
of The Engineering Institute of Canada and The 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers take the 
following parallel actions, the actions to be finalized 
only' where both bodies concur and publicity to be 
withheld until both concur. 

1. Meetings. Recognizing the importance of the 
interchange of experience, each society authorize 
the appointment of representatives to confer at 
least annually about possible opportunities for use- 
ful joint meetings and the invitation of members 
of each society to meetings of the other. 

2. Local Organizations, (a) Each society adopt 
the policy of instituting a local organization of mem- 
bers in the country of the other after conference 
with the proper body of that country and after 
painstaking study of alternative cooperative means 
of providing the service that would normally be 
given by such a local organization. 

(b) Each society express the preference that the 
officers of a local organization be citizens of the 
country and members of a national engineering 
society of the country in which the local organiza- 
tion is located. 

(c) Each society encourage joint meetings be- 
tween contiguous A.S.M.E. Sections and E.I.C. 
Branches and the formalization of continuing co- 
operative contacts between them. 

3. Student Organizations. Each society adopt the 
policy of establishing a student organization in the 
country of the other after conference with the 
proper body of that country and after painstaking 
study of alternative cooperative means of providing 
the service that would normally be given by such 
a student organization. 

4. Secretaries' Memberships. As a public recog- 
nition of the desirability of continued intimate and 
cordial relations between the secretarial staffs of 
the two bodies, each society elect the secretary of 
the other to membership without dues provided he 
meets the necessary membership qualifications. 

b. continuing cooperation 

Each society appoint three representatives, one if 
possible from the current membership of each council, 
to a continuing Joint Conference which shall select its 



chairman and secretary and shall meet at least annually 
to review present cooperation, to seek means for further 
cooperation and specifically to study and report on the 
following items. 

1. Develop a comprehensive plan whereby stu- 
dents in mechanical engineering at all Canadian 
universities may participate in A.S.M.E. student 
activities through membership in the student or- 
ganization of E.I.C. 

2. Consider the possibilities of a plan for the 
interchange of membership privileges with a com- 
bined rate of dues. 

3. Explore the plans and programmes of the 
technical and programme making activities of each 
society to determine (a) whether they may be 
broadened to be of greater value to members of 
the other society; (b) whether some form of mem- 
ber participation of one society in the activity of 
the other may be useful to either or both and, 
(c) whether new joint research or other technical 
projects may be developed to be of mutual value 
to mechanical engineers of Canada and the United 

IV. Closure 

The participants in the Joint Conference report their 
deep satisfaction in the splendid spirit of their discus- 

sions which they know will be continued in the perma- 
nent Joint Conference and will develop into a continuing 
programme and tradition of great mutual value. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Representatives of 

The Engineering Institute of Canada : 
(Signed) J. B. Challies 
O. O. Lefebvre 
" L. Austin Wright 
Representatives of 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers : 
(Signed) A. G. Christie 

James W. Parker 
C. B. Peck 
C. E. Davies 
Witnesses (Signed) John E. Armstrong 
K. M. Cameron 
R. M. Gates 
deGaspe Beaubien 
Harold V. Coes 
Ernest Hartford 
September 30, 1943. 

This report was adopted by the council of The Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers on October 2nd, 
1943, and by the council of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada on October 23rd, 1943. 


The Danger of Engineers 

The Editor, 

The Engineering Journal, 

Dear Sir: 

I read with interest the address by Mr. Flanders 
entitled "The Engineer as Planner", which was printed 
in the November issue of the Journal. It seems that 
the minds of our members are fraught with indecision 
these days. "To be or not to be" an economic planner is 
the question. 

Mr. Flanders' repeated use of the word "danger" 
recalled dimly to my mind an article which I read 
many, many years ago, and of which, as nearly as I 
could remember, I had kept a copy. A thorough search 
through old boxes and trunks in my storeroom finally 
unearthed it. 

The article appeared in the September issue of Living 
Age in 1933 and is entitled "The Danger of Engineers". 
As far as I can recall now, it was anonymous. If you 
should decide that this article is appropriate to the 
occasion, and cause it to be reprinted, I should not be 
displeased. Yours very truly, 

W. L. Foss, M. E.I.C. 

Calgary, Nov. 21+th, 1948. 

The article follows : 

The success of the Economic Conference is seriously 
threatened by the World Power Conference which 
opened at Copenhagen last week. It is dangerous be- 
cause it consists largely of engineers. By the very nature 
of their calling, engineers tend to pursue aims that are 
diametrically opposed to the aims of the Economic 

Conference, and, (therefore), the true interests of 
society. Their natural aim -is the increase and distri- 
bution of wealth. 

Engineers seldom have a social conscience. Their out- 
look on life is entirely materialistic. They aim at in- 
creasing the fruits of man's labour, and diminishing 
the labour, but they never pause to inquire whether it 
is in the best interests of mankind that wealth should 
be distributed or labour diminished. A moment's refer- 
ence to any speech by any statesman, banker or econo- 
mist will show that it is not. 

The good men that represent us at the Economic 
Conference have far higher motives than distributing 
wealth and making wheels go round. They are concerned 
solely with currency and credit; with currency in order 
to decide by what particular means it shall remain 
short of requirements; with credit to ensure that it 
shall be kept unrelated to the community's wealth, and 
out of the hands of the community. Their purpose is 
an entirely moral one: to maintain their people in vir- 
tuous poverty in spite of the efforts of engineers and 
other wealth creators. 

This lofty purpose is threatened by the Power Con- 
ference. I read that the chief British contribution to 
the discussions will be: "A Summary of the Industrial 
Power Supply in Great Britain". That is ominous. It 
means that while the Economic Conference will be de- 
ciding how poor we shall pretend to be, the Power Con- 
ference will be deciding how rich we really are. 

Apart from moral issues these technicians have a 
sort of argument. They will say that economic science 
has not kept pace with the advance of technical science. 
And it is true that while mechanical power has been 
revolutionized since the war, all the financial and other 



devices by which our great statesmen propose to revive 
prosperity date from before the war. But the danger 
is that, having discovered how much they could do, 
the engineers will start asking what it is that is stopping 
them from doing it. 


Already there is evidence of danger. I recently at- 
tended a meeting of engineers in London, where they 
discussed the preparation of a report to show to what 
extent present resources could raise the standard of 
living. Several said: "If we do that, people will ask: 
'Where will the money come from ?' And therefore we 
had better investigate the money system first." 

Now, if the engineers do investigate the money 
system, they will do so with the same purely practical 
attitude, the same utter disregard for moral issues, with 
which they investigate a short circuit or a missing cyl- 
inder. And if they find that it is the money system 
which is holding up their industrial machine, they will 
regard the financier just as they regard a bit of grit 
in a feed pipe. So far from regarding British grit and 
enterprise as twin virtues, they will say that the grit 
is spoiling the enterprise. 

We have so far succeeded in persuading people that 
the origin of money is mysterious. That although money 
makes the wheels of industry go round, yet in some 
mysterious way it is only the turning of those wheels 
that brings money into existence. Now such an idea 
can be accepted by almost any kind of man but an 
engineer. You could not convince an engineer that a 
machine generates its own power unless it actually did ; 
and if it did, you could not persuade him that the 
power cannot be analyzed and controlled. 

For example, if a motor stops for lack of gas and the 
driver demands more gas, the correct reply, from the 
standpoint of sound economics, is: "It is only the run- 
ning of the engine that creates the gas, therefore you 
cannot have any more gas until the engine starts again." 
And the correct thing for the driver to do, if he is a 
loyal citizen, is to sit down on his running board for 
the next few years and wait for the tide to turn. But 
if you talked like that to an engineer he would not even 
bother to argue. He would just push his way to the 
gas pump and help himself. 

It is, therefore, inevitable that as soon as these engi- 
neers discover that their industrial power is held up 
for lack of the motive power, money, they will find out 
what money is and where it comes from. They will 
apply the same purely practical test to it that they do 
to any other kind of fuel. They will find that money 
is much easier to create than are most of the things it 
buys. And, just as they cannot see any reason for with- 
holding fuel from a machine when the fuel is easy to 
get, so they will say they can't see why the industrial 
machine should be kept short of money when money 
is so easy to make. It will be no use talking to them 
about a gold or any other metal standard. They will 
say that the only test of a metal is whether it improves 
the machine, and that the only standard they recognize 
is efficiency. 

I don't say for certain that the engineers will say all 
this. I say they might. If they do, we shall be faced 
with a far more dangerous alignment of class antago- 
nisms than the old one of workers versus capitalist em- 
ployers. We shall be faced with a revolt of bourgeois 
technicians. This is far worse. Instead of being the 
natural defence of the financiers against the people, 
they will have the moneyless people behind them. You 
can always talk the people out of demanding money, 

but you can't talk a technician out of being technical. 
And their revolt will be all the more dangerous because 
they won't think it is a revolt, but only common 

Therefore, I say the Power Conference must be 
stopped. The police must break it up as they do un- 
employed processions or gunpowder plots or any other 
attempts to undermine the basis of the social system. 
For if the engineers start inquiring into the working 
of the money system they will do far more damage to 
the Treasury than Guy Fawkes would have done with 
his ineffectual fireworks. 

Community Planning 

The Editor, 

The Engineering Journal. 

Dear Sir: 

I desire to endorse the opinions expressed in the 
letter from Mr. J. Murchison, m.e.i.c, upon the article 
on "Housing and Community Planning" appearing in 
the Journal in September. 

Some years before the outbreak of the present war, 
Principal C. Grant Robertson of Birmingham Univer- 
sity (Eng.) in an address to the Congress of the Institute 
of Transport made this prophetic statement: 

"The development of transport to-day is throwing 
our existing society into the crucible; and transport, it 
is my conviction, stands on the threshold of immense 
and revolutionary developments. 

"No one would be so rash as to predict what in the 
next five and twenty years or in what precise directions 
physical science may accomplish in the perfecting of 
existing methods or the discovery of wholly new ones. 
Simultaneously a new social structure is in the making. 
But unless concurrently we develop a new administra- 
tive science, and also provide the social and political 
conditions of an ordered security, the chemist, the 
physicist, the metallurgist, the mathematician and the 
engineer will work in vain. 

"And of all hard tasks in a world of conflict and 
carnal appetites, good government is the hardest. The 
really original administrators are even rarer than the 
great discoverers; and in a self-governing people, such 
as ours, the capacity to administer and to create and 
train the administrative mind and to appreciate the 
qualities required for working a system of self-govern- 
ment in a dynamic society are not easily grasped. 

"A single genius working in the isolation of a labora- 
tory can create a revolution in science ; but the remaking 
of the social structure and the ideas and habits of forty 
millions of self-governing men and women is a gigantic 
job, compared with which even a revolutionary achieve- 
ment in science is easy." 

For any interested may I say that the charter of the 
Town Planning Institute of Canada has been maintained, 
and re-organization and a new start is possible pro- 
vided sufficient funds for organization and the necessary 
services can be secured. For further information address 
Mr. J. M. Kitchen, 18 Granville Avenue, Ottawa. 

Yours truly, 

A. G. Dalzell, m.e.i.c, 
Department of City Planning and Surveying, 

City of Toronto. 

Toronto, December 7th, 1943. 




Navy's Model Testing Basin 

The managing director of Australia's leading ship- 
building and ship repair concern has been visiting the 
United States recently and it was arranged for him to 
inspect shipyards and to meet leading shipbuilding 
authorities in Washington including the heads of both 
the Maritime Commission and Navy's Bureau of Ships. 
He was also particularly interested in visiting the new 
Model Testing Basin which the Navy is operating in 
Maryland, not far from Washington. It was my privilege 
to accompany him on some of his visits and, from an 
engineering points of view, the trip to the Testing Basin 
was of outstanding interest. We were taken in hand 
and shown over this quite extensive institution by 
Admiral Howard who is in charge. Much of the work 
which is being done is, of course, of a secret nature but 
Admiral Howard gave us reprints of an article which 
recently appeared in Harper's describing the work and 
set up. It will therefore be possible for me to repeat 
one or two interesting facts about the Basin as they 
appeared in that article. Primarily, the work consists in 
running tests on scale models, about 20 ft. long, to de- 
termine the frictional and residual resistance character- 
istics of hull shapes and to establish accurately the re- 
quired power inputs for varying speeds. The Basin has 
also done a great deal of work on such matters as vibra- 
tion, cavitation, manoeuvrability and so on. Scale 
models of slip-ways and of difficult launching localities 
are reproduced and models are launched and the neces- 
sary data and information for the final operation is 
obtained. Experimental work is also being done in un- 
der-water explosives and in the important field of under- 
water detection. It was also very interesting to see some 
of the big gun mock-ups on movable cradles simulating 
the movement of a ship where tests are run to improve 
firing and ammunition handling techniques. 

Quite as interesting as the work being done was the 
building itself — particularly the building housing the 
several testing basins, two of which are about 1,000 ft. 
long. This building is said to be the only one which 
conforms to the curvature of the earth. The tracks 
which carry the towing carriages took over a year to 
lay and were levelled with almost microscopic accuracy, 
taking into account the earth's curvature in the over-all 
length. The towing bridges themselves are also amazing 
pieces of equipment with interlocking power controls so 
that a model may actually run under its own power and 
yet have the bridge itself supply enough extra power 
to correct for the fact that it is a scale model and in 
order that direct readings of the required results may 
be taken. Another fascinating demonstration was the 
stroboscopic studies being made in respect to propeller 
cavitation. The whole institution is run with the thor- 
oughness, attention to detail, and shipshapeness which 
is usual in the Navy. 

Post-war Plans Are Well Advanced 
As reported in the previous letter, the tempo of the 
work on the conversion problem is increasing through- 
out the United States. The main problem to be tackled 
first, of course, is the problem of an equitable over-all 
control in war contract cut-backs or cancellations. On 
the planning side, there is considerable evidence that 
this country is moving from the general planning stage 
to the preparation of specific plans. Most of the large 
corporations have preliminary surveys of probable 
future markets and probable future trends well 
under way. In particular, the railroads have been 
doing a considerable amount of work and there 
already have appeared several useful publications 

in this field. The Maritime Commission has in 
hand extensive post-war plans for the shipbuilding in- 
dustry and for the U.S. Merchant Marine. The steel 
industry has worked out an interesting basis upon which 
their fact finding research and reporting should be done, 
and the various large corporations are co-ordinating 
their activities along similar lines. In a large measure, 
the information collected by the various war agencies 
will be extremely useful in planning the conversion. 
This is particularly true in the case of the steel industry 
because steel was one of the four materials under the 
Controlled Materials Plan. In the building industry, a 
number of surveys are going forward, an example of 
which is the one prepared by the Building Materials 
and Equipment Association, forecasting a probable nine 
billion dollars worth of building which could be under- 
taken in the first year after the war. 

In respect to the contribution which American muni- 
cipalities will make in terms of public works projects, 
New York City is in the forefront, with Mayor La 
Guardia and Park Commissioner Robert Moses supply- 
ing the driving force. Moses is reputed to have a shelf 
of projects — right down to the last blueprints and speci- 
fications — for the City to undertake at a moment's 
notice. The total programme is said to aggregate over 
one billion dollars and is calculated to keep one-quarter 
of a million men busy for 18 months. Moses has also 
been instrumental in drawing up similar plans for other 
American cities and has recently completed a report for 
the City of Portland. At the time of writing this I have 
tentative appointments to see both Mr. Paul Hoffman 
of the Committee for Economic Development and Mr. 
Stuart Chase of the Twentieth Century Fund, both of 
whom are in Washington for a day or so for the purpose 
of addressing the United Nations Forum on the subject 
of "Toward an Expanding Economy". Canadian engi- 
neers will be interested to note that this forum is being 
chaired by Mr. William L. Batt, vice-chairman, War 
Production Board, who is to be one of the speakers at 
the coming Annual Meeting of the Institute. 

Two issues, worldwide in their implications, are being 
given wide study these days and both are of particular 
interest to engineers. The first is the whole question of 
the petroleum position — availability, strategic supply, 
reserve stocks, the tanker situation and the short haul 
problem, the advisability of continuing to use petroleum 
as a base for synthetic rubber, and the possibilities of 
developing alternate liquid fuels. The second issue is 
that of global aviation which was touched upon several 
letters ago. Several of us had lunch at the Capitol re- 
cently with two of the five senators who toured the 
world. These two problems were much on their minds. 
One of the senators enlarged upon an informative article 
on these topics in a recent Colliers in which he had set 
forth his views. 

The 40th anniversary of the world's first successful 
air flight was commemorated the other day in Wash- 
ington by a series of events which culminated in a 
testimonial dinner to Mr. Orville Wright. One of the 
interesting outcomes of the meetings was the announce- 
ment that a recent report by the Smithsonian Institute 
would probably pave the way for the return of Orville 
and Wilbut Wright's plane from the British Museum 
to the United States. It will be remembered that the 
ancient draft was sent by Mr. Wright to England as 
a result of a controversy which is now some fifteen 

y ears old - E. R. Jacobsen, m.e.i.c. 





Consulting Engineer, Montreal, Que. 

Dr. Arthur Surveyer represents The Engineering 
Institute on the executive of the Canadian Chamber of 
Commerce, and while acting in this capacity at the re- 
cent annual meeting of the Chamber, participated in 
the discussion on taxation of private enterprise. 

His short paper has been very widely quoted by 
national Canadian publications, and the Journal feels 
that the material should be made available to the mem- 
bers of the Institute. Accordingly, it is reprinted here- 
with. — Ed. 

The most important problem which we have to face 
is how to secure the revival of private initiative and of 
private enterprise. Unless this problem is solved, we 
will not be able to achieve social security* we will have 
unemployment and we will move faster and faster to- 
wards state capitalism; a condition which will eventu- 
ally bring about a decrease in the production of goods 
and of wealth together with a general lowering of the 
standard of living. 

To bring about a revival of private initiative, it will 
be necessary to encourage the launching of new enter- 
prises by risk capital, and to prevent existing com- 
panies from going into bankruptcy. Our present form 
of individual and corporate taxation has the opposite 
effects : 

(a) It tends to prevent the organization of new com- 
panies ; 

(b) It encourages unsound financing; and 

(c) It prevents companies from building up the re- 
serves necessary to protect them against bank- 

The launching of new companies is made practically 
impossible on account of the high corporation taxes 
and of the high income tax of the people who used to 
finance new companies. If you assume earnings of the 
new company equal to 10 per cent of the capital in- 
vested, this is immediately decreased to 6 per cent on 
the payment of the minimum corporation taxes. The 
individuals who, in the past, supplied the capital for 
new ventures have incomes of $10,000 a year or more. 
This means that any increase in their income would 
now be taxed to the tune of 62 to 92 per cent, leaving 
a net return to the investor of from 2 }4 to Yi of 1 per 
cent on his money. Obviously, no man is going to make 
a risky investment in the hope of such a small return. 
He will undoubtedly prefer to keep his money in the 
bank. My contention is that corporation taxes should 
eventually be considerably reduced, if not completely 
superseded by individual taxes, and that, in the mean- 
time, new companies should be tax exempt for a period 
of three to five years in order to bring out venturesome 

The present form of taxation encourages unsound 
financing because fixed charges are considered as ex- 
penses and deductible before income tax calculation. 
This provision should also apply to a fixed minimum 
return on the share capital in order to encourage the 
financing of companies with stock instead of with bonds, 
since the existence of a large bond issue endangers the 
company during bad years. 

Our present rate of taxes, and particularly the method 
adopted to calculate the excess profits tax, prevent the 
building up of the reserves necessary to enable corpora- 
tions to face the postwar difficulties with any degree of 
confidence. The refundable portion of the excess profits 
tax is not very large. Moreover, it is repayable at an 
indefinite time and in dollars which will have a much 

smaller value than the dollars which were originally 
paid to the government. 

Referring to the danger of wholesale bankruptcies 
after the war, a recent American financial service letter 
contained the following comments: 

"After World War I the liabilities in commercial 
failures of the two years 1921 and 1922 zoomed to nearly 
double any previous record. Among the failures were 
some of the big money-makers from war contracts. 
But old-time conservatives, too, were hard hit . . . 
Yet this was no more than a squall in comparison 
with the cyclone weather of fluctuating prices, intense 
but spotty activity and social-political disturbances 
to be expected after the present war." 

Some time ago, Professor Sumner H. Slichter, 
(Harvard), pointed out that looking back at the tax 
history of the United States since 1932, 

"One might almost suspect that the tax laws had 
been written by a Communist Fifth Columnist for 
the purpose of making private enterprise unworkable. 
The changes have been remarkably well designed to 
discourage innovation and experimentation and to 
reduce the attractiveness of risky ventures." 

The same criticism could well apply to the Canadian 
taxes; and it is a pity that we did not adopt the British 
taxation philosophy instead of the American New Deal 
Philosophy. In Canada, no matter how much money a 
company earns, it is limited to a net of 70 per cent of 
its standard year, notwithstanding the fact that these 
earnings may not be all liquid. The method used to 
calculate the standard year results in keeping the earn- 
ings of the standard year very low. In Canada the 
standard period is the average net earnings for 1936, 
1937, 1938 and 1939, whilst in Great Britain the cor- 
porations can choose whichever of the four standard 
years shows the highest earnings, viz., the year 1935 
or the year 1936 or the average of 1935-1937 or 1936- 
1937. It is evident that under Canadian regulations, a 
company's standard profits are bound to be lower than 
under the English law, thus increasing the excess profits 
and reducing the amount available for reserves. I think 
that the government should, as soon as possible, change 
the definition of our standard year to that of the English 
law in order to give Canadian corporations a chance to 
accumulate the reserves which will be required to meet 
the postwar difficulties. Another provision of the British 
excess profits tax which might well be adopted in Can- 
ada is that which allows a future tax credit for losses in 
any one year and even for deficiencies between the actual 
net earnings and the standard profits. 

I am convinced that unless private enterprise is al- 
lowed to take the major part in the reconstruction 
period we will have unemployment on a large scale 
and that the government will be compelled to take 
measures which eventually will lead to ever increasing 
statism, transformation in our ways of life, and a 
marked reduction in our standard of living. 

As Mr. James McGraw, president of McGraw Hill 
Publishing Company, pointed out, in a recent editorial, 
the onset of economic perils is not as obvious as a 
physical attack which unites all citizens in a tremendous 
effort against a common enemy: 

"No bombs", writes Mr. McGraw, "will signal the 
deterioration of private enterprise system, the exten- 
sion of regimentation, the further control of business 
by government, and the concentration of political 
power in less and less responsible hands. If these 
things should befall us, they will come insidiously 
while we are preoccupied with self interests and ori- 



ented by popular misconceptions. If the freedoms of 
the individual shrivel as the state grows in power, it 
will be because the individual is too indifferent or 
complacent to concern himself seriously with eco- 
nomic problems. If our people are misled by false 
prophets and demagogues, it will be because business- 
men did not understand economics, because 
scholars were too ignorant of practical affairs, and 
because we failed to produce economic statesman of 
sufficient stature for the task in hand." 


Minutes of a meeting of the Council of the Institute 
held at Headquarters on Saturday, December 18th, 
1943, at nine thirty a.m. 

Present: President K. M. Cameron in the chair; 
Past-President C. J. Mackenzie; Vice-Presidents L. F. 
Grant and C. K. McLeod; Councillors J. E. Armstrong, 
E. V. Gage, E. D. Gray-Donald, R. E. Heartz, J. A. 
Lalonde, G. M. Pitts and J. W. Ward; Presidential- 
Nominee deGaspé Beaubien; Secretary Emeritus R. J. 
Durley and General Secretar}^ L. Austin Wright. 

Recognition of Attainments of Engineers in the Armed 
Forces — Mr. McLeod reported that he and Mr. Pitts 
had found that sketches and dies could be made for a 
new medal, but they wanted more direction from 
Council. For instance, they wanted to know if this 
recognition had to be in the form of a medal or could 
it be a certificate or a plaque. Colonel Grant stated 
that since the last meeting of Council he had given 
consideration to the advisability of using something 
other than a medal. He thought that an engrossed 
certificate or a plaque might be more suitable. 

Past-President Mackenzie thought this matter should 
be given very careful consideration as there were many 
people in the Institute membership who had attained 
outstanding distinction in the services. 

Mr. Armstrong intimated that it might be better if 
the Institute's recognition were in the form of an 
expression of appreciation to the member for the 
honour which he had brought to the Institute and to 
the profession rather than an attempt to make the 
award an honour in itself. 

In the light of this discussion, the president asked 
the committee to consider the matter further and report 
at the next meeting of Council. 

Co-operation with A.I.E.E.: In response to a request 
from the president, Past-President Challies gave some 
of the history which led up to the meeting of the com- 
mittees representing the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers and The Engineering Institute of 
Canada on Friday, December 10th, 1943, in Montreal. 
He explained that the presidents of the two societies 
about a year ago had agreed to set up special com- 
mittees to discuss the possibilities of co-operation in 
Canada. The committee selected by President Cameron 
to represent the E.I.C. had been the Committee on 
Professional Interests. The A.I.E.E. committee was 
made up of W. J. Gilson, of Toronto, vice-president of 
District No. 10, as chairman, and Messrs. C. V. Christie 
and McNeely DuBose, of Montreal, M. J. McHenry, 
of Toronto, and T. Ingledow, of Vancouver. Of these 
only Messrs. Gilson, Christie and McHenry were able 
to attend the meeting. 

Mr. Challies stated that the meeting was congenial 
and the discussions were free, friendly and frank. He 
pointed out to the meeting that the Council of the 
Institute realized there was a general demand from 
members of the Institute in all the provinces for closer 
functioning of the Institute with other engineering 

societies, and in particular with the provincial associa- 
tions; that co-operative agreements had been com- 
pleted with four of the provincial professional associa- 
tions; a fifth was drawing to a conclusion, and a sixth 
was under preliminary discussion, leaving only the 
provinces of Ontario and British Columbia in abeyance. 

He drew the attention of the meeting to the fact 
that the Council of the Institute was proposing a 
by-law change whereby associations which had agree- 
ments with the Institute would have the right to name 
a representative on the Council of the Institute, and 
also that a new by-law was being submitted whereby 
any voluntary engineering society which had an agree- 
ment with the Institute could have the right to place 
a representative on the Council of the Institute. He 
expressed the opinion that this procedure would result 
in the Council of the Institute becoming so representa- 
tive that it could speak for the bulk of the technically 
trained engineering personnel in Canada without 
sacrificing any of the rights or prejudicing any of the 
privileges of existing organizations. Mr. Challies was 
hopeful that while no definite conclusions had been 
reached, the initial discussions would prove helpful. 

This interim report was accepted by Council. 

Proposal from the Dominion Council — At the presi- 
dent's suggestion Mr. Challies described to Council the 
meeting which had taken place in Montreal on Satur- 
day, December 11th. This meeting was called by the 
president of the Dominion Council (W. P. Dobson) 
and to it were invited representatives of several pro- 
fessional and technical societies including the following: 

The Engineering Institute of Canada 

The eight provincial professional organizations 

The Canadian Institute of Chemistry 

The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada 

The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

The American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

The Institute of Radio Engineers 

Illuminating Engineering Society 

The purpose of the meeting, as explained by the 
president of the Dominion Council, was to explore the 
possibilities of creating in Canada one central Com- 
mittee or Council which could speak for the engineers 
and associated groups. 

Mr. Challies then explained to the meeting the pur- 
pose of the proposed new E.I.C. by-law whereby any 
sister society with which the Institute had a co- 
operative agreement could have representation upon 
the Council of the Institute. He thought that this 
procedure would offer a more desirable means for 
securing conjoint and co-operative action in the interest 
of all engineers than the proposal being made by the 
Dominion Council. 

Eventually, it was agreed that in order to hasten 
the deliberations a small committee should be named 
by the chairman to go into the matter immediately and 
to report back to the full meeting at four o'clock in 
the afternoon. The- following persons were chosen by 
Mr. Dobson to act with himself on the committee: 
Messrs. R. C. Poulter (I.R.E.), W. J. Gilson (A.I.E.E.), 
R. A. Elliott (C.I.M. & M.), J. B. Challies (E.I.C), 

F. C. Eley (E.I.C), E. Redpath (B.C. Assn.), and 

G. M. Pitts (R.A.I.C). 

At the meeting of the committee Mr. Dobson again 
outlined the proposal of the Dominion Council. Again 
Mr. Challies explained the proposals of the E.I.C. 
Council. Finally, it was agreed by the committee that 
the following procedure be presented to the main group : 



(a) The setting up, as an experiment, of a council or 
committee that would represent all the organized 
engineering and allied societies having members 
in Canada and upon which each society would 
have equal representation. 

(b) To avoid the setting up of a permanent secre- 
tariat and to keep expenses within a minimum, 
the secretarial responsibility for the new com- 
mittee would rotate between representatives of 
the various constituent societies, preferably 
from their secretarial personnel. 

(c) The relation of the new organization to its con- 
stituent bodies to be similar to the relation of 
the Engineers' Council for Professional Develop- 
ment to its member bodies. It was pointed out 
that the E.C.P.D. can act by and only with the 
consent of its eight constituent members and 
only to the extent which these constituent 
members may, from time to time, permit. 

The Institute representatives agreed to this procedure 
on the distinct understanding that no commitments 
were being made even as to principle and that a special 
committee would be set up to prepare an appropriate 
constitution for the new organization, and that the 
constitution, when drafted, would have to be sub- 
mitted for the approval of every society represented 
at the meeting. 

The resolution which was prepared for the main 
committee read as follows: 

"Be it resolved: That the Dominion Council of 
Professional Engineers and the voluntary engineering 
and allied societies, represented at this meeting, be 
asked to consider as promptly as possible the setting- 
up for Canada of an organization similarly con- 
stituted to the E.C.P.D. which would consist of a 
representative to serve on an executive committee 
and appointed by each constituent association for a 
term of three years; and the secretary of which 
would be chosen in rotation annually, preferably 
from the secretaries of the constituent bodies; and 
further that the president of the Dominion Council be 
asked to appoint immediatel.v a small committee to 
prepare a draft constitution based in principle upon 
that of the E.C.P.D.; and that this draft constitu- 
tion, when prepared, be submitted by the president 
of the Dominion Council to the members of that 
Council and each voluntary society invited to this 

The above resolution was submitted to the recon- 
vened meeting at four o'clock and agreed to, although 
the representatives of the Engineering Institute and 
one other society declined to vote. 

Mr. Dobson announced that he had appointed the 
following committees to draft an appropriate con- 
stitution: Messrs. R. C. Poulter (I.R.E.), W. J. Gilson 
(A.I.E.E.), G. Lome Wiggs (A.S.M.E.), E. J. Carlyle 
(C.I.M.M.), W. P. Dobson (Dominion Council), and 
J. B. Challies (E.I.C.). 

In conclusion Mr. Challies emphasized his firm con- 
viction that the proposal for enlarging the Council of 
the E.I.C. with the various professional engineering 
societies whose head offices were in Canada or who 
had members resident in Canada, was from every 
standpoint the most efficient, economical and satisfac- 
tory method of securing co-operative action. He went 
on to explain, however, that the Institute should always 
be prepared to consider on its merits any proposal, no 
matter from what source, it emanated, that may be 
put forward seriously as a means for fostering co- 

operation between engineering societies in Canada. For 
this reason he urged that Council keep an open mind 
regarding any proposals that may result from the recent 

This report was accepted by Council and Mr. Challies 
was thanked for the time and attention which he had 
given to these matters on behalf of Council. 

A suggestion that Mr. M. J. McHenry, of Toronto, 
be added to the membership of the Committee on 
Professional Interests was approved, and, subject to 
his acceptance, it was unanimously resolved that Mr. 
McHenry be appointed 'a member of this committee. 

Collective Bargaining for Engineers: The general 
secretary presented a memorandum from the Moncton 
Branch covering a discussion on collective bargaining 
for engineers which had taken place at a meeting of 
the branch held on December 6th. The Branch felt 
that the Institute should be taking some action on this 
matter, possibly along the lines of the action taken by 
the American Society of Civil Engineers. Following 
some discussion, it was unanimously resolved that the 
memorandum be referred to the Institute's Committee 
on Professional Interests for consideration and report. 

Remuneration of Engineers employed by the City of 
Montreal: The general secretary reported that a petition 
had been received from twenty-five engineers employed 
at the city hall asking the Institute to assist them in 
the matter of their remuneration. 

In view of the strike conditions at the city hall, 
Council appointed a committee to go into this matter 
immediately so that the men's interests would be 
served. The committee consists of deGaspé Beaubien, 
chairman, C. K. McLeod, G. McL. Pitts (Member of 
the City Council), and Louis Trudel. (Note: This 
committee with the Vice-President of the Corp. of 
Professional Engineers called on the officials immedi- 
ately and received assurance that the non-striking, non- 
union members of the engineering organizations would 
have their interests protected). 

Engineers' Council for Professional Development: Past- 
President Challies having expressed a desire to resign 
as the Institute's representative on the executive com- 
mittee of the Engineers' Council for Professional 
Development, and the consent of Past-President C. R. 
Young to accept the appointment having been received, 
it was unanimously resolved that Past-President Young 
be nominated to replace Mr. Challies. 

Elections and Tansfers — A number of applications 
were considered and the following elections and transfers 
were effected : 


Brierley, John Paul, M.Sc. (Chem.), (Liverpool Univ.), tech. 
director, Lever Bros. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Brownlee, William Daniel, B.A.Sc, (Univ. of Toronto), engr., 
Electro Metallurgical Co. of Canada, Ltd., Welland, Ont. 

Climo, Cecil, B.Sc. (Queen's Univ.), asst. constr'n. engr., Car- 
borundum Co., Niagara Falls, N.Y. 

Nickle, Donald Collamer, B.A. (Queen's Univ.), M.Sc. (Mass. 
Inst, of Technology), sales engr., Gypsum Lime & Alabastine, 
Canada, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Wildwood, Harry Vernon, B.Sc. (Queen's Univ.), field engr., 
Electro Metallurgical Co. of Canada, Fonthill, Ont. 

Fairfield, Robert Calvin, B.Arch. (Univ. of Toronto), asst. engr., 

structural dept., Works & Bldgs. Branch, Naval Services, 

Ottawa, Ont. 
Karn, William Matheson, B.A.Sc. (Univ. of Toronto), asst. 

research chemist, Electric Reduction Co. of Canada, Ltd., 

Buckingham, Que. 
Rule, Peter Leitch, B.Sc. (Arch.), (Univ. of Alberta), Rule, 

Wynn & Rule, architects, Birks Bldg., Edmonton, Alta. 



Nicholson, Ralph Ardrey Valance, Lieut. Col., O.C., Survey 
Section, R.C.E., Ottawa, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Member 
Cassidy, Stanley Bernard, B.Sc. (Elec), M.Sc. (Communica- 
tions), (Univ. of N.B.), chief engineer, Radio Station C.F.N.B., 
Fredericton, N.B. 
McGuire, James Francis, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), Welding and 
sales engr., Lincoln Electric Co., Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 
Deniers, Charles Eugene, B.Sc. (Civil), (Queen's Univ.), asst. 

field engr., Shipshaw Power Development, H. G. Acres & Co. 
Marsolais, J. Irenée W., B.A.Sc, CE. (Ecole Polytechnique), 

U.S. Army res. inspr. of ordnance material, Dominion Arsenal, 

Quebec, Que. 
Mazur, John T. (Univ. of Manitoba), engrg. supervisor, Plant 

No. 1, Massey-Harris Aircraft, Weston, Ont. 
Poole, John Edward, B.Sc. (Univ. of Alta.), engr., Defence 

Industries, Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Smith, Arthur Dale, B.A.Sc. (Univ. of Toronto), engrg. dept., 

Foster Wheeler, Ltd., St. Catharines, Ont. 
Wesley, William Grant, B.Eng. (McGill Univ.), P/O R.C.A.F., 

Montreal, Que. 

Admitted as Students 
Begg, Robert Arthur, B.Sc. (Mech.), (Queen's Univ.), 50 East 

Ave. S., Hamilton, Ont. 
Blake, Donald Hallewell Robson, 2/Lt., B.A.Sc. (Mech.), (Univ. 

of B.C.), 605 Victoria Avenue, Victoria, B.C. 
Galbraith. George Harshaw (McGill Univ.), 1211 Bishop St., 

Montreal, Que. 
Sanders, George Saunton (Univ. of Manitoba), 26 Oakview 

Ave., East Kildonan, Man. 

Students at Queen's University 
Baker, Charles A. N., Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Burbidge, Harrison Griffin, 295 Alfred St., Kingston, Ont. 
Burgess, Bernard Whittaker, 25 Bellwood Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 
Campling, Charles Hugh Ramsay, 340 Albert St., Kingston,Ont. 
Charlesworth, Edward Frank, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Connor, Eric James, 159 Collingwood St., Kingston, Ont. 
Denyes, Blake Burley, R.R. No. 1, Napanee, Ont. 
Follows, Alan G, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Fritsch, Karl Herbert, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Gove, Harry Edmund, 486 Johnston St., Kingston, Ont. 
Haakonsen, Haakon M., 342 Frontenac St., Kingston, Ont. 
Hager, Fritz, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Hillgartner, Harry Leonard, 6373^ Princess Street, Kingston, 

Holloway, Arthur Francis, 130 Collingwood St., Kingston, Ont. 
Hyde, Ernest Charles Garrow, 566 Johnson St., Kingston, Ont. 
Johnson, Ivar Conrad, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Lappi, Donald Mathew, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Mackey, Keith Barker, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
McLeod, Donald M., 18 William St. W., Kingston, Ont. 
McWhirter, Donald Crawford, 39 Division St., Kingston, Ont. 
Mosher, Malcolm Charles, 486 Johnson St., Kingston, Ont. 
Nelson, Ernest William, 320 Earl St., Kingston, Ont. 
Page, Lome, 4 Birch Ave., Kingston, Ont. 
Patzalek, Stanley Philip, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Quirk, Raymond Wilfred, 85 Division St., Kingston, Ont. 
Ralph, Harold Davidson, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Richards, James Leslie, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Runge, Walter Arthur, 170 Barrie St., Kingston, Ont. 
Rush, Charles Kenneth, 329 Earl St., Kingston. Ont. 
Smith, Jack Donald, 153 Alfred St., Kingston, Ont. 
Spencer, John Donald, 222 University Ave., Kingston, Ont. 
Stevens, John Clement, 62 Nelson St., Kingston, Ont. 
Stevenson, William Herbert, 433 Brock St., Kingston, Ont. 
Sweet, William Harold, 329 Earl St., Kingston, Ont. 
Tomkins, Charles C, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Whillans, T. G. Douglas, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 
Williams, Lloyd Stephen, 396 Alfred St., Kingston, Ont. 
Wilson, William James F., 214 Alfred St., Kingston, Ont. 
Wright, Gordon Maguire, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 

Wrong, James Stuart, 329 Earl St., Kingston, Ont. 
Yamanaka, Richard Hiroji, 170 Barrie St., Kingston, Ont. 
Young, Kenneth Buchanan, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont. 

By virtue of the co-operative agreements between the Institute 
and the provincial associations of professional engineers, the fol- 
lowing elections and transfers have become effective: 


Stephens, Hugh James, C.E. (Valparaiso Univ.), Wks. & Bldgs. 
Engr. Officer, No. 10 Repair Depot, R.C.A.F., Calgary, Alta. 

Transferred from Student to Junior 
Collier, David Barr, B.Sc. (Univ. of Alberta), field engr., North- 
western Utilities Ltd., Edmonton, Alta. 


Redding, John Malcolm, B.Sc. (Elec), (Univ. of N.B.), F/O, 
No. 24 R.D., R.C.A.F., Tignish, P.E.I. 



Byers, John Wilfrid Fisher, B.Sc. (Elec), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 
asst. agricultural engr., N.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Truro, N.S. 

Coleman, Frank Reynolds, B.Sc (Mech.), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 
instruction supervisor and asst. training supervisor, Aircraft 
Overhaul Plant, Clark Ruse Aircraft Ltd., Dartmouth, N.S. 

Deane, John, B.A.Sc. (Elec), (Univ. of B.C.), Lieut. Com- 
mander (E) R.C.N.V.R., H.M.C.S. Stadacona, Halifax, N.S. 

MacNeil, Donald J., Ph.D. (Princeton Univ.), professor of 
geology, St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, N.S. 

Pippy, William D., B.Eng. (Elec), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), engineer, 
Nova Scotia Light and Power Co. Ltd., Halifax, N.S. 

Weber, Alex. Moritz (Univ. of Sask.), i/c Electrical and instru- 
ment dept., Clark Ruse Aircraft Ltd., Dartmouth, N.S. 



Haberman, John Albert, B.Sc. (Civil), (Queen's Univ.), Lieut., 
R.C.E., Regina, Sask. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 
Bing-Wo, Reginald, B.Sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Sask.), jr. engr., 

Dominion Dept. of Agriculture (P.F.R.A.), Regina, Sask. 
Staples, William Robert, B.Eng. (Mech.), (Univ. of Sask.), 

instructor, mech. engrg, (Univ. of Sask.), Saskatoon, Sask. 

Students at the University of Saskatchewan 
Adams, Jack, 130 Ave. X, S., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Bingham, Andrew Thomson, 852 Sask. Cres. E., Saskatoon, 

Birbrager, Jake, 323 Ave. D, S., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Blezard, Roy John, 328 Sask. Cres. E., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Bobyn, Edward Joseph, 304 4th Ave. N., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Boyle, William Eric, 210 Clarence Ave. N., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Bradley, Charles Jensen, 318 Clarence Ave., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Breslin, William James, 1138 College Drive, Saskatoon, Sask. 
Brooks, Eyrie Elwood, 210 Clarence Ave. N., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Cherniak, Jack J., 626 Avenue H, S., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Chomyn, Michael William, 1201 Elliott St., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Clarke, Gerald Wallbridge, 318 Clarence Ave. S., Saskatoon, 

Cramer, David, 206 Ave. E. S., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Cummine, William Sturgis, 104 27th St. W., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Dokken, Earl Kenneth, 506 5th Ave., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Durrant, Morgan Powell, 1167 Henlease Ave., Moose Jaw, Sask. 
Eastwood, George Edmund Peter, Box 99, Spiritwood, Sask. 
Elsey, Wilbert Roy, 1036 13th St. E., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Ewing, Harlan Thomas, 730 10th St., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Farnam, Arlington Bruce, 614 University Drive, Saskatoon, 

Fisher, Earl Holden, 1006 11th St. East, Saskatoon, Sask. 
Francis, Joseph Albert, 823 Main St. E., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Gawley, Howard Nelson, 726 12th St. E., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Gibson, Ronald Franklin, 820 14th St., Saskatoon, Sask. 



Grant, Roderick Eugene, 850 University Drive, Saskatoon, Sask. 

Green, George Henry, 446 Ave. T. S., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Hamilton, Geoffrev Craig, 210 Clarence Ave. N., Saskatoon, 

Hawkeye, Michael, 726 12th St. E., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Holmes, Loyde Thomas, 1020 Aird St., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Huddleston, William Macdonald, 614 University Drive, Saska- 
toon, Sask. 

Humphrey, Kenneth Floyd, 726 12th St., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Iverson, Norman, 301 Bottomley Ave., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Jacoby, Max George, 839 University Drive, Saskatoon, Sask. 

Kallio, Willard, 719-1 3th St., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Kennett, Douglas Arthur, 111 Albert Ave., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Kenney, Ben Dorran, 210 Clarence Ave. N., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Larmour, Donald Arthur, 123 Albert Ave., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Lavers, Cyril George, 713 Temperance St., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Lepp, Henry, 402 26th St. W., Saskatoon, Sask. 

L'Heureux, Léon Joseph, 613 10th St. E., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Loden, Carl Allan, 1140 Temperance St., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Matthews, John Gordon, 721 12th St., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Mollard, John Douglas, 210 Clarence Ave. N., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Munro, Donald David, 427 Main St., Saskatoon, Sask. 

McCrary, John Walter, 614 University Drive, Saskatoon, Sask. 

McKay, James Francis, 523 9th St. E., Saskatoon, Sask. 

McNally, Reginald John Briar, 725 University Drive, Saska- 
toon, Sask. 

Nixon, Edward Everett, 1118} £ College Drive, Saskatoon, Sask. 

Ottem, Ray Willard, 1138 College Drive, Saskatoon, Sask. 

Payton, Richard Neil, 1001 12th St., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Pearson, Roderick Frank, 823 Main St., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Purdy, Clayton Charles, 818 10th St. E., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Roberts, Howard Stanley, 1035 University Drive, Saskatoon, 

Robertson, Thomas Johnston, 206 31st St. W., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Rowbotham, William Redfern, 508 Sask. Cres. E., Saskatoon, 

Sands, Douglas Harold, 518 9th St., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Siddall, James Norman, 1018 Victoria Ave., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Spencer, Henry A., 915 Temperance St., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Tite, Wilfred Allan, 811 Temperance St., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Watson, Howard Douglas, 336 6th Ave. N., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Wesa, Gustave, Lutheran College, Saskatoon, Sask. 
Williams, James Luther, 818 14th St., Saskatoon, Sask. 
Wylie, Lewis Hutchinson, 311 Bottomley Ave., Saskatoon, Sask. 

Date of Next Council Meeting: President Cameron 
extended on behalf of the Ottawa Branch, an invitation 
to Council to hold the next meeting in Ottawa on the 
afternoon of Saturday, January 15th, 1944. The 
Ottawa Branch also extends to all out of town coun- 
cillors an invitation to lunch on that day. On the 
motion of Mr. McLeod, seconded by Mr. Armstrong, 
it was unanimously resolved that the invitation of the 
branch be accepted and that the next meeting of 
Council be held in Ottawa, on Saturday, January 15th, 
1944, convening at two o'clock p.m. 


Relatives and friends of members in the active forces are 
invited to inform the Institute of news items, such as 
locations, promotions, transfers, etc., which would be of 
interest to other members of the Institute and which 
should be entered on the member's 'personal record kept 
at Headquarters. These would form a basis of personal 
items in the Journal. 

T. V. Berry, m.e.i.c, secretary-treasurer of the Van- 
couver and Districts Joint Sewerage and Drainage 
Board is the newly elected chairman of the Vancouver 
Branch of the Institute. Born in England in 1887, he 
came to Canada at an early age and received his educa- 
tion at the University of British Columbia where he 
graduated in 1923 as a B.A.Sc. Upon graduation he was 
engaged for a year in hydro-electric surveys and investi- 
gations made by J. G. G. Kerry of Toronto for the 
City of Vancouver. In 1924, he joined the staff of the 
City of Vancouver as an assistant in the municipal 
engineering department and in 1926 he became assistant 
engineer with the Greater Vancouver Water District. 
In 1921 he was appointed to the position he now holds. 
Mr. Berry was secretary-treasurer of the Vancouver 
Branch of the Institute for several years. 

S. D. Lash, m.e.i.c, assistant professor of civil engi- 
neering at Queen's University, Kingston, was recently 
elected chairman of the Kingston Branch of the Insti- 
tute. Professor Lash is an honour graduate of the City 
and Guilds Engineering College, London, England, 
and a Ph.D. of the University of Birmingham. He came 
to Canada in 1929 as draughtsman with the Northern 
Electric Company at Montreal, and later was employed 
with the Dominion Reinforcing Steel Company, Lim- 
ited, Montreal. In 1930, he went to Vancouver as a 
structural detailer with the British Columbia Electric 
Company, Limited. From 1931 to 1933 he did post- 
graduate work at the University of Birmingham, and 
from 1933 to 1935 he worked as a research assistant 

News of the Personal Activities of mem- 
bers of the Institute, and visitors to 

with the Steel Structures Research Committee in 

Returning to Canada in 1935, he was instructor in 
civil engineering at the University of British Columbia 
until 1938, when he joined the National Research 
Council at Ottawa as a junior engineer. Later Dr. Lash 
was acting secretary of the National Building Code 
project with the National Research Council. In 1941 
he joined the teaching staff at Queen's University as a 

S. D. Lash, M.E.I.C. 

lecturer in civil engineering and in 1942 he became 
assistant professor of civil engineering. Dr. Lash is a 
frequent contributor to The Engineering Journal. 



H. F. Barnes, M.E.i.c, returned to Canada last month 
on the S.S. Gripsholm after having been a prisoner of 
the Japanese in China for the past two years. Mr. 
Barnes was municipal engineer and secretary of the 
British Municipal Council at Tientsin, China, since 
1924. Born in New Brunswick in 1889, he was educated 
at the University of New Brunswick where he obtained 
his degree of B.Sc. in 1912. From 1912 to 1915 he was 
assistant engineer with the Canadian Pacific Railway 
in Ontario. From 1915 to 1917 he was professor of 
railway engineering at the Chinese Government Engi- 

Diesel-electric cars, pioneered in Canada by the Cana- 
dian National Railways; the introduction of air-con- 
ditioning on Canadian National passenger equipment; 
and the installation of the electrification system for 
the Montreal Terminal development. 

Mr. Finnemore is a member of the Publication Com- 
mittee of the Institute and a member of the Executive 
Committee of the Montreal Branch. 

Major J. F. C. Wightman, m.e.i. a, was appointed 
recently chief engineer officer on the Headquarters staff 

H. F. Finnemore, M.E.I.C. 

Lt.-Col. D. Hillman, M.E.I.C. 

Drummond Giles, M.E.I.C. 

neering College at Tangshan, North China. He served 
overseas during the last war from 1917 to 1919 at which 
time he returned to China as sewerage engineer with 
the Public Works Department of the Shanghai Muni- 
cipal Council. In this capacity he was responsible for 
the design and construction of the Shanghai sewerage 

Mr. Barnes was welcomed back to Canada by an 
old friend, Graham Kearney, m.e.i. a, of Montreal, and 
he has now proceeded to his native town of Buctouche, 
N. B., for a well-earned vacation. 

Colonel C. B. R. Macdonald, M.E.I.C, called at the 
Institute headquarters recently en route from England 
to the British West Indies where he is going on the 
staff of the comptroller for development and welfare 
for the British West Indies. Lately he had been with 
the No. 2 Trans Training Centre, Jullundur Canton- 
ment, Punjab, India. 

H. F. Finnemore, m.e.i.c, has been appointed assist- 
ant chief electrical engineer of the Canadian National 
Railways, at Montreal. Mr. Finnemore's new duties 
will be as collaborator with R. G. Gage, m.e.i.c, chief 
electrical engineer, in dealing with electrical power and 
traction activities throughout the National system. 

Mr. Finnemore attended Queen's University, King- 
ston, Ont., where he received the degree of bachelor of 
science in electrical engineering in 1917. Following three 
years with the Royal Canadian Engineers during the 
last war he joined the Canadian Government Railways 
as a draughtsman at Moncton, N.B. In 1923 he became 
assistant electrical engineer and in 1938 he was ap- 
pointed electrical engineer. During his railroading career 
Mr. Finnemore has been in charge of many important 
assignments. Among these were the development of 

at Camp Borden, Ont. He was previously commanding 
an Engineers unit in Montreal. 

A. F. White, m.e.i.c, was recently appointed chief 
engineer of the Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Railway 
Company at Hamilton, Ont. He has been with the 
company since 1912, when he joined as a draughtsman, 
his latest position having been that of engineer. 

Lt. -Col. Alex. K. Robertson, R. ce., m.e.i.c, is at pres- 
ent executive officer to Major W. W. Foster, special 
commissioner for defence projects in northwestern 

Drummond Giles, m.e.i.c, former vice-president of 
Canadian SKF Company Limited has resigned his posi- 
tion and was appointed, on November 1st, executive 
vice-president of Courtaulds (Canada) Limited, Corn- 
wall, Ont., and a member of the board of directors. In 
order to take over his new duties which involve im- 
portant war work, Mr. Giles has had to relinquish his 
post as special assistant to the co-ordinator of produc- 
tion in the Department of Munitions and Supply, 

Captain J. T. Turner, m.e.i.c, of the Directorate of 
Electrical and Communications Design, Department of 
National Defence, Ottawa, has recently been promoted 
from the rank of lieutenant. His position is now that of 
a Section Head within the Directorate. Before enlisting, 
Captain Turner was employed by the National Light 
& Power Company Limited, of Moose Jaw, Sask., as 
electrical engineer. 

Lieutenant V. R. Currie, m.e.i.c, is at present camp 
engineer officer at Sussex, N.B. He has been in active 
service with the Royal Canadian Engineers since last 
May. Previously he was assistant engineer, Rideau 
Canal office, Department of Transport, Ottawa. 



Lt.-Col. D. Hillman, D.s.o., m.e.i.c, for the past ten 
years district engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
Quebec district, retired on November 1st after 42 years 
service in the engineering department of the company. 
Entering the company as a chainman in 1901, he was 
first engaged on location surveys and he raised to the 
position of assistant engineer in 1905, later becoming 
division engineer on construction work, at Sudbury, Ont. 
He served during the last war from February, 1915, 
to September, 1919. He went overseas in June, 1915, as 
a lieutenant and was in France and Belgium from 
August, 1915 to July, 1919, returning to Canada as 
lieutenant-colonel. He was mentioned in despatches four 
times and was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. 
After the war he became engineer of construction with 
the company and in this capacity he worked on the 
entire system of the company from Saint John, N.B., 
to the Rocky Mountains. More recently when construc- 
tion work was curtailed he became district engineer 
for the Quebec district at Montreal. 

engineer's office at Montreal as assistant engineer and 
has now returned to his post at Moose Jaw. 

W. S. Black, m.e.i.c, has joined the staff of Hudson 
Bay Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd., at Flin Flon, Man. 
He was previously assistant engineer in the Buildings 
Construction Department with Trinidad Leasholds, 
Ltd., Pointe-à-Pierre, B.W.I. 

Lucien Allaire, m.e.i.c, previously assistant division 
engineer of the Department of Highways of Quebec at 
Metabetchouan, has recently been promoted to the 
position of division, engineer at Cap-de-la-Madeleine, 

J. L. Fair, jr. e. i.e., has returned to the W.C. Wood Co. 
Ltd., at Guelph, Ont., as electrical engineer after having 
spent the last four years at Ottawa where he worked 
in the Patent Office. 

H. B. Howe, jr. e. i.e., has recently been made super- 
intendent of the Canada Cement Company plant at 

A. R. Décary, M.E.I.C. 

Hector Cimon, M.E.I.C. 

Dr. A. R. Décary, M.E.I.C, past president of the Institute, and Hector Cimon, M.E.I.C, 
vice-president for the province of Quebec, are both acting in an advisory capacity on 
the Committee of the Quebec Branch in charge of the arrangements for the forthcom- 
ing Annual Meeting at the Château Frontenac, February 10th and 11th. 

W. G. Reekie, m.e.i.c, was recently transferred from 
the Quebec North Shore Paper Company at Baie 
Comeau to the engineering staff of the Ontario Paper 
Company Limited at Thorold, Ont. 

Joachim Fortin, m.e.i.c, has been appointed district 
engineer at Drummondville, Que., with the Drainage 
Board of the Province of Quebec. 

Lt. -Commander G. H. Desbarats, R.C.N. V.R., m.e.i.c, 
is base engineer officer, H.M.C.S. Fort Ramsay, at 
Gaspé, Que. Before enlisting, Commander Desbarats 
was superintendent of the Paugan power house of the 
Gatineau Power Company at Low, Que. 

E. W. Jeffrey, m.e.i.c, has recently been transferred 
from the Halifax office to the Montreal office of the 
Northern Electric Company Limited. 

Robert A. Emerson, m.e.i.c, has been division engi- 
neer of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company at 
Moose Jaw, Sask., since June of last year. He occupied 
previously the same position at Brandon, Man. Last 
summer Mr. Emerson spent a few months in the chief 

Montreal East. Before joining the company in 1939 he 
was employed as assistant mechanical engineer with 
Johns Manville Company at Asbestos, Que. 

Captain R. E. Kirkpatrick, R.c.A., Jr. E. I.e., who for 
the past two years had been attached to the United 
Kingdom Inspection Board, has been seconded to the 
Director of Artillery in the Department of National 
Defence and has recently arrived in England to take a 
course at the Military School of Science. 

Leslie Wiebe, Jr. e. i.e., of the Neon Products of West- 
ern Canada Ltd. has now gone to Vancouver after 
having spent a few months in charge of design in the 
Toronto office of the company. 

T. W. Houghton, jr. e. i.e., of the Canada Paper Com- 
pany has recently been transferred back to Windsor 
Mills, Que., after having spent over a year at the Beau- 
harnois mill of the company. 

Jean Doucet, Jr. e. i.e., has recently left the employ of 
Collet & Frères, Montreal, to join the staff of Concrete 
Construction Limited, Montreal. 



Flight-Lieutenant R. D. Doehler, s.e.i.c, was re- 
cently honoured with membership in the military divi- 
sion of the Order of the British Empire for the courage 
and devotion to duty he displayed during a serious fire 
at an R.C.A.F. station in England. The fire started 
when the bomb load of an aircraft standing in the dis- 
persal area detonated. Soon a second aircraft caught 
fire and its bomb load exploded. Flying-Officer Doehler 
was running to help deal with the first explosion when 
the second hurled him to the ground. Badly shaken, 
but still capable of brave and decisive action, he got 
to his feet and climbed into a third aircraft, which he 
taxied to safety. In the opinion of those who later con- 
sidered the scene and the circumstances of the fire his 
action prevented the destruction of the third aircraft 
and almost certainly saved the lives of a number of the 
station personnel. Since the incident in which he won 
the M.B.E., Flight-Lieutenant Doehler has served for a 
time in North Africa and the Central Mediterranean 
area but returned to England in mid-November. His 
promotion to Flight-Lieutenant was reported at that 

Walter J. Baylis, s.e.i.c, is now employed with the 
Hoover Company at Hamilton. He was previously an 
engineer apprentice with Canadian Westinghouse Com- 
pany, Hamilton, having graduated from the University 
of Alberta in 1941. 

J. B. Block, s.e.i.c, has been employed as a chemist 
since June 1st by the St. Clair Processing Corporation 
at Sarnia, Ont. He graduated from McGill University 
in the class of 1937. 

Lieutenant John G. Horsburgh, s.e.i.c, is now over- 
seas with the Royal Canadian Engineers. He is a grad- 
uate of the University of Manitoba, in the class of 1941. 

J. Adolphe Martin, s.e.i.c, returned to Montreal re- 
cently after having spent a few months at the San 
Diego plant of the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Com- 
pany where he was engineer-representative of Canadian 
Vickers Limited, of Montreal. 

W. A. Pegler, s.e.i.c, has been employed for the past 
two years with Canadian Industries Limited at Shawi- 
nigan Falls, Que., where he now occupies the position 
of works engineer in the Alkali Division. He is a grad- 
uate of the University of Alberta in the class of 1940. 


E. W. R. Butler, M.E.I. c, Western Canada manager, 
Bailey Meter Co. Ltd., Winnipeg, Man., on Novem- 
ber 25. 

Colonel C. B. R. Macdonald, m.e.i.c, London, Eng., 
en route to take over new post as comptroller, Develop- 
ment and Welfare, Bridgetown, Barbadoes, B.W.I., on 
November 26. 

Sub. Lieut. (A) J. F. Ross, e.n.v.e., s.e.i.c, Naval 
Air Station, Lewiston, Me., on November 28. 

R. H. Robinson, m.e.i.c, sales engineer, Vulcan Iron 
Works, Winnipeg, Man., on November 30. 

H. R. Sills, m.e.i.c, Canadian General Electric Co. 
Ltd., Peterborough, Ont., and councillorof the Institute, 
on November 30. 

T. L. McManamna, m.e.i.c, manager, International 
Water Supply, Limited, London, Ont., chairman of the 
London Branch of the Institute, on December 1. 

A. O. Wolff, m.e.i.c, district engineer, Canadian Pacific 
Railway, Saint John, N.B., chairman of the Saint John 
Branch of the Institute, on December 2. 

Paul E. Buss, m.e.i.c, president, Spun Rock Wool 
Limited, Thorold, Ont., on December 3. 

G. L. Dickson, m.e.i.c, electrical and signal engineer, 
Canadian National Railways, Moncton, N.B., and 
councillor of the Institute, on December 3. 

Rolland Lemieux, m.e.i.c, city manager and engineer, 
Arvida, Que., on December 9. 

G. G. Murdoch, m.e.i.c, consulting engineer, Saint 
John, N.B., and vice-president of the Institute, on 
December 11. 

W. A. Pegler, s.e.i.c, works engineer, Alkali Division, 
Canadian Industries Limited, Shawinigan Falls, Que., 
on December 11. 

Lt.-Colonel H. A. Gauvin, m.e.i.c, superintendent, 
A. Bélanger Limited, Montmagny, Que.,* on Decem- 
ber 17. 

Lucien Letendre, jr.E.i.c, structural engineer, Marine 
Industries Ltd., Sorel, Que., on December 18. 

H. J. Ward, m.e.i.c, superintendent of property, 
Shawinigan Water & Power Company, Shawinigan 
Falls, Que., on December 18. 

Major C. Ben Bate, r.c.e., m.e.i.c, senior engineer 
officer, Canadian Troops, Newfoundland, on Decem- 
ber 22. 


The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the rela- 
tives of those whose passing is recorded here. 

Louis Charles Dupuis, m.e.i.c, died at Levis, Que., 
on December 6th, 1943, after several months illness. 
Born at St-Roch des Aulnaies, Que., on November 8th, 
1886, he received his education at Laval Normal School, 
and Laval University Survey School, Quebec, and by 
private tuition. He engaged in railway work in 1907 on 
survey parties with the Transcontinental Railway. In 
1911 he joined the Intercolonial Railway as an assistant 
engineer at Moncton, continuing the following year in 
the same position at Levis, Que. He has remained at 
Levis practically ever since, occupying successively the 
positions of resident engineer with the Intercolonial 
Railway, engineer on double tracking, assistant engineer 
with the Canadian Government Railways and division 
engineer of the Saguenay division, Canadian National 
Railways, and later, in 1924, division engineer of the 
Levis division. In 1927 he was transferred for a few 
months to division engineer, construction department, 
in charge of the St. Félicien-Mistassini extension. At 
the time of his death he still occupied the position of 
division engineer of the Canadian National Railways 
at Levis. 

Mr. Dupuis joined the Institute as a Junior in 1912 
and transferred to Associate Member in 1919. He be- 
came a Member in 1940. In 1941 and 1942, he was 
chairman of the Quebec Branch of the Institute. He 
had been a member of the Corporation of Professional 
Engineers of Quebec since 1922. 

William Fulton, m.e.i.c, died in the hospital at St. 
Boniface, Man., on October 23rd, 1943, after a short 
illness. Born at Ayr, Scotland, on September 12, 1869, 
he was educated at Leeds Grammar School and Chur- 
well College. Coming to Canada in 1902 he entered the 
service of the Manitoba Government being first engaged 
in survey work and later becoming assistant engineer 
on drainage work. During the first great war he served 
overseas from 1916 to 1919 when he returned to Canada 



and resumed his work with the Manitoba government. 
In 1924 he became district engineer at Winnipeg in the 
reclamation branch of the Department of Public Works 
of Manitoba. He had retired from his position a few 
years ago. 

Mr. Fulton joined the Institute as an Associate Mem- 
ber in 1920 and was made a Life Member in 1938. 

Harry Molyneux King, m.e.i.c, died at Niagara Falls, 
Ont., on December 6th, 1943. He was born at Brooklyn, 
N.Y., on September 12th, 1877, and received his educa- 
tion in East Greenwich and Providence, R.I., U.S.A. 
From 1903 to 1906 he was engaged in substation con- 
struction for the Narrangansett Electric Lighting Com- 
pany, at Providence, R.I., and from 1906 to 1910 he 
was employed with Westinghouse Electric and Manu- 
facturing Company, erecting apparatus in the Buffalo 
district. In 1907 he was sent to the Ontario Power 
Company at Niagara Falls as the Westinghouse repre- 
sentative to install some of their units. In 1910 he was 
sent again to the Ontario Power to supervise repairs 
to Westinghouse generators. On completion of this work 
he joined the staff as supervisor of electrical mainten- 

John Bernard Wain, m.e.i.c, assistant chief land 
surveyor for the Canadian National Railways, died in 
the hospital at Montreal, on December oth, 1943, fol- 
lowing a brief illness. Born at Bradford, Yorkshire, 
Eng., on March 11th, 1890, he was educated at Brad- 
ford Technical College where he graduated in civil en- 
gineering. He came to Canada in 1908 as a draughtsman 
in the chief engineer's office of the Grand Trunk Pacific 
Montreal. In 1911 he became field draughtsman, instru- 
mentman and estimator with the Grand Trunk Railway 
system, at Montreal, becoming senior draughtsman in 
1916 and chief draughtsman in the valuation depart- 
ment, in 1919. In 1923 he went to Toronto where he 
was office engineer in the valuation department of the 
Canadian National Railways until 1938 when he was 
appointed assistant chief land surveyor of the company 
and returned to Montreal. 

Mr. Wain joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1920 and he became a Member in 1940. 

Peder Pederson Westbye, m.e.i.c, died at Peter- 
borough, Ont., on November 12th, 1943. He was born 
at Hedrum-at-Larvik, Norway, on January 21st, 1878. 

L. C. Dupuis, M.E.I.C. 

William Fulton, M.E.I.C. 

J. B. Wain, M.E.I.C. 

ance, remaining in this position after the Hydro Electric 
Power Commission took over the plant in 1917. In 1923 
he was appointed operating superintendent of the 
Ontario Power plant, a position he held until his death. 
Mr. King joined the Institute as a Member in 1926. 

Robert A. Stewart, m.e.i.c, superintendent of the 
New Glasgow, N.S., plant of the Eastern Car Company 
Ltd., died in the hospital at New Glasgow, on Decem- 
ber 8th, 1943. Born at New Glasgow, N.S., on Novem- 
ber 28th, 1872, he received his education in the local 
high school. In the early days of his career he was associ- 
ated with his father in bridge building in Nova Scotia. 
In 1912 he became superintendent of the Maritime 
Bridge Company, Ltd., plant at New Glasgow. In 1917 
when the company was "taken over by the Eastern Car 
Company, he carried out the same duties with the new 

Mr. Stewart has been a member of the Association 
of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia since 1920 
and he became a Member of the Institute in 1940 under 
the terms of the agreement between the Institute and 
the Association. 

He was educated at Porsgrunds Technical school, 
Norway, where he graduated as a mechanical engineer 
in 1897. In 1900 he graduated as a mechanical and 
electrical engineer from Mittwida and Dresden Univer- 
sity, Saxony. He came to this continent in 1906 and 
he was first employed with William Sellers and Com- 
pany, Philadelphia, Pa. From the end of 1906 until 
September, 1910, he was employed first as designer 
and then chief engineer with Dayton Globe Iron Works 
at Dayton, Ohio. He then became assistant to the chief 
engineer of the Piatt Iron Works at Dayton and came 
to Peterborough in 1911 in order to introduce their 
machines on the market. In 1913 he became consulting 
engineer with the William Hamilton Company Ltd. of 
Peterborough and in 1919 he was made vice-president 
and general manager of the company, later becoming 

For the past two years he had been in Hamilton, 
Ont., with the Hamilton Bridge Company engaged in 
war work. 

Mr. Westbye joined the Institute as a Member in 
1919. He was chairman of the Peterborough Branch in 



News of the Branches 


L. Thorssen, M.E.I.C. - 

Branch News Editor 

Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of 
the Institute and abstracts of papers 

The November meeting of the Edmonton Branch 
was held at the University of Alberta, on November 
5th, 1943. 

The chairman, C. W. Carry, opened the meeting by 
asking the members to stand in memory of an esteemed 
member, the late Professor Cornish, who passed away 
on November 2nd. 

The meeting was addressed by Dr. J. W. Campbell, 
professor of mathematics, University of Alberta, and 
honorary president, Royal Astronomical Society of 
Canada. Dr. Campbell spoke on observatories with 
particular reference to the new observatory at the Uni- 
versity of Alberta. He explained the different types 
and sizes of telescopes used in Canada and particularly 
the one now installed at the University. This explana- 
tion was followed by a short talk on the stars and then 
by a film "Exploring the Universe" which showed the 
position and motions of many stars. 

After the chairman had expressed the appreciation 
of the Branch to the speaker the meeting adjourned 
to the new observatory, were Dr. Campbell pointed 
out many interesting phenomena to the members. 


S. W. Gray, m.e.i.c. - 
D. C. V. Duff, m.e.i.c. 

Branch News Editor 

The regular monthly dinner meeting of the Halifax 
Branch of the Institute was held at the Nova Scotian 
Hotel on Thursday, November 25, 1943. Professor A. E. 
Flynn, chairman of the branch, presided. 

The guest speaker for the evening was Mr. W. D. 
Outhit, registrar of the Probate Court, Halifax. He gave 
a very interesting and enlightening talk on different 
experiences which he had encountered in his legal pro- 
fession. Mr. Outhit, by various examples, brought an 
important message to many who do not realize how 
important it is for a person who possesses property of 
any kind to make a will. 

He pointed out that the law of intestate succession 
is nothing more or less than a statutory will. It is an 
effort to provide a substitute for a will that a man 
himself should have made. In many cases, this statutory 
will is inadequate, is incomplete, and causes hardship 
because it is impossible to provide for individual cases. 

The address, although not of an engineering nature, 
was presented in a very interesting manner by the 
speaker, and was instructive to all members. 

Also present as guests of the branch were several 
students from the Nova Scotia Technical College. 


W. E. Brown, m.e.i.c. 
L. C. Sentance, m.e.i.c. 

Secretary- Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 

The regular monthly meeting of the Hamilton Branch 
was held on Monday, December 13th, at McMaster 
University, with one hundred members and guests in 
attendance; T. S. Glover, branch chairman, presided. 

Varied experience gained as test engineer in charge 
of rectifier and electronic equipment for the Canadian 
Westinghouse Company, enabled the speaker of the 
evening, H. W. Blackett, to discuss with authority the 
subject of Electronics. 

Mr. Blackett reviewed the development of scientific 
thought which has made possible the state of refinement 

of present day electronic devices and he further dis- 
cussed the fundamental concepts relating to the electron 
theory as a prelude to the showing of a Westinghouse 
sound film entitled "Electronics at Work". 

The six fundamental functions performed by elec- 
tronic devices, namely, rectification, amplification, con- 
trol, generation, conversion of light to electrical energy, 
and vice versa, were well illustrated both as to theory 
and practical applications. 

By means of an oscilloscope, the speaker gave a prac- 
tical demonstration of the operation and control of elec- 
tronic tubes, comparing three forms of rectifiers: the 
diode, high vacuum triode and gas filled triode, the last 
two with grid control. The advantages of the ignitron, 
a mercury arc rectifier with synchronized firing control, 
were discussed and numerous slides of typical applica- 
tions in the electro-chemical industries, transportation 
and welding control, were shown. 

Further illustrations of electronics at work were evi- 
dent in photo-electric control of industrial inspection 
operations, high frequency reflowing of tinplate, high 
frequency tinplate brazing, heating and welding, radio, 
television, radar, the automatic pilot, frequency conver- 
sion, and D.C. transmission systems. 

After a question period, refreshment were served in 
the anteroom. 


R. A. Low, m.e.i.c. 
C. E. Craig, s.e.i.c. 

Branch News Editor 

The participation of the young engineer in Institute 
activities featured the president's annual visit to the 
Kingston Branch, November 29, 1943. President 
Cameron, in addressing a joint gathering of local Insti- 
tute members and engineering students of the Faculty 
of Applied Science, Queen's University, referred to the 
younger generation of engineers as worthy successors 
to the present participants in the profession. Engineers 
are taking a much larger part in Canadian industrial 
life, he said, and this necessitates close co-operation of 
all engineers and the broadening of associations and 
institutions. The older engineer, stated Mr. Cameron, 
is always eager to assist the junior engineer and he 
called upon the students to avail themselves of this 
wealth of information, gathered through years of prac- 
tical experience. 

A feature of the evening was the presentation of the 
Institute prize certificate to Jack W. Kirk, Sc. '44, for 
high academic standing and keen interest in Institute 
activities during his term at Queen's University. Mr. 
Kirk previously had received the cash award of $25.00 
in conjunction with the prize. ■ 

Dr. R. C. Wallace, Hon. m.e.i.c. introduced the presi- 
dent, stating that Mr. Cameron had exceptionally broad 
experience in the engineering field and was most quali- 
fied to discuss the subject of the evening. Dean D. S. 
Ellis, of the Faculty of Science, Queen's University, 
expressed the vote of thanks. 

Mr. Cameron chose as his theme, his favourite sub- 
ject, Post- War Reconstruction, focusing his attention 
particularly to post-war planning, as related to the 
construction industry. He outlined the complex prob- 



Dr. R. C. Wallace introduces President Cameron. On the 
president's left chairman S. D. Lash and B. J. McColl, 
president of the Engineering Undergraduates Society of 
Queen's University. 

lems facing Canadians after the cessation of hostilities 
and urged that plans and specifications for particular 
projects be started immediately. 

Among those attending the meeting were Mayor 
H. L. Stewart, M.L.A., George H. Ferguson, chairman 
of the Ottawa Branch, W. E. Bonn, a past-chairman 
of the Toronto Branch, N. B. MacRostie, councillor for 
the Ottawa Branch, Dr. P. M. Haenni, director of 
Aluminium Laboratories, and David Jack, city engineer 
of Kingston. 

Dr. S. D. Lash, chairman of the branch, presided at 
the meeting. Also present on the speaker's platform 
were L. Austin Wright and Bruce McColl, Science '44, 
president of the Engineering Society, Queen's Uni- 

Following the meeting the students entertained mem- 
bers of the local branch at an informal gathering, serving 
a very tasty lunch. President Cameron welcomed into 
the Institute a large group of first year students who 
had previously made applications for admittance. 

During his stay in Kingston, Mr. Cameron and party 
visited plants of the Nylon Division of C.I.L. and also 
Aluminium Laboratories Limited. 


V. C. Blackett, m.e.i.c. 


Locomotives, Large and Small, was the subject 
of an address delivered at a meeting of the Branch, 
held on October 18th, by Winsby Walker, superintend- 
ent of shops, Canadian National Railways, Moncton. 
J. A. Godfrey, chairman of the branch, presided and 
introduced the speaker. 

Even the ancients, said Mr. Walker, seemed to have 
been imbued with a conception of the value of steam 
as motive power. Thus, in the city founded by Alexander 
the Great, Hero was said to have demonstrated its 
power about 130 B.C. He wrote a treatise on the sub- 
ject, explaining its force and how it might be utilized 
by the use of cylinders, pistons, valves, etc. 

England was the birthplace of the steam locomotive 
and Robert Trevithick, a Cornish engine enthusiast, 
was the first to operate an engine on rails. Most of the 
early locomotives operated with a rack rail, and full 
steam pressure was used throughout the piston stroke. 
Real progress came with Stephenson, who obtained in- 
creased power with a multi-tubed boiler and a separate 
fire box. The valve gear, which he invented is still in 
use, although in this country, it has been largely super- 
seded by American designs. Around 1830, locomotives 
were built that could travel from 30 to 35 miles per 

hour. Since then a speed of 127 miles per hour has 
been attained. 

The heart of the locomotive is its valve gear and 
this is a subject upon which designers hold sharply 
divided opinions. Mr. Walker made use of a large scale 
model of the Baker valve gear, the property of the 
branch chairman, to illustrate how operating efficiency 
was affected by changes in valve settings. 

As a hobby, Mr. Walker said, he is interested in small 
scale locomotives and is a member of the Montreal 
Society of Model Engineers. These miniature locomo- 
tives vary in length from 9 inches to 6 or 7 feet in 
length. They burn coal and are wonderfully complete 
as to detail. The society has a test track at Lachine, 
485 feet around, where members try out their models. 


L. A. Duchastel, m.e.i.c. Secretary-Treasurer 

H. H. Schwartz, s.e.i.c. 

Branch News Editor 

Soil Engineering as Applied to Modern Highway 
Construction was the subject of the talk delivered on 
November 11th, by Dr. Norman W. McLeod to the 
Montreal Branch. 

One of the principal proposed methods of alleviating 
post-war unemployment is the construction of a modern 
highway network all over the country. To keep the 
costs of construction down, and yet to maintain a good 
quality of road requires a sound knowledge of soil 

There are three separate sub-divisions of a road that 
must be considered in design. The first is the sub-grade. 
This must be built on solid ground that is not subject 
to frost heave. The grade line must be from four to five 
feet above the ground water line. Proper compaction 
must be used to obtain maximum soil density and thus 
minimum soil settlement. Any muskeg or peat must be 

The second element of a road is the grade course, 
built on top of the sub-grade. This is usually a stabilized 
soil mixture consisting of gravel, sand and a clay binder. 
However this mixture absorbs water and loses strength. 
The addition of a small quantity of liquid asphalt, from 
one to two per cent by weight of the mixture, makes 
the stabilized mixture water resistant. Grade courses 
of this type have been built since 1939 and so far have 
stood up very well to the weather. 

The third element of a road is the surface. This may 
be either cement or bitumen depending upon the traffic 
the road is required to bear. 

At the end of the meeting a film was shown which 
illustrated clearly all the points raised in Mr. McLeod's 

Paul Lebel was chairman of the meeting and Henri 
Gaudefroy moved the vote of thanks. 
* * * 

On November 18th, the Montreal Branch held its 
Annual Student Night. 

Four students — two from Ecole Polytechnique, and 
two from McGill University delivered papers before 
the members. 

The first prize for the best paper was won by Mr. 
André Prud'homme of Ecole Polytechnique for his paper 
on Toll-Office Circuits and Equipment, dealing 
with one phase of telephone work. 

The second prize went to G. H. Galbraith of McGill 
University for his paper on Northern Pipe Line Con- 

The two other papers were as follows : Supercharg- 
ing Aircraft Engines by Albert Clément of Ecole Poly- 
technique; and Sportwelding Aluminum by D. R. 
Brown of McGill University. 



The judges were Messrs. M. V. Sauer, H. Massue and 
R. H. Findlay. 

Mr. Robert Baillargeon was chairman of the meeting. 

On Thursday, November 25th, Mr. W. A. Irvine spoke 
to the Montreal Branch on Post-war Planning by 
Industry. As a practical example, Mr. Irvine discussed 
the planning methods used by the Canadian General 
Electric Co. and the expected results. The paper appears 
elsewhere in this issue. 

"At the cost of equipping three army armoured divi- 
sions Montreal can become the best city on the North 
American continent" stated Mr. P. E. Nobbs in the 
course of his address on Montreal Housing and Plan- 
ning Problems to the Montreal Branch on Decem- 
ber 2nd. 

At present Montreal is laid out on a grid-iron plan. 
This creates long blocks of houses with narrow frontage, 
and small yards. Large sewers and many paved streets 
are required to service the dwellings. However, if 
Montreal were rebuilt — at a cost small in comparison 
to the benefit that would be derived — into small com- 
munity sections, the number of sewers and streets could 
be drastically reduced. Paved streets would be used 
only between communities. Within the community it- 
self, small roads would suffice, since each road would 
carry only the traffic generated by the community. 
Main sewers would be needed only between com- 

A new housing plan for Montreal is essential. From 
a long term point of view, the investment would be 
profitable. The monetary saving effected by the clear- 
ance of the slums, due to the reduced incidence of 
tuberculosis, would pay for the entire development 
within a few years. If to this saving is added that due 
to the reduction in infant mortality, juvenile delin- 
quency and crime, the investment appears quite sound. 

The indirect benefits due to the better health and 
general welfare of the community cannot be estimated 
readily, but are very large nevertheless. 

Mr. Pepperman moved the vote of thanks, and Mr. 
Aimé Cousineau was chairman of the meeting. 


J. H. Ings, m.e.i.c. - 
J. W. Brooks, ji-.e.i.c. 

Branch News Editor 

The October meeting of the Branch was held at the 
DeCew Falls construction camp, near St. Catharines. 
An afternoon inspection trip of the DeCew Falls hydro- 
electric power development was followed by dinner at 
camp headquarters. Mr. John Dibblee, assistant chief 
engineer of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario, presented an excellent illustrated lecture on 
the development. 

The technical aspects of the DeCew Falls plant were 
described in detail in a paper, "DeCew Falls Develop- 
ment", by Mr. Otto Holden, published in the October 
issue of the Journal. The local Branch would like to 
take this opportunity of expressing its appreciation to 
the Hydro men at DeCew Falls for both the sumptuous 
repast enjoyed by its members after their tour of in- 
spection, and also for the courtesy extended to them 
throughout the entire visit. 

In the absence of the Branch News Editor, the fol- 
lowing report on the November meeting is presented 
by Past Chairman C. G. Cline: 

The Niagara Peninsula Branch held a dinner meeting 
at the General Brock Hotel on November 25th. The 
Branch chairman, G. E. Griffiths, presided and there 

was an attendance of 35. C. G. Moon introduced the 
speaker, Dr. M. Rosten, chemical engineer at the 
Ontario Paper Company, who spoke -on the subject 
A New Age in Agriculture and Forestry. Dr. Rosten 
is a graduate of the University of Lwow, Poland, and 
before the war he was engaged in the production of 
industrial alcohol in Poland. His argument is that many 
sources of raw material that might be used for the 
production of alcohol are being wasted, or at least ne- 
glected, in. Canada and the United States at present, 
and that we could, with advantage, introduce on this 
continent processes that have been in use in Europe 
for many years. As an instance, he mentioned the plant 
recently completed for the Ontario Paper Company 
for the manufacture of alcohol from the sulphite liquor 
that is a by-product in the manufacture of paper, and 
which previously went to waste. He mentioned also a 
process whereby protein could be extracted from low 
grade grain and used for cattle feed, while the remaining 
starch could be used for making alcohol. 

Large quantities of alcohol are required in industry 
and its use has increased enormously during the war. 
It forms the raw material in one process for producing 
synthetic rubber. It could be used as motor fuel. Present 
automobile and aeroplane engines could use 10 or even 
15 per cent of alcohol mixed with the gasoline. Engines 
with higher compression ratios, which are probable in 
the near future, could use larger percentages. In fact, 
as our available oil reserves decrease, it may be neces- 
sary to design engines that will use alcohol alone. In this 
way, we would have an unfailing source of motor fuel 
which would be produced as required from the products 
of our farms and forests. 

After replying to a number of questions relating to 
his paper, Dr. Rosten told how he and his wife escaped 
from Poland to Rumania during the war, and finally 
reached Canada. The vote of thanks to the speaker 
was moved by G. F. Vollmer. 



R. C. Purser, m.e.i.c. - 

Branch News Editor 

Members of the Ottawa Branch, at a noon luncheon 
at the Chateau Laurier on November 25, listened to 
an address on Signal Communication in the Field 

and viewed a motion picture illustrating some of the 
devices and methods used. The speaker was Major S. 0. 
Roberts, R.C.C.S. 

Major Roberts outlined briefly the system under 
which a modern army division operates, with co-or- 
dinate action between assault and supporting troops. 
In order that each may function at precisely the right 
time, it is imperative that there be an efficient system 
of communications. This is supplied by the signal corps. 

There are several types of field communication, rang- 
ing from the telephone to the "walkie-talkie", a simple 
device weighing not more than 15 lb. which may be 
carried on the chest and which is good for communi- 
cation up to a distance of two miles. The nerve centre 
for these devices is the signal office which is established 
quickly and easily in a protected, central part of field 

These devices and methods, as explained by the 
speaker, have been greatly simplified in the past 25 
years. Whereas formerly, for instance, in setting up a 
wireless set it was necessary to have a gasoline engine 
now power may be obtained from batteries and the 
whole set complete may weigh not more than 70 or 80 lb. 

To avoid confusion of messages coming from various 
parts and sections of the army, each commanding officer 
is supplied with a frequency or wave length. Instru- 



ments are calibrated with extreme precision, and so fine 
are the adjustments that noises of internal combustion 
engines are entirely eliminated. 


A. J. Girdwood, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
J. F. Osborn, M.E.I.C. 

Branch News Editor 

The guest speaker at the annual dinner on November 
18th was Professor Jocelyn Rogers, provincial analyst 
and professor of chemistry, at the University of Toronto. 
The topic, Scientific Crime Detection, was developed 
by the relation of fascinating episodes in the speakers 
colourful career. 

Certain cases are to some extent predictable since 
they stem from known physical or social conditions. 
For example, extremely depressing heat waves tend to 
cause some women to do away with their husbands. 
Prohibition or an acute shortage of good liquor stimu- 
late production of swamp whiskey with the associated 
deaths from poison. Traffic accidents are constantly 
"happening", due to the effect of liquor on the judg- 
ments of drivers. This is partially due to the present 
empirical methods of determining the degree of intoxi- 
cation since convictions are difficult to obtain and there- 
fore the deterrent to driving under the influence of 
liquor slight. 

A great deal can be learned about a case by studying 
the background of those involved, that is, their tempera- 
ment, taste, position in society, etc. Such information 
enables the investigator to relate more effectively the 
technical data to the human factors. For example, it is 
known that murders committed by men are usually 
violent, messy affairs. Women on the other hand are 
inclined to be subtle in planning and neat in the execu- 
tion of a murder. For the proper functioning of scientific 
methods, Professor Rogers stressed the necessity of a 
police force chosen for intelligence instead of brawn. 

The speaker admitted a preference for the strictly 
scientific function of securing and presenting facts, but 
must frequently make deductions from the evidence to 
translate facts into legally effective instruments. 

President K. M. Cameron spoke briefly as well as a 
number of other prominent guests. Branch Chairman 
A. R. Jones presided. 

* * * 

The December 9th meeting was addressed by Mr. 
J. S. Fullerton of Handy and Harman on the subject 
Silver Brazing as a Machine Tool. The advantages 
and limitations of alloy brazing were described and 
illustrated with samples and slides. A large number of 
guests were present to take advantage of a highly 
practical paper presented in a form useful to those 
applying alloy brazing. 


Stewart Young, m.e.i.c. 

Secretary-Treas u rer 

The regular monthly meeting of the Saskatchewan 
Branch with the Association of Professional Engineers 
was held in the Saskatchewan Hotel, Regina, on 
Thursday evening, November 18. The meeting was 
preceded by dinner, at which the attendance was 34. 

N. B. Hutcheon, Ph.D., assistant professor of 
mechanical engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 
addressed the meeting on Recent Developments in 
Building Insulation Practice, illustrating his sub- 
ject by lantern slides and sound film. 

Explaining the theory of insulation, Dr. Hutcheon 
informed his audience of the recent findings in respect 
of condensation in exterior walls of buildings and stated 
that, through insulation, condensation in walls is 


accelerated. The remedy lies in the sealing of the 
interior surfaces of walls against the transmission of the 
vapor content within a building to the exterior sides of 

The address caused considerable discussion after 
which a hearty vote of thanks was tendered the 

The regular monthly meeting of the Saskatchewan 
Branch with the Association of Professional Engineers 
was held in the Kitchener Hotel, Regina, on Friday 
evening, December 11. J. McD. Patton, vice-chairman, 
was in charge of the meeting. 

The speaker was W. Lloyd Bunting, who took as his 
subject, Waterfowl Conservation. Mr. Bunting, being 
Saskatchewan Manager for Ducks Unlimited, is an 
authority on this subject. 

A century ago the duck population of North America 
is estimated to have been 400,000,000. By 1934 this 
had dwindled to 30,000,000, and conditions had so de- 
teriorated that the governments of the United States 
and Canada decided that something must be done to 
prevent further disappearance of the wild fowl popula- 
tion. Previous to this (1916) Migratory Birds Acts, 
having in view the protection of wildfowl had been 
enacted in Canada and the United States but, with 
continued waterfowl disappearance, it was decided in 
1934 to place further restrictions on bag limits and 
hunting methods. 

In 1935, a general survey of the duck population 
indicated that the greatest cause of depletion was 
brought. Arising out of this finding, Ducks Unlimited 
(U.S.) was formed to raise funds in the United States 
for expenditure in Canada by Ducks Unlimited (Can- 
ada) for waterfowl protection through maintenance of 
constant water areas which theretofore had been sub- 
ject to season drying. Various methods are employed, 
damming of 'watercourses, raising of water levels in 
marsh lands, combining smaller water ponds into one 
large pond, conversion of poor hay land to first class 
duck and muskrat areas. 

Other cause of depletion of waterfowl population 
in order of greatest destruction are: crows and magpies; 
uncontrolled burning of hay lands; jackfish. 

Approximately 1,000,000 crows and magpies have 
been destroyed in Saskatchewan; farmers have been 
taught to control the burning of hay land; jackfish are, 
in many areas, prevented by screens from getting into 
marsh areas. As a result of these measures the present 
estimated duck population in Saskatchewan is 120,- 
000,000, an increase of 400 per cent in a period of ten 
years — much of which may be credited to the activities 
of Ducks Unlimited, and not a little to the works carried 
out under The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act, 

Following his address Mr. Bunting presented a series 
of three films showing the habits of waterfowl and the 
nature of conservation methods. After a period of in- 
terested discussion a hearty vote of thanks was tendered 
the speaker. 


O. A. Evans, Jr.E.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
The eighth general meeting for the year 1943 was 

held at the Windsor Hotel on November 26th, 1943, 

at 6.45 p.m., when twenty-two members and guests 

sat down to dinner. 

The guest speaker, Mr. J. P. Bendt, had for his topic 

Construction Experiences in Russia During the 

Five Year Plan. 

The speaker said that Russia, while being the largest 

country in the world was, before the revolution, chiefly 


a producer of primary products. Most machine tools 
and manufactured goods had to be imported. 

The Economic Council after the revolution decided 
to establish some 500 necessary industries to give the 
country a basic industrial set up. A number of these 
were established at far inland points so that they would 
be safe from attack. 

One of these industries was the now famous steel 
plant at Magnitogorsk which is situated on the Kirghiz 
Steppe, east of the Urals which has an altitude of 1,100 
ft. above sea level and a latitude of the neighbourhood 
of James Bay. 

He said that Magnitogorsk is near a huge magnetic 
ore deposit but the coal had to be hauled some 800 
miles by rail. 

On his arrival in February, 1931, the temperature 
was near 20 degrees below zero. The village was experi- 
encing the pangs of rapid growth and accommodations 
were crowded. 

There were many difficulties to be overcome such as 
the training of unskilled labour which was shipped in 
by car loads. Quite frequently the whole family would 
accompany the labourer and this tended to make things 
congested. There were few technicians and progress was 
slow. He said that the people all tried and were eager 
to learn. The few skilled technicians came from around 

Most of the excavation for the steel plant was done 
by pick and shovel and the earth was carted away in 
% cu. yd. wagons by a single horse. 

He related many of his experiences and afterwards 
showed many slides which depicted the progress of the 
work and the habits of the people. 


S. H. de Jong, m.e.i.c. 
G. L. White, Affil.E.i.c. 

Branch News Editor 

Modern Timber Engineering was the subject of 
an address by Professor C. F. Morrison, associate pro- 
fessor of civil engineering, University of Toronto, before 
a general meeting of the Toronto Branch, in the Debates 
Room at Hart House on Thursday, October 21st. 

The paper was published in the October issue of the 

W. H. M. Laughlin, chairman of the Branch, pre- 
sided at the meeting at which 95 were present. A lively 
discussion followed the paper and the vote of thanks 
to the speaker was moved by D. C. Tennant. 
* * * 

The Engineer in the Armed Forces was the sub- 
ject of an address by Col. G. W. Beecroft, liaison officer 
between the Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel 
and the Armed Forces, at the meeting of the Branch, 
on Thursday, November 4th. 

Col. Beecroft outlined the development and work of 
the Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel, pointing 
out that technical people were the only class with special 
facilities in wartime labour organizations. 

The speaker outlined the types of engineers in demand 
for the Army, for the Royal Canadian Engineers, the 
Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps, Royal Canadian 
Artillery, Signals, and chemical warfare. The Navy has 
required numbers of mechanical and electrical engineers 
and has been able to utilize some technically trained 
people of a less specialized type who have taken special 
courses in torpedoes, gunnery, anti-torpedo devices, etc. 
The Air Force has required a variety of engineers, al- 
though the only demand at present is for aeronautical 
engineers or mechanical or electrical engineers with air- 
craft experience. 

Col. Beecroft discussed some of the phases of his 
work in collaboration with the Wartime Bureau of 
Technical Personnel. Important results have been 
achieved in cutting down the time from application to 
acceptance in the Armed Forces for technical personnel, 
and many special requests for scientific people with 
special knowledge have been met successfully. 

Attention has been given to technical personnel en- 
listed or drafted in the ranks with a view to their better 
utilization and in advising men in plants who wish to 
go into active service. At the present time, in the Army, 
direct appointments are being given only to those with 
special valuable qualifications. 

Col. Beecroft referred to the freezing of university 
science students and dealt with the number of those 
from the classes of 1943 who have gone into the Armed 
Forces. In addition, the general situation in regard to 
requirements for engineers in civilian service and in 
the Armed Forces was discussed. 

A vote of thanks was moved by Prof. M. W. Huggins, 
University of Toronto. 

Junior Section 

The Junior Section of the Toronto Branch held their 
second meeting of the season in the Debates Room at 
Hart House on November 1st at 8 o'clock p.m., with 
Mr. W. Fotheringham in the Chair and approximately 
150 persons present. 

The speaker, Wing Commander T. R. Louden who 
was recently appointed Professor of Civil Engineering 
and Aeronautics at the University of Toronto gave un 
illustrated address on Aviation — Past, Present and 
Future. The gradual evolution of the elliptical form 
of wing was shown and the extraordinary progress made 
during the last ten years was very forcibly illustrated 
by slides of the Imperial Airways plane, the Hannibal, 
built about 1932. Prof. Louden stressed the critical 
importance of maintenance costs in the operation of 
both commercial and military planes. It was stated 
that the helicopter might be used for handling mails in 
due course. 

Following the lecture a salary survey was conducted 
by means of a questionnaire under the guidance of Mr. 
J. Powerland. A report on this survey will be sub- 
mitted to the December meeting. 


P. B. Stroyan, m.e.i.c. 
J. G. D'Aoust, M.E.I.C. 

Branch News Editor 

The annual dinner and business meeting of the branch 
took place on Saturday, November 27th, at the Hotel 
Georgia. Sixty-two members and guests attended. 
Branch Chairman W. N. Kelly presided. 

Following dinner, the annual business of the branch 
was conducted. The selection of the nominating com- 
mittee for next year's executive was presented by Mr. 
C. E. Webb, the slate being elected by acclamation and 
as appearing on page 3 of this issue. 

The retiring chairman, W. N. Kelly, presented his 
report showing that the branch had enjoyed a particu- 
larly successful year. Meetings were held monthly and 
subjects were widely diversified. An event of great sig- 
nificance was the formation of a student chapter by 
the civil engineering students at the University of Brit- 
ish Columbia, of whom twenty-seven have joined the 
Institute. This took place immediately after President 
K. M. Cameron's visit to Vancouver, during which he 
addressed the engineering students at the University. 
Mr. Kelly thanked the members of the executive who 
had attended meetings regularly and carried on the 



affairs of the branch efficiently and successfully. Special 
tribute was paid to the secretary, Mr. P. B. Stroyan. 

At the conclusion of business the chairman called 
upon Group Captain Bennett, attached to the Western 
Air Command of the R.C.A.F. to introduce the speakers 
of the evening. These were Squadron Leader Donaldson 
and Flying Officer Lee, both of the R.C.A.F. who spoke 
on Flying Control and Air Sea Rescue. The first 
speaker, S. L. Donaldson, dealt with flying control as 
developed in Great Britain, and described the methods 
used to locate and guide aircraft which are in distress 
as a result of enemy action or mechanical breakdown, 
when they are returning from bombing sorties over 
Europe. He told of the vast organization and the enor- 
mous amount of detailed work required in plotting the 
position of each plane and in safely landing these in 
large numbers, often' under very difficult weather con- 
ditions. This work involves liaison with both the army 
and the navy, the former operating searchlight bat- 
teries and the latter providing fast vessels for sea rescue. 

The Observer Corps, a volunteer organization, also 

Library Notes 

plays a major part in locating distressed aircraft and 
transmitting information to airdromes. 

The second speaker, F. O. Lee, described the training 
and equipment used to enable air crews to survive and 
to be rescued when they are forced to abandon their 
planes in the sea. This part of the programme was illus- 
trated by two reels of sound film and by a display of 
some of the equipment furnished for the protection of 
air crew under such circumstances. This included a 
radio transmitter, with its balloon or kite raised aerial, 
a supply cannister, and other items. The self-inflated 
rubber dinghies, and the carefully selected and packed 
supplies which are provided, were all described in detail 
by the speaker. 

While space here will not permit a more detailed 
summary of the subject matter, it can be said that the 
audience was treated to a well presented and informa- 
tive description of this phase of air force operations. A 
hearty vote of thanks was proposed by Col. W. G. 
Swan and seconded by Dean J. N. Finlayson. The meet- 
ing was adjourned at 11.20 p.m. 



Intermediate Differential Equations: 

Earl D. Rainville. N.Y., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1943. 
5\i x 8 l /i in. $2.75. 
Workshop Sense: 

W. A. J . Chapman. Toronto, Longmans Green and Co., 1941. 
4% x 7\i in. $0.50. 

Electrical Technology for Telecommunications: 

W. H. Date. Toronto, Longmans Green and Co., 1943. 5 x 
7Y 2 in. $1.50. 

Mechanism and the Kinematics of Machines: 

W. Steeds. Toronto, Longmans Green and Co., 1940. 5Yi x 
8% in. $5.50. 

Elementary Surveying: 

Arthur Lovat Higgins. Toronto, Longmans Green and Co., 
1943. 5Y 2 x 8% in. $1.80. 

Kinematics and Machine Design: 

Louis J. Bradford and George L. Guillet. N.Y., John Wiley 
and Sons, Inc., 1943. 5\ix8 in. $3.00. 

Mellor's Modern Inorganic Chemistry: 

9th ed. G. D. Parkes and J . W . Mellor. Toronto, Longmans 
Green and Co., 1939. 5Yi x 8 H in. $5.00. 

Engineering Mechanics: 

Bevis Brunei Low. Toronto, Longmans Green and Co., 1942. 
5 X A x 8Y 2 in. $5.00. 

Public Works Engineers' Yearbook, 1943: 

Chicago, American Public Works Association, 1943. 5Y 2 x 
8% in. $3.75. 

The 1943 Public Works Engineers' Yearbook is an authorita- 
tive reference text on current techniques and practices in the 
field of public services. It includes information on a number of 
topics including employee relations, financial programming, 
public works in civilian defence, substitutes and salvage, traffic, 
airports, wartime operation of sewerage systems and develop- 
ments in refuse collection and disposal. 

Air Navigation for Beginners: 

Scott G. Lamb. N.Y., Norman Henley Publishing Co., 1942. 
5x8 in. $1.50. 

A ground school primer for the aerial navigator with questions 
and answers in each chapter. Written in clear, simple language 
so that it is readily understandable. Designed as an introductory 
text for those who have not previously studied navigation. Valu- 
able to the student wishing to prepare himself for service in the 

Book notes, Additions to the Library of 
The Engineering Institute, Reviews of 
New Books and Publications 

Industrial Fire Brigades Training Manual: 

Ed. by Ernmett T. Cox, W. Fred Heisler and Horatio Bond. 
Boston, National Fire Protection Association. 8Y2 x 11 in. 

This volume answers three demands; 1. As a training manual 
for employees assigned to carry out fire fighting duties under 
direction of the chief of the private brigade. 2. As a reference 
book in those plants where a fire brigade is already organized. 
3. As a guide to those plants which need the essentials but not 
the details of large plant fire protection organization. It is 
profusely illustrated with drawings and photographs. 

American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.: 

Proceedings of the twenty-first annual convention held October 
19-21, 1943. 

North East Coast Institution of Engineers and Ship- 

Transactions of the fifty-ninth session, 1942-1943, volume 59. 
London, The Institution, 1943. 

The Smithsonian Institution: 

Annual report of the board of regents for the year ended June 30, 


British Standards Institution: 

Handbook No. 1, 1943. 
N.Y., Division of Commerce: 

War agencies of United States and New York State, 1943 


Ontario — Department of Mines: 

Fifty-second annual report. Mineral occurrences in the North 
Hastings area, by James E. Thomson. 

Edison Electric Institute: 

Publication No. K7; Turbines, condensers, feedwater heaters, 
1942 — a report by the Turbine Subcommittee of the Prime 
Movers Committee, October, 1943. Publication No. K8; Pole 
Top resuscitation — prepared by the Accident Prevention Com- 
mittee, October, 1943. 

National Fire Protection Association — Boston : 

Venting of tanks exposed to fire, by James J. Duggan, C. H. 
Gilmour and P. F. Fisher. 



Harvard University — Graduate School of Engineering — 

No. 372; Liner-plate tunnels on the Chicago (III.) subway, by 
Karl Terzaghi. No. 373; The numerical solution of heat- 
conduction problems, by H. W. Emmons. No. 375; Applications 
of the operational calculus to the theory of structures, by Louis 
A. Pipes. 

Electrochemical Society — Preprints : 

No. 84-18; Electrolytic tin plate from the can maker's point of 
view. No. 84-19; The development of the crucible steel electro- 
lytic tin plate process. No. 84-20; Pure tungsten direct from 
tungsten ore. No. 84-21; The electrolysis of the nitro-paraffins. 
No. 84-22; Continuous plating of fine steel wire with nickel. 
No. 84-23; Corrosion on tin-nickel alloy coating on steel in 
canned foodstuffs. No. 84-24; The molecular complexity of 
some gases in the high frequency discharge. No. 84-25; A sul- 
fate-chloride solution for iron electroplating and electroforming. 
No. 84-26; Characteristics of electric apparatus used on 
electro-tinning lines. 


The following notes on new books appear here through 
the courtesy of the Engineering Societies Library of New 
York. As yet all of these books are not in the Institute 
Library, but inquiries will be welcomed at headquarters, 
or may be sent direct to the publishers. 


By A. R. Kosma. Institute of Motion Analysis and Human 
Relations, P.O. Box 116, Newark, New Jersey, 1943. 133 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., tables, 8)4. x SYi in., cloth, S3. 25. 
This small book outlines in simple and direct language the 
elements of motion, principles of motion economy, body mem- 
bers and their weights, and the pertinent principles of human 
relations. It is profusely illustrated by photographs and descrip- 
tive cartoon sketches. The material is arranged for ready reference. 

METALS, 1943 

Recommended Practices for Apparatus and Reagents, Analy- 
tical Procedures for Ferrous and N on-Ferrous Metals, Spectro- 
chemical Analysis Methods. American Society for Testing 
Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 323 pp., diagrs., tables, 9Y 2 x 6 
in., cloth, $2.50; paper, $2.00. 
This volume contains adopted and tentative standards for 
apparatus and reagents, for sampling and for the analysis of 
commercial metals and alloys. The methods are intended for use 
in the buying and selling of materials according to specifications. 


By R. Maison. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York and Lon- 
don, 1943. 372 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $3.50. 
This text is intended for courses in aircraft electrical engineer- 
ing which prepare the student as directly as possible for such work 
in the engineering departments of aircraft factories. An acquaint- 
ance with electrical theory is assumed, and the theory of design 
is omitted. Emphasis is on the practical problems that confront 
the engineer. 

POLYMERS, Vol. 5) 

Edited by E. OU. Interscience Publishers, New York, 1943. 

1176 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9]/% x 6 in., cloth, $15.00. 
Thirty-six well-known workers have contributed to this mono- 
graph, which is intended to present "the most important modern 
scientific and technical information concerning cellulose and its 
derivatives and to have this information in such form that it 
becomes a thorough introduction for work on any cellulose prob- 
lem by any person having reasonably wide general technical 
training." The book will be indispensable to all workers in the 

CLEAR THE TRACKS ! — the Story of an Old-Time Loco- 
motive Engineer as Told to Page Cooper 

By J. Bromley. McGraw-Hill Book Co. {Whittlesey House 
Division), 1943. 288 pp., woodcuts, 8Y2 x 5% in., cloth, $2.75. 

This autobiographical work is a humorous and nostalgic story 
of the good old days when railroading was a personalized affair. 
Along with the personal narrative of the author's experiences, 
runs a background of detail showing the growth of the railroads 
from the early wood-burning days to the present. 

COPPER CAMP— Stories of the World's Greatest Mining 
Town, Butte, Montana 

Compiled by Workers of the Writers' Program of the Work 

Projects Administration in the State of Montana, sponsored by 

the Montana State Department of Agriculture, Labor and 

Industry, Albert H. Kruse, Commissioner. Publ. by Hastings 

House, New York, 1943. 308 pp., Mus., woodcuts, 8% x 5Yi 

in. cloth, $2.75. 

Little is said in this book about the wealthy mine owners of 

Butte. On the other hand, there is a wealth of stories about the 

common citizens, their life and amusements, and about the queer 

characters who have been on the scene at various times. Strikes, 

parades and politics are discussed. The book is lively reading 

which will be appreciated by former residents. 


By H. C. Bradley and E. H. Uhler. 2 ed. International Text- 
book Co., Scranton, Pa., 1943. 266 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 
9 x 6 in., cloth, $2.50. 


By I. A. Given. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York and 
London, 1943. 397 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, maps, tables, 
9Yi x6in., cloth, $4.00. 
Theory and practice are both covered in this manual. Many 
mining plans for all types of equipment and all seam conditions 
are given. The varieties of equipment are described. Face prep- 
aration, power supply and the maintenance of equipment are 
also discussed. 

Handbooks: 2) 

By A . W. Postel. University of Pennsylvania Press, The Uni- 
versity Museum, Philadelphia, 1943. 105 pp., maps, charts, 
tables, 8Y2 x 5Yi in., paper, $1.50. 
The available data on the mineral resources of Africa and cur- 
rent production, reserves, etc., are concisely summarized in this 
pamphlet. In each case, the annual world production and the 
annual production of the chief world producer are given for com- 
parison. The work affords a convenient survey of Africa's position 
in the mineral industry. 


By H. J. Hansen. John Wiley and Sons, New York; Chapman 
and Hall, London, 1943. 232 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
8Y 2 x 5Y 2 in., cloth, $3.00. 
The principles of timber design and timber mechanics are dis- 
cussed, including formulas for use in design and design examples. 
Timber connectors and glued laminated construction are empha- 
sized. There are chapters on preservatives, on plywood, and on 
the characteristics and properties of wood. 


By F. L. Coonan. Harper & Brothers, New York and London, 
1943. 238 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9Y 2 x 6 in., cloth, 
The fundamentals necessary for a general appreciation of the 
properties of metals and alloys are presented in this brief elemen- 
tary text, intended for students who require a knowledge of the 
nature and characteristics of the metals and alloys of commercial 
importance. The first section presents the physical principles. The 
succeeding two sections deal, respectively, with non-ferrous alloys 
and alloys of iron and carbon. 


By 0. Zmeskal. Harper & Brothers, New York and London, 
1943. 150 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 7% x 5 in., 
cloth, $2.75. 
This introductory manual gives a clear, practical account of 
methods of radiographic inspection of metals. The equipment 
used, the fundamentals of radiographic practice and the applica- 
tions are discussed. 




of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 

December 31st, 1943. 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall 
approve, classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer 
from one grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate 
members a list of the new applicants for admission and for 
transfer, containing a concise statement of the record of each 
applicant and the names of his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility 
of each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the 
list submitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary 
any facts which may affect the classification and selection of any 
of the candidates. In cases where the professional career of an 
applicant is known to any member, such member is specially 
invited to make a definite recommendation as to the proper 
classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the 
personal reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly 

Communications relating to applicants are considered 
by the Council as strictly confidential. 

The Council will consider the applications herein described at 
the February meeting. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 

•The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have been 
engaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period 
may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a 
term of instruction in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In 
every case a candidate for election shall have held a position of professional 
responsibility, in charge of work as principal or assistant, for at least two years. 
The occupancy of a chair as an assistant professor or associate professor in a 
faculty of applied science or engineering, after the candidate has attained the 
age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered as professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recog- 
nized by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board 
of examiners appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on 
the theory and practice of engineering, with special reference to the branch of 
engineering in which he has been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the 
Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Sections 9 and 10, if not already passed, or 
ehe present evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an 
equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may be waived at the 
discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of professional 
responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been 
engaged in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period 
may be reduced to one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate 
for election has graduated from a school of engineering recognized by the 
Council. He shall not remain in the class of Junior after he has attained the 
age of thirty-three years, unless in the opinion of Council special circumstances 
warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recog- 
nized by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in 
such a course, shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science 
as set forth in Schedule B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations 
for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if 
not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners that 
he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a 
certificate of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination 
of a high school or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school 
of engineering recognized by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of 
student for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving 
a practical training in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination 
in such of the subjects set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations 
relating to Examinations for Admission as were not included in the high school 
or matriculation examination which he has already passed; he shall not remain 
in the class of Student after he has attained the age of twenty-seven years, 
unless in the opinion of Council special circumstances warrant the extension 
of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose 
pursuits, scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate 
with engineers in the advancement of professional knowledge. 


ANTENBRING— GORDON ARTHUR, of 147 Burma St., Arvida, Que. 
Born at Winnipeg, Man., Nov. 11th, 1912; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of Man., 
1934. B.Sc. (Mining), Queen's Univ., 1937; 1932-35, bldg. inspr., 1935-36, 
underground surveyor, Noranda Mines; 1936, asst. chief engr.. Paymaster 
Mines; 1937-39, senior underground shift boss, Sladen Malartic Mines; 1939-42, 
sales engr., Nordberg Mfg. Co.; 1942 to date. No. 3 ore plant supervisor, 
Aluminum Company of Canada, Arvida, Que. 

References: C. A. Anterbring, G. B. Moxon, D. D. Reeve, A. T. Cairncross, 
C. Miller, G. H. Herriot. 

BRIERE— ROGER, of 332 Mousseau St., Montreal, Que. Born at Trois- 
Rivières, Que., July 8th, 1916; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 
1942; Summers — 1940, surveying, Dept. of Roads, Quebec. 1941, inspection 
on constrn. of airport runways, Milton Hersey Co.; May 1942 to date, junior 
engr., Dept. of Transport, Montreal, Que. 

References: J. A. Lalonde, A. Circe, H. Gaudefroy, M. F. Macnaughton, 
L. Trudel. 

BROCHU — BLAISE, of Montreal, Que. Born at East Broughton, Que., 
July 17th, 1914; Educ: B.A.Sc, Laval Univ., Quebec, 1941; R.P.E. of Que.; 
1938-41, summer work at Candn. Malartic Gold Mines, Asbestos Corpn., 
Thetford Mines, Noranda Mines, and Quebec Dept. of Mines; 1941-42, sur- 
veying, instr'man., Noranda Mines Ltd.; 1942-43, asst. engr., highway engrg., 
in British Columbia for Dept. of Mines & Resources, Ottawa; 1943 (July-Nov.), 
supervisor on airport constrn. in Nova Scotia for Milton Hersey Co. Ltd.; at 
present, sales engr., LaSalle Builders Supply, Montreal, Que. 

References: A. Pouliot, G. W. Waddington, P. E. Gagnon, T. S. Mills, S. A. 
Picard, M. F. Macnaughton. 

COVERDALE— HAROLD MILTON, of Halifax, N.S. Born at Boston, 
Mass., Dec. 9th, 1919; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of B.C., 1943; 1939-42 (summers), 
machine and foundry — research, Cons. Mining & Smelting Co. of Canada 
Ltd., Trail, B.C.; at present, Sub-Lieut. (E), R.C.N. V.R., on mech'l. design, 
Exp. Section, National Research Council, Halifax, N.S. (Naval Service — 

References: H. J. MacLeod, J. N. Finlayson, A. Jackson, L. M. Arkley, 
L. A. Campbell. 

FAIRFIELD— HERBERT H., of 15 Pansy St., Ottawa, Ont. Born at St. 
Catharines, Ont., April 20th, 1915; Educ: 1933-37, industrial engrg., General 
Motors Institute. Metallurgical engrg., Statistical Methods of Quality Control; 
with McKinnon Industries, St. Catharines, Ont. as follows: 1933, tool die 
making, 1934, elect'l. mtce., 1935-37, foundry ap'tiee., 1937-40, asst. metallur- 
gist, setting up chemical testing, metallographical, and sand testing labora- 
tories, training and supervising technicians, development work, etc.; 1940 to 
date, research engr., Bureau of Mines, Ottawa, Ont. 

References: R. E. Gilmore, A. A. Swinnerton, C. E. Baltzer, W. R. 
McClelland, E. S. Martindale. 

FLEMING— DONALD CORBETT, of 1228-15th Ave. West, Calgary, 
Alta. Born at Medicine Hat, Alta., Sept. 4th, 1907; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), 
Univ. of Alta., 1933; 1932 (summer), surveying, City of Calgary; 1933-35, 
head of radio dept., Taylor, Pearson & Carson Ltd., Calgary; 1935 to date, 
instructor in (a) radio theory and shop practice, (b) mathematics, (c) physics, 
(d) commercial wireless operating, Institute of Technology and Art, Calgary, 

References: A. Higgins, F. 
H. J. McEwen. 

N. Rhodes, W. J. Gold, J. B. deHart, A. Geddes, 

The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as refer- 
ence does not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by 
such members. 

FONTAINE— ROLAND, of Ormstown, Que. Born at Montreal, Nov. 12th, 
1913; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 1937; 1937-39, 
res. engr., 1939-42, asst. engr., and at present asst. divnl. engr., Dept. of 
Roads, Prov. of Quebec, Ormstown, Que. 

References: E. Gohier, A. Gratton, J. A. Lalonde, L. Trudel, J. O. Mar- 

GORMAN— JOHN ALVIN, of Minto, N.B. Born at Chatham, N.B. 
Educ: B.Sc, Univ. of N.B., 1933; 1934-36, constrn. foreman, Havelock Air- 
port; 1936-37, concrete inspr., Musquash Power Co.; 1937-40, rural electri- 
fication, field work, 1940-42, switchboard operator, i942, dftsman., and at 
present, dftsman and res. engr., Grand Lake power station, New Brunswick 
Electric Power Commission. 

References: J. Stephens, W. D. MacDonald, G. A. Vandervoort, J. N. 
Flood, A. F. Baird. 

HENDERSON— JOHN DALGETY, of 376 Redfern Ave., Westmount, 
Que. Born at Montrose, Scotland, April 6th, 1882; Educ: 1904-06, Manchester 
School of Technology — works and textile engrg. (No degrees given — Honours 
Medallist 1903 and 1904. King's Prize 1906). Cert. Member of Cert. Public 
Accountants & General Accountants. 1917-39, industrial engrg. and account- 
ancy. Supervised constrn. and installed machy. — 1906-07, Smart Bag Co., 
Montreal, 1913-14, Empire Cotton Mills, Welland. 1924-25, installed additional 
machines and managed Canadian Manhasset Cotton Co., St. Hyacinthe, Que.; 
up to Nov. 1943, comptroller, Clark Ruse Aircraft Ltd., Dartmouth, N.S. 

References: A. Surveyer, J. G. Chênevert, E. Nenniger, C. M. McKergow, 
J. T. R. Steeves. 

KRASSOV— CHARLES, of 177 McKay Ave., Windsor, Ont. Born at 
Krukov, Russia, Feb. 15th, 1903: Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), B.Sc. (Chem. Engrg)., 
Tri-State College, Angola, Ind., 1929; 1929-30, struct'l. steel design and detail- 
ing, Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., Winnipeg; 1931-32, chief chem. engr. i/c of 
testing, control, and research, Radio Oil Refineries Ltd., Winnipeg; 1933-37, 
consultant to a number of food mfg. firms in western Canada— design and 
installn. of food processing machy. and research on food production; 1937-41, 
chief chemist i/c production, National Drug Ltd., London, Ont.; 1930-42, 
registered and practiced as U.S. and Candn. Patent Attorney; 1942 to date, 
design and detailing of foundry equipment, patent research on foundry machy. 
and processes of centrifugal casting, Ford Motor Co. of Canada Ltd., Windsor, 

References: E. Chorolsky, J. B. Candlish, W. D. Donnelly, H. Little, G. 
W. Lusby. 

LAMOUREUX— GEORGES, of 1254 Bishop St., Montreal, Que. Born at 
Montreal, May 1904; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 
1929; R.P.E. of Que.; 1929-30, trussed concrete work, for E. Cormier; 1930-33, 
technical service, City of Montreal; 1933-36, drainage office, Dept. of Agricul- 
ture; 1936 to date, junior engr., Dept. of Public Works of Canada, Montreal, 

References: K. M. Cameron, A. Circé, J. E. Bonaventure, L. Trudel, H. 



LATREILLE— RAYMOND, of Quebec, Que. Born at Montreal, January 
12th, 1898; Educ.: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 1922; 1923: 
engr. i/c constrn., for Arthur Surveyer & Co., Montreal; 1923-24, engr. with 
Beaubien, Busfield & Co., Montreal; 1924 to date, with the Hydraulic Service, 
Dept. of Lands and Forests, Prov. of Quebec, senior engr., assistant chief 
engr., and from 1940, chief engineer. 1940 to date, chief engr., hydraulic service, 
Dept. of Lands and Forests, Prov. of Quebec, Quebec, Que. 

References: A. B. Normandin, R. Dupuis, A. E. Paré, H. Cimon, P. Vincent, 
Y. deGuise. 

LONGPRE— ARPHILE, of 9 Raymond-Casgrain, Quebec, Que. Born at 
Montreal, April 7th, 1903; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Mont- 
real, 1927. R.P.E. of Que.; 1927, surveying, Dept. of Public Works of Canada; 
1928, asst. engr., bridge design and constrn., Dept. of Public Works of Quebec; 
1928-30, engr., bldg. design and constrn., Laurentide Constrn. Co. Ltd.; 
1930-31, asst. engr., City of Montreal Waterworks; 1931-32, engr., bldg. and 
constrn., Héroux et Robert; 1932-38, engr., bldg. constrn., J. L. Guay & 
Frère; 1938, asst. divn. engr., Dept. of Roads, Prov. of Quebec; 1938 to date, 
asst. engr., City of Quebec. 

References: L. Gagnon, S. A. Picard, J. L. Bizier, P. Vincent, G. St. Jacques. 

LYNCH— JAMES ALLAN, of 567 Broadview Ave., Ottawa, Ont. Born at 
Winnipeg, Man., July 15th, 1909; Educ: B.Sc (E.E.), Univ. of Man., 1933; 
1930-31-32 (summers), survey work in Sask., meter repair and installn., light 
and power dept., City of Regina; 1935-40, process control engr., Imperial Oil 
Limited, Regina Refinery; 1940 to date. Engineer Officer, Divn. of Aeronautical 
Engrg., R.C.A.F. Headquarters, Ottawa, Ont. 

References: E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, N. M. Hall, W. O. Longworthy, T. A. 
Lindsay, A. Ferrier, I. J. Gould. 

MILLMAN— ROBERT NOVERRE, of 265 Laurier Ave., Ottawa, Ont- 
Born at Toyohashi, Japan, May 8th, 1918; Educ: B.Sc. (M.E.), Univ. of 
Sask., 1940; 1939, gen. carpentering and woodworking; 1940 (May-Nov.), 
asst. in mach. shop and engrg. office, Dunlop Tire & Rubber Co. Ltd., Toronto; 
1940-43, design and dfting., field layout work, Gore & Storrie, consltg. engrs., 
Toronto; June 1943 to date, Sub.-Lieut. (Special Br.), R.C.N.V.R., Works & 
Bldg. Dept., Naval Service, Ottawa, Ont. 

References: N. B. Hutcheon, I. M. Fraser, J. G. Powell, N. G. McDonald, 
C. F. Morrison, R. H. Self. 

MORGAN— JOHN WILLIS, of 212 St. George St., Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Lethbridge, Alta., April 1st, 1917; Educ: B.Sc. (Chem. Engrg,). Univ. of 
Alta., 1939; 1937-38 (summers), geophysical and mine surveying, cyanidation 
plant operator; with the British American Oil Co. Ltd., as follows: 1939-41, 
asst. chemist, Calgary refinery, 1941-42, asst. chemist, Toronto refinery, 
1942-43, design of lab. and equipment and electl. installn. for new refinery at 
Clarkson, Ont., 1943, operation and production engrg. for new alkylation 
plant at Calgary, and at present, production engr. for alkylation plants of 
the company. 

References: E. R. Graydon, T. Dembie, I. S. Widdifield, R. S. Wilson, F. 

MORISSETTE— EMILE, of 4037 Melrose Ave., Montreal, Que. Born at 
Ste. Marie de Beauce, Que., Feb. 28th, 1907; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Poly- 
technique, Montreal, 1931. R.P.E. of Que.; 1931-40, Montreal Water Board, 
City of Montreal; 1940-41, engr., and 1941 to date, engr. i/e east section, 
Roads Dept., City of Montreal, and associate professor on roads, Ecole Poly- 
technique, Montreal, Que. 

References: C. J. Desbaillets, F. Y. Dorrance, H. A. Gibeau, C. J. LeBlanc, 

A. Circé. 

PATTERSON— SAMUEL MORSE, of 218-21st St., Arvida, Que. Born 
at Toronto, Ont., May 2nd, 1918; Educ: B.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1941; with 
Aluminum Company of Canada as follows: 1941-42, asst. supervisor, Bayer 
ore plant (hydrate dept.), 1942-43, supervisor of hydrate dept., Jan. 1943 to 
date, supervisor of process control, Bayer ore plant No. 2. 

References: A. C Johnston, P. E. Radley, A. T. Cairncross, D. D. Reeve, 

B. E. Bauman, G. B. Moxon, M. J. Waite. 

ROYER— MAURICE, of 239 Laurier Ave., Quebec, Que. Born at New 
York, N.Y., March 2nd, 1902; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 
Montreal, 1925. S.B. in CE., Mass. Inst. Tech., 1926; R.P.E. of Que; 1918-24 
(summers), precise levelling, Public Works Dept., topography, Quebec Streams 
Commn., constrn., Shawinigan Engrg. Co.; 1925-28, field work and design of 
waterworks, nitration plants, hydro-electric plants, etc., for Z. Langlais, CE., 
consltg. engr; 1928-29, partner, Langlais, Ricard & Royer, consltg. engrs.; 
1929-39, partner, Ricard & Royer, consltg. engrs.; 1939 to date, consltg, engr., 
and professor of strength of materials, applied maths., spherical trigonometry 
and astronomy, Faculty of Science, Laval University, Quebec, Que. 

References: A. R. Décary, A. B. Normandin, A. Frigon, A. Pouliot, R. 
Dupuis, A. Larivière, G. E. Sarault, P. Vincent. 

SCOTT— H. MELVILLE, of 32 Victor Ave., Mimico, Ont. Born at Port 
Elgin, Ont., March 12th, 1917; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1939; 
1939-41, engr. i/c of mtce. and installn. Ayerst McKenna & Harrison Ltd., 
Montreal; at present, technologist, Campbell Soup Co. Ltd., New Toronto, Ont. 

References: H. Irwin, E. R. Graydon, T. Dembie, W. Fotheringham, I. S. 

SPROULE— STANLEY M., of Montreal, Que. Born at Montreal, Jan. 
15th, 1889; Educ: B.Sc. (Engrg.), 1910. B.Arch., 1912, McGill Univ., 1910, 
topog'l., dfting and instrument work, C.P.R. irrig. dept.; 1912-14 and 1919-25, 
structl. and archtl. design and field supervn., Brown & Vallanee, Montreal; 
1914-19, with Candn. Engrs., i/c bridge work, etc.,; 1925-27, structl. and 
archtl. design., Andrew J. Thomas, New York City; 1927-29, structl. design 
and field supervn., Lafayette A. Goldstone, New York City; 1929-31, strctl. 
design and field supervn., Chas. A. Piatt, New York City; 1936, strctl. design 
and plant Burvey, General Foods Ltd., Montreal; 1936-38, strctl. and archtl. 
design, Canadian Industries Ltd., Montreal; 1938-39, i/c plant design, Inter- 
national Foils Ltd., Montreal; 1939 to date, i/c archtl. design and co-ordination 
of industrial process layouts, incl. mech. and elec services, Robert A. Rankin 
& Co., Montreal, Que. 

References: G. M. Pitts, F. Peden, A. B. McEwen, E. A. Ryan, C. E. Herd. 

VINCE— EDWARD RABAN, of Woodstock, N.B. Born at Woodstock, 
April 14th, 1887; 1904-08, 3 years civil engr., Univ. of N.B.; 1905-07, surveying 
and constrn., C.P.R. ; 1909-10, mine surveying, Cape Breton; 1910-14, in 
business; 1914-19, overseas, Major, Candn. Engrs.; Military Service as follows: 
1919-20, Works Officer, Toronto; 1920-21, D.E.O., Halifax; 1922-26, D.E.O., 
Saint John; 1926-30, chief instructor, Royal Candn. School of Engrg., Halifax; 
1930-33, D.E.O., London; 1933, D.E.O., Toronto; 1933-35, D.E.O., London; 
1935-41, D.E.O., Halifax; 1935-39, Commandant, R. C. School of Military 
Engrg., Halifax; 1941^42, Commanding, 5th Candn. (Armoured) Divn., 
R.C.E.; 1942-43, D.E.O., Halifax; at present, town engr. and manager, Wood- 
stock, N.B. (Colonel, R.C.E. (P.F.) Retired). 

References: J. B. Stirling, H. S. Dunn, H. W. L. Doane, F. C. Wightman, 
H. L. Trotter, W. H. Noonan. 

WATSON— NORMAN STEWART BAIN, of 307 Green St., St. Lambert, 
Que. Born at Charlottetown, P.E.I., April 15th, 1898; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), 
N.S. Tech. Coll., 1922; 1916-18, instructor, evening technical schools, Halifax; 
1918-19, engine room artificer, R.C.N.V.R.; 1919-20, instructor in motor 
mechs. and elem. electricity, D.S.C.R., Halifax and Charlottetown; 1922-26, 
partner in elec. contracting business at Charlottetown; 1926-27, elec. dftsman., 
C.N.R., Moncton; 1927-28, inspecting engr., C.N.R., Halifax; 1928, elec. 
engr., Town of Truro, N.S. ; 1928-29, inspecting engr. and maintainer unit 
cars, C.N.R., Moncton; 1929-38, elec. engr., chief architect's dept., C.N.R., 
Montreal; 1938 to date, elec. engr., chief architect' dept., C.N.R. and Trans- 
Canada Air Lines, Montreal, Que. 

References: C. B. Brown, H. L. Currie, R. G. Gage, H. F. Finnemore, A. 
G. Moore, R. O. Stewart. 

WOODS— GEORGE MAITLAND, of 681 Godin Ave., Verdun, Que. 
Born at Lang, Sask., June 1st, 1913; Educ: B.Sc. (Mech.), Univ. of Sask., 
1941; 1931-33, electrician's asst., Woods Electric, Rosetown, Sask.; 1933-37, 
boilerman & stillman, Hi-way Oil Refinery, Rosetown; 1937-38, survey 
rodman, 1938-39, instr'man., 1939-40, acting dist. engr., N.W. of Sask., Water 
Rights Br., Dept. of Natural Resources; 1940, constrn. engr. on airports, 
Dept. of Transport, Regina; 1941-42, foreman and senior foreman, Verdun 
Works, 1942-43, supervisor, bldg. services, Westmount tool works, and May 
1943 to date, equipment and supplies engr., Westmount tool works, Defence 
Industries Ltd., Westmount, Que. 

References: C. J. McGavin, I. M. Fraser, F. H. Barnes, H. C. Karn, H. R. 
Carscallen . 

ZIRUL— MELVIN LEE, of 1009 West 10th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. Born 
at North Vancouver, Jan. 4th, 1915; Educ: B.A.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of B.C., 
1941; 1941 to date, field and office engr., Dominion Water & Power Bureau, 
Dept. of Mines & Resources, Vancouver, B.C. 

References: C. E. Webb, J. N. Finlayson, A. Peebles, H. N. Macpherson, 
W. H. Powell. 


CLARKSON— ARTHUR GRANT, of Edmonton, Alta. Born at Dixie, 
Ont., Nov. 7th, 1915. Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1938. 1938-40, engr. 
dftsmn.; 1940-41, examiner and chief examiner, Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa 
Monica, Calif.; 1941-43, res. B.A.C inspr. and acting regional technical office 
(i/c inspn. and engrg. for British Air Commission, at Douglas Aircraft plant 
at Long Beach, Calif.); at present aeronautical engr., i/c Canadian Pacific 
Airlines' Engrg. Dept. for Canada, Edmonton, Alta. (Jr. 1938). 

References: J. L. Lang, A. E. Pickering, C. Stenbol, F. Smallwood, C. R. 


MARTIN— GERALD N., of Woodlands, Que. Born at Lachine, Que., 
April 1st, 1913; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, 1934; 1935-43, 
designer' Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd.; 1938-40, on loan to International Com- 
bustion Ltd. ; London and Derby, England, and to Central Electricity Board, 
London, Eng. ; 1941-43, on loan as designer to Aluminum Co. of Canada, 
Montreal; at present combustion sales engr., Dominion Bridge Co., Lachine. 
(Jr. 1937). 

References: F. Newell, R. S. Eadie, M. E. Hornback, A. Circé, J. A. Lalonde. 

WOERMKE— ORVILLE REUBEN, of Buckingham, Que. Born at Arn- 
prior, Ont., Oct. 25, 1916; Educ: B.Sc. (Chem.) 1939; R.P.E., Quebec. 1934 
(winter) road bldg. at Dacre, Ont., with Dept. of Northern Development; 
1934-35, Gillies Bros. Lumber Mills, Braeside, Ont.; 1937 (summer) Inter- 
national Nickel Co., Creighton Mine, Ont.; 1939 (five months) soap maker at 
United Chemical Co., Montreal; 1940 (Jan. -May) instr. in draughting, and 
instr. in Metallurgical Assay Lab., Queen's Univ., Kingston; 1940 to date, 
with Electric Reduction Co. of Canada, Ltd., Buckingham, Que., engaged as 
dftsmn. in May 1940, became chief dftsmn. in Nov. 1940, and is now plant 
designing engr. i/c all drawing, steel and concrete design, pumping and ven- 
tilating design, surveying and layout work. (Jr. 1943). 

References: R. M. Prendergast, H. Burri, A. N. Ball, D. Anderson, S. E. 


BINKS— WYMAN RODGER, of Vancouver, B.C. Born at Ottawa, Ont., 
June 26th, 1915; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Queen's Univ., 1940; 1939 (summer), 
surveying, 1940 (summer), Fraser Brace Constrn. Co.; 1940-41, Spruce Falls 
Power & Paper Co.; May 1941 to date, Armament Branch, R.C.A.F., with 
rank of Flight Lieutenant. (St. 1940). 

References: J. K. Wyman, C. W. Boast, W. H. Munro, A. Jackson, R. A. 

BROSSEAU— JOSEPH ERNEST GERARD, of 8439 Drolet, Montreal, 
Que. Born at Montreal, Dec. 15th, 1913; Educ: 1936-38 (evenings) Montreal 
Tech. Sch.; private study and correspondence courses: 1938-40, dftng., bill of 
material scheduling, and i/c Salonge Dept., tools inspn. and approval of test 
pieces, Canadian Car & Foundry, aircraft division; 1940-42, supervising 
inspr. (A.I.D.) aircraft, Dept. of National Defence; 1942, engrg. superviser, 
Sorel Industries, Ltd., Sorel; 1942 to date, checker on tool design, and super- 
viser machine loading and Time Study Dept., Canadian Power Boat Co., 
Montreal. (St. 1940). 

References: J. A. Lalonde, D. Boyd, J. M. Laforest, L. Trudel. 

COLBY— ALAN RUTHERFORD, of 3240 West 37th Ave., Vancouver, 
B.C. Born at Ottawa, Ont., Nov. 20th, 1914. Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of 
N.B., 1939; summers, 1937, chainman, Fraser Lumber Co., 1938 rodman, 
City of Fredericton, Engrg. Dept.; 1939 (May-Dec) levelman, N.B. Highway 
Dept.; 1940-41, dftsman, 1941-42, instr'mn., 1942-43, instr'mn. i/c of constrn., 
Dept. of Transport; 1943 (Apr. to Sept.) asst. res. engr., U.S.P.R.A., Alaska 
Highway; Sept. 1943 to date, water and power engr., Dept. of Mines & Re- 
sources, Vancouver, B.C. (St. 1939). 

References: F. B. Whiteley, C. E. Webb, F. T. Brown, E. O. Turner, H. 
C Moore. 

DODD— GEOFFREY JOHNSTON, Jr., of 5959 Kenmore Ave., Chicago, 
40, 111. Born at London, England, May 9, 1918; Educ: B.Eng. (Mech.), 
McGill Univ., 1940; summers, 1936-37, tech. asst., model turbine testing 
plant, Shawinigan Engrg. Co., Shawinigan Falls, 1938-39, jr. field engr., St. 
Maurice Power Corp., LaTuque, Que., dftng. and surveying; 1940-41, fore- 
man, shot-shell dept., Canadian Industries Ltd., Brownsburg, Que.; 1941 to 
date, asst. inspr.' of Naval Ordnance, British Admiralty Technical Mission, 
at present i/c of Western Area Office, Chicago. (St. 1939). 

References: E. Brown, C M. McKergow, F. M. Wood, R. E. Heartz, E. 
L. Johnson. 



Employment Service Bureau 


Technical personnel should not reply to any of the adver- 
tisements for situations vacant unless^ 

1. They are registered with the Wartime Bureau of Technical 

2. Their services are available. 

A person's services are considered available only if he i*— 

(a) unemployed; 

(b) engaged in work other than of an engineering or 
scientific nature; 

(c) has given notice as of a definite date; or 

(d) has permission from his present employer to negotiate 
for work elsewhere while still in the service of that 

Applicants will help to expedite negotiations by stating in 
their application whether or not they have complied with the 
above regulations. 


MECHANICAL ENGINEER, graduate of about one year's standing required 
by stable industry essential to war work, for draughting, design and study 
work on mechanical and other maintenance problems. Location south- 
western Ontario. Apply to Box No. 2682-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER for a large pulp and paper company in the 
province of Quebec. Mill located near Ottawa. Applicant should have good 
knowledge of paper mill design and layout. Do not apply if a technical 
person within the meaning of PC. 246, Part III (Jan. 19-43) unless your 
services are available under the regulations administered by the Wartime 
Bureau of Technical Personnel. Reply stating age, experience, and salary 
expected to Box No. 2687-V. 

fixtures and light manufacturing machinery. Location — Eastern Ontario. 
Good opportunity. Apply to Box No. 2690-V. 

YOUNG MECHANICAL ENGINEER, able draughtsman, required by 
76-year old firm in Quebec district, operating cast iron foundry and metal 
working departments. Firm "designated" by Selective Service but this 
position not dependent on war work. Good opportunity for advancement 
to right party. Applicant must be bilingual. State experience and salary 
expected in writing to Box No. 2695-V. 

WANTED — We have an opening in our filtration department for a mechanical, 
metallurgical or chemical engineer or a man with equivalent technical 
training or qualifications. This job requires the services of a man to handle 
test work, sales and servicing of Oliver paper mill filters, deckers, bleach 
washers, savealls, etc. Knowledge of and experience in the pulp and paper 
industry along with an engineering background enabling applicants to solve 
filtration problems is required. This is a permanent position. Do not apply 
unless your services are available under regulations PC. 246 Part III 
(Jan. 19-43) administered by the Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel. 
Apply to E. LONG LIMITED, Orillia, Canada. 


GRADUATE CIVIL ENGINEER, age 55, over thirty years' experience as 
engineer and construction executive in charge railway, highway, bridge 
and foundations and general heavy construction projects. Capable of taking 
charge organization and management. Wishes to make permanent con- 
nection with view to immediate and post-war developments. Apply to Box 
No. 279-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, age 39, experience in charge of light and heavy construc- 
tion, all types surveying, airfield work, machinery installation, light steel- 
work. Apply to Box 741-W. 

GRADUATE CIVIL ENGINEER, age 44, married, bilingual, over twenty 
years' experience; eight years as laboratory technician in pulp and paper 
and twelve years as inspecting engineer on various construction jobs includ- 
ing two years in charge of concrete laboratory on large hydroelectric project 
recently completed. Presently unemployed, desires permanent position. 
Apply to Box No. 1485-W. 

Manitoba. Experience in design, layout, installation, supervision of industrial 
electrical power, distribution systems; high tension overhead and under- 
ground transmission systems; outdoor and indoor substations. Design and 
layout of commercial and industrial lighting systems, covering incandescent, 
fluorescent and cold cathode installations. Available on short notice. Apply 
to Box 2099-W. 

PLANNING ENGINEER— Available March 1st. Graduated in civil engineer- 
ing, McGill '37. Age 30 years. Married. Home in Montreal. Five years shop 

The Service is operated for the benefit of members of 
The Engineering Institute of Canada, and for industrial 
and other organizations employing technically trained 
men — without charge to either party. Notices appearing 
in the Situations Wanted column will be discontinued 
after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon request 
after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be 
Mansfield Street, Montreal. 

experience in structural, boiler and mechanical supervision and inspection. 
1 yi years experience as supervisor of scheduling and planning of tool and 
gauge shop in small arms ammunition production tool works (Montreal). 
Resigning due to curtailment, which limits necessity of further planning. 
Intent on continuing in specializing in planning in any sphere of industry, 
any municipality or any country. Will also consider production control 
as introductory work where prospect of future planning is offered. Will 
also consider work related to industrial conversion to peacetime occupation, 
as planning. Salary and location considered secondary to type of work 
offered. Apply to Box No. 2441-W. 

GRADUATE B.Sc, Jr.E.I.C, age 27, executive and administrative ability, 
keenly interested in fields of industrial engineering and chemistry. Engineer- 
ing office and laboratory experience, all around technical training. Bilingual. 
Presently employed, but war conditions necessitate change. Apply to Box 
No. 2445-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, 45 years old, married, experienced in all types of indus- 
trial and heavy construction, railways bridges, water supply, etc., desired 
permanent position. Available December first. Apply to Box No. 2458-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, M.E.I. C, age 28, married. Experienced in highway and 
airdrome construction, sewer and waterwork, construction of buildings, 
steam and hot air heating. Desires position with consulting engineer, muni- 
cipal engineer or general contractor in prairie provinces or western Ontario. 
Available January 1st, 1944. Apply to Box No. 2459-W. 


TRANSITS, levels and accessories. Apply to Ralph Kendall, C.E. 
13 Queen's Building, Halifax, N.S. 


Mechanical and Electrical 
Engineer Wanted 

For the position of assistant superintendent of the Depart- 
ment of Buildings and Grounds, with the ultimate view of 
assuming the office of superintendent, for a large educational 
institution in the province of Quebec. Preferred age, 30 to 35 
years. The duties involve, among other things, the inspection 
of buildings and attached services so that an annual budget 
can be prepared for the operation and maintenance of two 
light, heat and power plants and some fifty buildings and 
their adjacent campuses; the consultation with deans of 
faculties, wardens of dormitories and heads of departments 
for the provision of such information as they may require. 
Applicants must give age, nationality, education, training 
experience and references, indicate availability, include recent 
photo, and mail before February 28th, 1944, to Box No. 2688-V. 

Mechanical Engineer 

Large pulp and paper mill requires services of graduate civil 
or mechanical engineer with three or more years' experience 
in mechanical engineering. When applying state age, edu- 
cation, experience, salary, marital status and when available. 
Do not apply unless your services are available under regu- 
lation P.C. 246. Part III. administered by Wartime Bureau 
of Technical Personnel. Apply to Box No. 2706-V. 

MARTEL— PIERRE, of 67 Prince-Albert, Overbrooke, Ottawa. Born at 
Shawinigan Falls, Que., Aug. 13th, 1917. Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Poly- 
technique, 1941; summers, 1937-40, surveying and asst. operator, Shawinigan 
Water & Power Co., 1941, machine design, Canada Iron Foundries, 1941, 
inspr., Federal Aircraft Co.; Jan. 1942 to date, Lieut., R.C.A., N.D.H.Q., 
Ottawa. (St. 1937). 

References; J. G. Spotton, J. H. Fregeau, L. Trudel, A. Circé, H. 

URUSKI— FRANK WILLIAM, of Guayaquil, Ecuador, S.A. Born at 
Yorkton, Sask., Nov. 20th, 1915; Educ: B.E. (Civil), Univ. of Sask., 1941; 
summers, 1939, instr., Univ. of Sask. Summer survey camp, 1936-39, rodman, 
instr'mn. Dept. of Highways, Sask., 1940, inspr., airport constrn., Dept. of 
Transport; 1939-40, lab. asst. in surveying and dftng., Univ. of Sask.; 1941, 
instr'mn., Dept. of Highways, Sask.; at present, seismograph engr., Inter- 
national Petroleum Co., Guayaquil, Ecuador, S.A. (St. 1940). 

References: W. E. Crossley, R. Thistlethwaite, C. J. Mackenzie, R. A. 
Spencer, E. K. Phillips. 



Industrial News 


P. B. Wickware was elected a director 
of The Imperial Varnish & Color Co. Ltd., 
Toronto, at the recent annual meeting of 
the shareholders. Mr. Wickware was 
appointed sales manager in 1934, a title 
which he still retains. It is his twenty-fifth 
year with the company. 


Crane Ltd., Montreal, Que., have for 
distribution a French edition of "Plumb- 
ing and Heating Pointers." A complete 
duplication of the English edition, it 
contains 24 supplementary pages of text 
describing ways and means of keeping 
domestic plumbing and heating instal- 
lations in first-class operating condition. 


Dominion Hoist & Shovel Co. Ltd., 
Lachine, Que., have prepared a 4-page 
bulletin, which gives a full description and 
complete specifications of the company's 
combination shovel-crane-dragline, known 
as "Dominion 358." Dimensional drawings 
and corresponding tables provide all 
necessary information required for safe 
and efficient operation for all three pur- 
poses for which this shovel is adapted to 
be used. 

Peckovers Ltd., Toronto, Ont., have 
issued a folder discussing the character- 
istics and uses of a number of plastic 
products including pipes, tubes, rods, 
strips, sheets, plates, cords, mouldings, 
fabrics and mesh. Included is a table 
which compares the properties of a 
number of basic plastics in terms of their 
chemical and physical properties. 

The Foxboro Co., represented by 
Peacock Bros. Ltd., Montreal, Que., 
have for distribution catalogue 95A, 48 
pages. This catalogue is a classification of 
the company's products on a functional 
basis under ten main headings such as 
temperature, flow, pressure, liquid level, 
humidity, etc. The catalogue is so ar- 
ranged that by a study of the functional 
requirements of a job the reader is led 
through a cross-reference directly to the 
type of instrument required to meet each 

Industrial development — new products — changes 
in personnel — special events — trade literature 


Canadian National Carbon Co. Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont., have issued three bulletins 
under the caption "Modern Pyramids", 
containing information on practical sub- 
jects relating to brushes and commutation 
including new developments in carbon 
and metal graphite brushes, performance 
characteristics and suggestions on brush 
application and operation. Bulletin No. 1 
describes a test that measures the corn- 
mutating performance of a brush; No. 2 
is a reprint, "The Measurement of the 
Frictional Characteristics of Brushes"; 
No. 3 is a technical discussion of "Brush 


On December 3, 1943, there was organ- 
ized the Canadian Fan Manufacturers' 
Association by Canadian Blower & Forge 
Co. Ltd.; Canadian Sirocco Co. Ltd.; 
Sheldons Ltd., and B. F. Sturtevant Co. 
of Canada Ltd. 

For the past ten years these manufac- 
turers, acting through a joint engineering 
committee, have promoted and developed 
the science and art of fan engineering. 
There has been distributed to the public 
without cost bulletin X-14 entitled "Stand- 
ard Methods Adopted for Centrifugal 
Fans and Blowers." This bulletin con- 
tains valuable information, such as com- 
parison charts for various types of fans, 
operating limits for classes of fans, stand- 
ards for air and flues gas densities, stand- 
ards for arrangement of drives and rotation 
and discharge, as well as information on 
abrasion and field tests of fans. 

For identification to the buying public 
that air deliveries of fans and blowers 
have been obtained in accordance with 
the "Standard Test Code for Centrifugal 
and Axial Fans," there has been design- 
ated a "certified rating sticker" which is 
attached to or printed in the catalogues 
published by the companies mentioned 

Mail for the Association may be ad- 
dressed to P.O. Box 275, Windsor, Ont. 

Frank C. O'Brien 

J. M. S. Carroll 


Business executives and technical men 
in the rubber industry throughout Canada 
mourn the death of J. M. S. Carroll, who 
was manager of mechanical sales depart- 
ment, Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd., Mont- 
real, Que. 

Mr. Carroll joined Dominion Rubber 
in 1903 as secretary to the general man- 
ager and 1905 was appointed sales man- 
ager of the company's eastern division. 
In 1905 he became division manager, and 
some years later was named mechanical 
goods sales manager at head office in 

Prior to entering the rubber industry, 
Mr. Carroll was connected with important 
mining enterprises in Australia and later 
with the construction department of the Ca- 
nadian Pacific Railway at Winnipeg, Man. 

The Steel Co. of Canada Ltd., Montreal, 
Que., have issued a 4-page folder and 
letter showing that practically every 
phase of war activity and war equipment 
have made demands on this company's 
products. This is also shown in a tabula- 
tion of the features of the company's war 
achievements as given in terms of a list of 
the company's products and the service 
equipment to which they are applied. 
The letter gives facts and figures covering 
production increases and plant expansion 
necessitated by the demands of war. 

Burlington Steel Co. Ltd., through its 
president, H. J. Stambaugh, has announced 
the promotion of Frank C. O'Brien to gen- 
eral manager, and of Norman A. Eager to 
sales manager of the company. 

Mr. O'Brien joined the company in 1919, 
was appointed sales manager in 1937, and 
has served on the board of directors since 1939. 

Mr. Eager, formerly design engineer 
for Shawinigan Engineering Company, 
has served as assistant sales manager since 
joining the company in 1940. 

Since assuming the presidency of the 
company in 1939, Mr. Stambaugh has 
occupied the dual position of president 
and general manager. 

Norman A. Eager 








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either for the statement* made or for the 
opinion» expre»*ed in the following page*. 

Banks of transformers with disconnectors overhead at the Arvida 

plant of the Aluminum Company ...... Cover 

(Photo National Film Board) 


Wilfred Gallay 


C. B. Stenning 

Discussion ........... 82 


D. W. Weed 





Obituaries ........... 119 








tW. P. BRERETON, Winnipeg, Man. 
*H. CIMON, Quebec, Que. 

*T. H. HOGG, Toronto, Ont. 

tJ. E. ARMSTRONG, Montreal, Que. 

tH. E. BRANDON, Toronto, Ont. 

•8. G. COULTIS, Calgary, Alta. 

*G. L. DICKSON, Moncton. N.B. 

ÎE. V. GAGE, Montreal, Que. 

*F. W. GRAY, Sydney. N.S. 

•E. D. GRAY-DONALD, Quebec, Que 

•J. HAÏMES, Lethbridge, Alta. 

tR. E. HEARTZ, Montreal, Que. 

*W. G. HUNT, Montreal, Que. 

•E. W. IZARD. Victoria, B.C. 

* For 1943 t For 1943-44 t For 1943-44-45 


R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 


K. M. CAMERON, Ottawa, Ont. 

tL. F. GRANT, Kingston, Ont. 

*J. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 


tC. J. MACKENZIE, Ottawa. Ont. 

tA. JACKSON, Kingston, Ont. 

*J. R. KAYE, Halifax, N.S. 

ÎJ. A. LALONDE, Sorel, Que. 

tA. M. MACGILLIVRAY, Saskatoon, Sask. 

*N. MacNICOL, Toronto, Ont. 

tN. B. MacROSTIE, Ottawa, Ont. 

*T. A. McELHANNEY, Ottawa, Ont. 

*A. W. F. McQUEEN, Niagara Falls, Ont 

tG. E. MEDLAR, Windsor, Ont. 

tJ. P. MOONEY, Saint John, N.B. 

tE. NELSON, Edmonton, Alta. 


C. V. CHRISTIE. Montreal, Que. 


L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 

tC. K. McLEOD. Montreal, Que 

*G. G. MURDOCH, Saint John, N.B. 

ÎC. R. YOUNG, Toronto, Ont. 

tH. G. O'LEARY, Fort William, Ont. 

*A. E. PICKERING, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

*G. MacL. PITTS. Montreal. Que. 

*W. J. W. REID. Hamilton, Ont. 

*J. W. SANGER, Winnipeg, Man. 

tC. SCRYMGEOUR, Dartmouth, N.S. 

*H. R. SILLS, Peterborough, Ont. 

tJ. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 

tH. J. WARD, Shawinigan Falls, Que. 

tJ. W. WARD, Beauharnois, Que. 

tC. E. WEBB, Vancouver. B.C. 


LOUIS TRUDEL, Montreal, Que. 



C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 


J. L. LANG, Chairman 


L. F. GRANT, Chairman 


E. V. GAGE, Chairman 


J. A. LALONDE, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Vice-Chairman 





J. G. HALL, Chairman 


J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

O. O. LEFEBVRE. Vice-Chairman 







M. J. McHENRY, Chairman 












H.F. BENNETT, Chairman R. DeL. FRENCH 




G. A. GAHERTY. Chairman 






J. E. ARMSTRONG, Chairman 


W. C. MILLER, Chairman 





l. Mackenzie 



































R. B. YOUNG. Chairman 
E. VIENS. Vice-Chairman 









Sir John Kennedy Medal For outstanding merit or 

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or to benefit of the Insti- 

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velopment of Canada. 

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to value of engineering involving the 
$100. use of metals for struc- 

tural or mechanical pur- 

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the literature of the pro- 
fession of civil engineer- 

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metallurgical subjects. 


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Students and Juniors. 

University Students 

Books to the 

value of $25 
(5 prizes). 

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prizes) . . . 

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subject, open to members 
of the Canadian Institute 
of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy as well as The En- 
gineering Institute. 

For papers on any subject 
presented by Student or 
Junior members. 

For the third year student 
in each college, making 
the best showing in col- 
lege work and activities 
in student or local branch 
of engineering society. 





Chairman, J. B. DOWLER 

Vice-Chair., A. H. MacQUARRIE 

Executive, G. W. LUSBY J. M. WYLLIE 

(Ex-Officio), G. E. MEDLAR 

Sec.-Treas., W. R. STICKNEY, 

1614 Ontario Street, 
Walkerville, Ont. 






(Ex-Officio), S. G. COULTIS 


StcTreas., K. W. MITCHELL, 

803-17th Ave. N.W., 
Calgary, Alta. 

Chairman, J. A. MacLEOD 

Executive, J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

(Ex-Officio), F. W. GRAY 

Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 


Chairman, C. W. CARRY 
Vice-Chair., B. W. PITFIELD 
Executive, J. A. ALLAN 
H. W. TYE 
(Ex-Officio), D. HUTCHISON 

Sec.-Treas., F. R. BURFIELD, 

Water Resources Office, 

Provincial Government, 
Edmonton, Alta. 




(Ex-Officio), A. E. FLYNN 


Sec.-Treas., S. W. GRAY, 

Wartime Bureau of Technical, 
Personnel, 84 Hollis Street, 
Halifax, N.S. 

Chairman, H. A. COOCH 
Vice-Chair., NORMAN EAGER 
Executive, C. H. HUTTON 

(Ex-Officio), ALEX. LOVE 

Sec.-Treas., W. E. BROWN, 

91 Barnsdale Blvd., 
Hamilton, Ont. 

Chairman, S. D. LASH 
Vice-Chair., H. W. HARKNESS 
Executive, R. J. CARTER 


(Ex-Officio), L. F. GRANT 

Sec.-Treas., R. A. LOW, 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
Queen's University, 
Kingston, Ont. 

Chairman, R. B. CHANDLER 
Vice-Chair., S. T. McCAVOUR 
Executive, S. E. FLOOK 



(Ex-Officio), E. M. G. MacGILL 
(Mrs. E. J. Soulsby) 

Sec.-Treas., W. C. BYERS, 

c/o C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 

Chairman, A. L. H. SOMERVILLE 
Executive, J. M. CAMPBELL 
(Ex-Officio), W. MELDRUM 
Sec.-Treas., T. O. NEUMANN 

Dept. of Transport, 

Post Office Building, 
Lethbridge, Alta. 


Chairman, R. S. CHARLES 
Vice-Chair., H. G. STEAD 
Executive, E. B. ALLEN 



(Ex-Officio), T. L. McMANAMNA 

Sec.-Treas, A. L. FURANNA, 

732 Wellington Street, 
London, Ont. 







(Ex-Officio), H. J. CRUDGE 

Sec.-Treas., V. C. BLACKETT, 

Engrg. Dept., C.N.R. 
Moncton, N.B. 

Chairman, R. S. EADIE 
Vice-Chair., C. C. LINDSAY 
Executive, H. F. FINNEMORE 





(Ex-Officio), C. K. McLEOD 






Sec.-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 
Outremont, Que. 


Chairman, G. E. GRIFFITHS 
Vice-Chair., W. D. BRACKEN 
Executive, A. G. HERR 



(Ex-Officio), C. G. CLINE 

Sec.-Treas., J. H. INGS, 

2135 Culp Street, 

Niagara Falls, Ont. 



(Ex-Officio), K. M. CAMERON 
Sec.-Treas., A. A. SWINNERTON, 

Dept. of Mines & Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Chairman, A. R. JONES 
Executive, R. L. DOBBIN 
(Ex-Officio), D. J. EMERY 

Sec.-Treas., A. J. GIRDWOOD, 

308 Monaghan Road, 
Peterborough, Ont. 
Life Hon.- 

Chair., A. R. DÉCARY 
Chairman, RENÉ DUPUIS 
Vice-Chair., E. D. GRAY-DONALD 


(Ex-Officio), H. CIMON 

Sec.-Treas., PAUL VINCENT, 

Colonization Department, 
Room 333-A, Parliament Bldgs., 
Quebec, Que. 


Chairman, CHAS. MILLER 

Vies-Chair., G. B. MOXON 

Executive, J. FRISCH W. E. COOPER 

(Ex-Officio), R. H. RIMMER J. W. WARD 

8-C Brittany Row, 
Arvida, Que. 





Chairman, A. O. WOLFF 
Vice-Chair., C. D. McALLISTER 
Executive, G. M. BROWN 

(Ex-Officio), G. G. MURDOCH 



Sec.-Treas., F. A. PATRIQUEN, 
P. O. Box 1417 

Saint John, N.B. 


Chairman, J. H. FREGEAU 
Vice-Chair., R. DORION 
Executive, G. B. BAXTER 


(Ex-Officio), VIGGO JEPSEN 

Sec.-Treas., DAVID E. ELLIS, 

Shawinigan Water & Power 

P.O. Box 190, 

Three Rivers, Que 

Vice-Chair., J. McD. PATTON 
Executive, F. E. ESTLIN 



(Ex-Officio), A. P. LINTON 

Sec. Treas., STEWART YOUNG, 

P.O. Box 101, Regina, Sask. 


Chairman, N. C. COWIE 
Vice-Chair., A. M. WILSON 
Executive, C. O. MADDOCK 

G. W. MacLEOD 

(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG 

Sec. Treas., O. A. EVANS, 

159 Upton Road. 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Chairman, W. H. M. LAUGHLIN 
Vice-Chair., S. R. FROST 
Executive, F. J. BLAIR 

(Ex-Officio), H. E. BRANDON 
Sec.-Treas., S. H. deJONG, 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 

Chairman, T. V. BERRY 
Vice-Chair., A. PEEBLES 
Executive, J. P. FRASER 
(Ex-Officio), C. E. WEBB 

Sec.-Treas., P. B. STROYAN, 

2099 Beach Avenue, 

Vancouver, B.C. 















41 Gorge Road West, 
Victoria, B.C. 






55 Princess Street, 
Winnipeg, Man; 





Division of Chemistry, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ont. 

Revised version of paper presented before the Montreal Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada 

on November 4th, 1943. 

No technical development in all our industrial history 
has been as highly glamorized as the subject of plastics. 
It has shown an amazing degree of popular appeal for 
several reasons, including probably the idea of synthesis 
from "coal, air and water," the beauty of colour and 
finish in decorative effects, and the fact that the objects 
of early manufacture were those of common use by the 
general public. Feature writers have regrettably enjoyed 
a general field-day revelling in the subject, and unfor- 
tunately there has been a tendency towards certain 
misconceptions and exaggerations in such writings. 
Plastic aeroplanes now flying, plastic automobiles and 
plastic homes of the future have been described. Actu- 
ally there is no such thing to-day as the plastic aeroplane. 
The plywood airframe has attained great importance 
owing to the advent of plastic glues, and what might 
be termed a "plywood plastic" aircraft is still actually 
a high-grade plywood. The plastic automobile bodies 
envisaged to-day are secondary structures to be built 
over a metal framework. The post-war homes will un- 
doubtedly have dozens of items in which plastics will 
play a part, but primary load-carrying structures are 
not among these components as yet. The plastic indus- 
try itself has recently become somewhat concerned 
about the dangers attendant on over-glamorization and 
some remedial action has been studied. 

On the other hand, the plastics industry is on a solid 
foundation and does show tremendous possibilities for 
the future in many technical fields. The industry is in 
its infancy, the great period of growth having been 
during the past ten years. Particularly as a result of 
the present emergency, with its attendant shortages 
and search for replacements, it is no exaggeration to 
say that each month has seen important advances made 
in the field of plastics, both in discovery of new materials 
and formulation, and in new applications. 


The question is often asked — "What is a plastic ?" — 
and a specific unqualified definition is not a simple mat- 
ter. Chemically speaking, important plastics represent 
a number of family groups of quite different chemical 
character and behaviour. Physically, the plastics range 
in properties very widely. They may be hard and brittle, 
or soft and extensible or even elastic, with any number 
of intermediate gradations. Many plastics are not plas- 
tic at all, in the strict sense of the word, so that the 
designation itself, as far as the finished article is con- 
cerned, is a misnomer. The only physical similarity 
among this highly heterogeneous group is the common 
property of sufficient fluidity at some stage of manufac- 
ture so that flow can take place to assume a given shape. 
Thus, plastics are essentially materials which at some 
stage of their processing are amenable to moulding to 
a desired shape. The moulding procedure varies with 
the type of material, and the finished products may 
differ enormously in chemical and physical properties. 
The chemist recognizes also certain combinations of 
amorphous and crystalline properties in plastics, and 
particularly the fact that a plastic must consist of large 
molecules, very long in one dimension. There is a dif- 
ference only of degree, rather than of kind, between 
plastics and rubbers, both natural and synthetic, and 

also between plastics and many common natural fibres. 
Furthermore, the matter of formulation of a plastic 
is of importance. Just as in an automobile tire, rubber 
constitutes the minority of the compound by weight, 
so in many important plastics added materials of the 
nature of reinforcements constitute the greater part of 
the material. These added materials provide certain 
physical properties, e.g., strength or abrasive resistance, 
not available in the basic rubber or plastic itself. 


Plastics possess certain basic advantages on which 
the great extension of their utilization depends. It is 
of importance therefore to examine briefly their advan- 
tages for general use. Plastics are mouldable to a definite 
size and shape within a very close tolerance. This is a 
great advantage in the saving of man-hours of machin- 
ing and the setting-up of machine tools. Production is 
rapid and production costs are low. The density ranges 
from less than 1 to about 1.4, except for certain lamin- 
ates with inorganic fillers, which may have densities up 
to 1.8. The strength/weight ratio is thus very high, as 
will be shown below. Many of the plastics are very 
highly resistant to chemical action and corrosion. 
They require in general no protective coating, because 
of this inherent property. The finish is thus built into 
the material. Since plastics are mainly of synthetic or 
partially synthetic origin, they may be adapted or 
"tailor-made" to suit a specific purpose. This is in con- 
trast to many natural materials, such as wood, where 
the deficiencies as supplied by nature are difficult to 
remedy. The variability of properties obtainable lends 
itself well, therefore, to application in a great variety of 
technical fields. Certain of the disadvantages of plastics, 
in comparison with such materials as metals, wood and 
glass, will appear in the more detailed discussions below. 

Plastics may be conveniently classified in application 
into four sections, viz. : 

1. Moulded plastics. 

2. Laminated plastics. 

3. Coatings. 

4. Adhesives. 

It is obvious that the field is a very large one and 
the present discussion must be limited to a few salient 
facts of particular interest to engineers. 


The moulded plastics present an extremely wide range 
in properties of interest to the engineer. Even those of 
one chemical type may be put out by one manufacturer 
in dozens of grades and sub-grades, all of which differ 
in properties and which are applicable to various pur- 
poses. It is apparent therefore that for efficient use the 
engineer should develop specifications for his purpose 
and choose a plastic, the properties of which fall within 
the limits of that specification. Authoritative standard- 
ization bodies, e.g., American Society for Testing 
Materials, have been and are very active in designing 
test methods on which specifications for plastics can be 

Two general types of moulded plastics are reasonably 



well differentiated. One of these is irreversible hardened 
during the moulding, and such materials are compara- 
tively resistant to high temperatures. These thermoset- 
ting plastics are characterized also by rigidity, good 
water and general chemical resistance, good machining 
properties and good electrical properties. The strength 
properties, with the exception of impact, are good. Many 
of the physical properties depend on the type of filler 
which is used. The thermosetting resins by themselves 
are brittle. With fillers of increasing fibre length, the 
impact strength and other properties improve consider- 
ably. Thus, cord and sisal filled resins show impact 
strengths nearly 100 times greater than the resins alone 
or with a short filler such as wood flour. Tensile strengths 
range in general from about 5,000 to 12,000 lb. per 
sq. in., compressive strengths from 10,000 to about 
30,000 lb. per sq. in. and flexural strengths from about 
8,000 to 20,000 lb. per sq. in. The specific gravities are 
commonly from 1.3 to 1.5, with a rise in values up to 
two where a mineral filler is used. These materials are 
non-inflammable and will resist higher temperatures, 
e.g., 300 deg. F., for considerable periods depending on 
the stress applied during heating. Thermosetting 
moulded plastics are used in many hundreds of appli- 
cations. The resins themselves find many interesting 
specialized applications, e.g., resin solutions for sealing 
porous castings, ion exchange resins for softening water, 
resins for improving greatly the wet strength of paper, 

The second general type of moulded plastic is termed 
thermoplastic, since it can be reversibly softened by 
heat. All strength properties are therefore connected 
with flow at lower temperatures under stress, and hence 
the thermoplastics are never used where continuous 
stresses are of any degree of magnitude. However, in 
general such materials are much tougher than the or- 
dinary thermosetting resins, and the higher impact 
strength is of considerable importance. The injection 
moulding process used for such materials is very rapid 
and production costs are low. Most of these resins are 
obtainable in many grades of hardness and flexibility, 
with specialized properties such as high impact strength 
at low temperatures, high resistance to corrosive acids 
and alkalis, and specially good electrical properties. The 
dependence of properties on temperature in this class 
is to be specially emphasized. Some types are obtained 
in colourless sheets with very high light transmission 
characteristics, and their use in aircraft cockpit enclo- 
sures, gun turrets and bomb noses is well known. Unfor- 
tunately the low surface hardness and resultant ease of 
scratching makes their use as windows in general diffi- 
cult. The low dielectric constant and loss factor of poly- 
styrene at higher frequencies has made it a particularly 
valuable material in electrical work. The good electrical 
and ageing properties of polyvinyl chloride has led to 
its extensive use in place of rubber as a cable coating 
material, although the low temperature toughness still 
leaves something to be desired. The thermoplastic resins 
may also be continuously extruded to any desired cross- 
sectional shape and these are finding many uses. Sheet 
material may be formed to complicated curvatures, and 
the joining of sections by glueing or direct heat sealing 
is generally not difficult. 


It was noted above that, as the fibre length of the 
filler in the thermosetting resins increased, the strength 
properties of the plastic increased also. If this filler is 
extended to pre- woven sheets, which are laminated to- 
gether, bound by a thermosetting plastic, then it is 
apparent that further strength should be attained. The 

laminated plastics are of particular interest to engineers 
as structural materials, combining high strength with 
low density. The fillers may be paper, cotton, asbestos, 
glass fibre or thin wood veneers, and rapid strides have 
been made in the last three years particularly in the 
formulation and use of these materials. They are manu- 
factured in flat sheets, in the form of rods and tubes, 
and they can also be moulded to compound curvatures. 

These materials are specially formulated for specific 
uses. Some have very low moisture absorption and good 
electrical properties. Others are formulated to have good 
punching qualities. Extra strengths are obtainable, for 
example, by the use of heavy weave fabrics, and higher 
heat resistance by the inclusion of asbestos cloth. 

It is difficult to give specific strength figures since the 
development is progressing continuously and varying 
data have been reported by different laboratories and 
plants carrying out assembly under different procedures. 
In general, however, it may be said that on a weight 
basis some of the laminated plastics compare well with 
aluminium alloys. The specific tensile and compressive 
strengths are high, but the plastics are considerably 
lower in stiffness and ductility. Aside from the glass- 
fibre laminates, which show remarkably high impact 
strengths, the values in this property are in general 
rather low in the laminates, especially those measured 
across the edges of the material. The resistance to buck- 
ling is particularly noteworthy, as a result of low 

The special properties of these plastic laminates, in- 
cluding outstanding resistance to water and chemicals, 
have led to important engineering applications for the 
material. Laminated bearings, with which oil or water 
lubrication may be used, have shown outstanding life 
and quality in service. Compressor rings in refrigera- 
tion, suction box components in the paper industry, 
doctor blades, plating barrels in electro-plating, hold- 
down rolls in pickling tanks, rayon spinning buckets, 
re-inforcements of various types in wooden aircraft, 
various electrical applications, fan-blades for water- 
cooling towers, air-deflectors for air-cooled aircraft en- 
gines, aircraft flooring, push-rod housings for air-cooled 
engines, jettison tanks, are a few examples of some of 
the various uses of the material. 

It should be clearly understood that this field is at 
a very early stage of development, and that extensive 
improvements may be looked for in the near future in 
the properties of laminated plastics. Further research 
is required in the proper use of the fibres in the plastic 
matrix and in the bonding of these two dissimilar 
components. It would appear also that design engineers 
have only to a very small extent examined the potential 
uses and advantages of these materials. Obviously, in 
this field as in plastics generally, direct substitution of 
the new materials for metal should not be made. The 
design of the structure or component should be basically 
altered to take full advantage of the properties of the 
newer material. Extensive design data have now been 
accumulated for this purpose. 


The past four or five years has seen tremendous ad- 
vances in the field of protective coatings on various 
surfaces. A great variety of chemical types of plastics 
materials have been modified and formulated to yield 
coatings of unusual quality. A detailed account of these 
advances and even of the classes of coatings developed 
lies outside the scope of this paper. 

Of particular interest to the engineer are the qualities 
now obtainable with plastic coatings of various types. 
They are used on a great variety of substrates, including 



paper, fabric, wood, plaster, iron, steel, aluminium, 
zinc, galvanized surfaces, etc. Excellent adherence to 
metal is shown, even following severe deformations such 
as deep drawing and crimping. Many are available in 
water-emulsion form. The coatings are very resistant 
to water and chemical agencies, and show outstanding 
resistance in prolonged exposure tests. They may be 
modified in various ways in order to incorporate tough- 
ness a.nd flexibility, and consequent durability. Baking 
finishes of unusual hardness and abrasion resistance 
have been developed, which are also remarkably cor- 
rosion resistant. Very good electrical properties may 
be obtained- 

Civilian use of many of these plastics has been totally 
restricted during the war, and post-war production of 
many items incorporating these modern finishes is 
planned. Plastic coatings for containers up to tank car 
size, and various types of closures, have been greatly 
improved. The application extends to most of the pro- 
cessing industries in one form or another. Special cor- 
rosion-resistant metals may often be replaced by suit- 
able coatings. The well-known baked finishes for re- 
frigerators, kitchenware, washing machines, etc., have 
been further improved. Protective and decorative plas- 
tic coatings or paints for interior and exterior use in 
homes have been vastly improved in ease of application, 
drying time and durability. 

The application of thermoplastic resins to fabrics has 
been of particular importance for a number of essential 
war uses. 


The fundamental mechanism of adhesion is not un- 
derstood, and therefore all advances have been essen- 
tially empirical in nature. New developments of the 
past two or three years are of particular interest to en- 
gineers. Adhesives have been developed capable of bond- 
ing various metals, wood, rubber, plastics, in various 
combinations. Good strengths are shown and the bond 
is very resistant to exposure. The possibility of substi- 
tution of a glued joint in place of rivets and the like is 
obviously of great importance and further develop- 
ments in this field should be carefully noted in their 
engineering applications. 

In wood to wood bonding, the modern plastic glues 
are very greatly superior to the protein and starch 
glues commonly used at present. The older glues show 
great inferiority in resistance to water, to the action 
of organisms and general exposure conditions. The 
modern wooden aircraft was made possible by the de- 
velopment and application of synthetic resin glues, and 
there is every likelihood that these modern adhesives 
will rapidly displace other glues for general purposes 
after the war. 


Wood is one of our oldest structrual materials, and 
is still one of the most important. Indeed, from the 
point of view of volume and generalized applicability, 
it still holds a premier position in the field. The out- 
standing physical properties of wood, combined with 
low density, and the ease of construction in the field 
are not yet as matched by any rival material for general 
application. The well-known shortcomings of solid wood 
have been overcome in admirable fashion through the 
use of wood in relatively thin layers, glued together to 
form either plywood or laminated wood. The latter 
term is generally applied to describe assemblies of wood 
layers in which the grain of adjacent layers is parallel, 
as distinguished from plywood, in which the grain of 
adjacent layers of wood is usually at right angles, or 

at other angles for specialized uses. The advantages of 
plywood and laminated wood, particularly the former, 
are well known and require no extensive elaboration 
here, but some salient points might be briefly mentioned 
for emphasis. 

In plywood, the distribution of strength factors, and 
the adjustment of assembly designs according to stresses 
calculated for a structure, are outstanding factors. The 
dimensional stability, particularly with regard to am- 
bient moisture conditions, has extended greatly the sat- 
isfactory application of wood under severe exposure 
cycles. The large areas available in plywood, limited 
only by press dimensions and shipping facilities, are of 
particular importance in pre-fabrication and ease of 
subsequent construction. Laminated wood also has out- 
standing advantages over solid wood, particularly in 
timber construction. Solid timbers are commonly 
limited in size in both length and cross-section. The 
necessity for mechanical joints in order to obtain 
greater lengths constitutes a weakness, in that the 
weight of the assembly must be greatly increased in 
order to maintain adequate strength and rigidity. Lam- 
inated timbers may be constructed to any dimensions, 
by lapping the ends of individual layers in suitably 
staggered fashion. Solid timbers of larger size offer great 
difficulty in adjustment of moisture content, and crack- 
ing and checking of such solid members constitute a 
serious difficulty. Individual thinner laminae, on the 
other hand, are readily dried to a desired moisture 
content by conventional means, and cracking and 
checking in laminated timbers are very greatly reduced. 
Solid timbers show a large percentage of rejection on 
account of various flaws, and control of quality is diffi- 
cult on dimentional grounds. Individual laminae, on 
the other hand, permit of ready inspection and control 
of quality. It is apparent further that, in these indi- 
vidual layers, certain types of defects are permissible 
without appreciable loss in quality, since lamination 
allows of the spacing of such defects in such a manner 
that the severely localized faults are negligible in a 
consideration of the overall strength properties. For 
dominance of strength in one direction, it is obvious 
that laminated timbers are greatly superior to solid 
timbers and, furthermore, opportunity is afforded to 
effect a matching and balancing of grain effects for 
optimum results. The assembly of layers to curvatures 
is readily accomplished, and the advantage here over 
the steaming of solid timbers is apparent. The rein- 
forcing effect of the glue lines is probably also of some 
importance in considerations of stiffness and dimen- 
sional stability. 

In his calculations of structural design features, the 
engineer must necessarily treat such layered wood as 
an entity, without regard for the fact that the layers 
are joined together by an adhesive totally different 
from the wood. In other words, he must tacitly assume 
that the lines of juncture of the layers are as strong 
as the wood medium itself, and he must assume further 
that the durability of such glue lines is equal to that 
of the wood. It is furthermore not feasible to make any 
allowance for a degradation of the wood in contact 
with the glue such as would constitute a zone having 
a lesser strength than the main body of the wood. The 
glue line in layered wood should therefore be at least 
as strong as the wood itself, should yield adequate 
durability against any extremes of exposure conditions 
which may be met, should be totally resistant to the 
action of organisms of various types, and must show 
no appreciable deteriorating action on the wood adja- 
cent to it, as a result of pH or other chemical or physico- 
chemical action. 




Synthetic resin glues for use with wood are almost 
entirely of the thermosetting type, owing to various 
considerations, including questions of cost and flow 
under stress. They may be based on phenol-formalde- 
hyde, urea-formaldehyde or melamine-formaldehyde, 
the latter being somewhat newer than the other two, 
or mixtures of these substances. They are marketed in 
the form of an aqueous or organic dispersion, as a dry 
powder for dispersion by the user, or in the form of a 
finished glue film on a paper carrier to avoid the neces- 
sity of spreading. As thermosetting resins, these glues 
under certain conditions become sufficiently chemically 
active to set to a hard infusible state, by chemical con- 
densation. By means of formulation of the resin itself, 
or by the incorporation of suitable proportions of a 
catalyst, this chemical activity can be arranged to be- 
come rapid over a wide range of temperatures. From 
the practical standpoint, this range is from about 70 to 
300 deg. F. Each type of resin differs considerably in 
such temperature intervals. For example, urea resin 
adhesives now in common use are hardened in practice 
from 70 to about 240 deg. F. These are commonly 
divided into two sub-t} r pes, viz., (1) hot-setting, where 
the hardening temperatures for convenient use may lie 
in the range of 200-240 deg. F., and (2) cold-setting, 
where the adhesive hardens at a minimum temperature 
of 70 deg. F. Urea resin glues might also be formulated 
of course to be used at any temperature intermediate 
between these limits. The hot-setting glues harden 
within several minutes at the temperature prescribed 
for them, and this time of hardening increases rapidly 
as the temperature is lowered. The cold-setting glues 
require several hours for what might be termed initial 
hardening, and this time decreases rapidly as the tem- 
perature is increased. The earlier phenolic adhesive* 
required a temperature of 280-300 deg. F., but some 
hot-setting phenolic glues are commonly used to-day 
at a temperature of about 240 deg. F. Recently, so- 
called intermediate-temperature phenolics have been 
successfully introduced, which harden within a reason- 
able press time at about 150 deg. F. At present, exten- 
sive experimentation is proceeding with cold-setting 
phenolics, which are designed to set in preliminary 
fashion within several hours at 70 deg. F., similar to 
cold-setting urea glues. Melamine adhesives are also 
formulated to harden over a range of temperatures. 

It is obvious that a reduction in temperature, con- 
sistent with a reasonable pressing time, is an important 
factor. A further factor which enters into consideration 
is the assembly time, i.e., the time interval between 
the application of the glue and the time when pressure 
becomes effective. The cold-setting resins, owing to their 
reactivity, will obviously have a limited assembly life, 
which may militate against their use where more time 
is demanded in operation. 

A further important factor is the durability of the 
glue in service. Although the synthetic resin glues as a 
class constitute an enormous improvement over the 
older resins, they differ markedly within that class. 
Urea resins must be considered as showing more sus- 
ceptibility to hydrolysis than phenolic resins and under 
severe conditions, e.g., under-water use, evidence has 
been accumulated to show that phenolics possess a 
superior durability. Other factors, such as tendency to 
craze in thick glue lines, must also be taken into account. 


For the gluing of thin plywood, or thin laminated 
wood, hot-setting resins are exclusively used in order 
to attain rapid production schedules. The heat necessary 

to set the glue in the various glue lines is transmitted 
by thermal conduction from the hot platens of the press 
through the various wood layers under pressure. Ply- 
wood of thickness over J^ in. is relatively uncommon, 
and plywood over 1 or possibly \ x /i in. in thickness is 
not stocked. It is difficult to estimate the practicable 
limit of thickness of plywood which can be manufac- 
tured with hot-setting resins in a hot-plate press. The 
deteriorating effect on the wood, the moisture loss from 
the wood, and cost considerations all enter into the 
picture. A total thickness of V/i in., i.e., a distance of 
% in. from platen to innermost glue line, would cer- 
tainly be a liberal estimate of what could practically 
be manufactured in this way. For such or greater thick- 
nesses of assembly, either cold-setting resins must be 
used, with the attendant very slow production, or a 
different mode of introduction of heat into the glue 
line must be employed. 

Essentially the same holds true for thick laminated 
wood sections. The manufacture of propeller blanks, 
aircraft spars, laminated arches and trusses from 
laminae Y2 to % m - m thickness to a total thickness of 
from 4 in. to about 16 in., has recently grown to con- 
siderable importance. It is obviously entirely impossible 
to assemble these structures with hot setting glues in 
a press, with heat transfer from hot platens. One alter- 
native, viz., the use of cold-setting glues, involves a 
lengthy time schedule and, in some instances also, a 
lessening in quality of the glue line. For example, the 
assembly of a propeller blank consisting of, say, 8 birch 
laminae, each % in. thick, involves the following. Using 
casein as glue, some 18-24 hrs. in the press is required, 
depending on specifications, and then the structure 
must be conditioned for about a week in order to allow 
loi an equilibrium in moisture distribution. Using cold- 
setting urea resin as adhesive, from 4 to hrs. in the 
press is required, depending on specifications, following 
which the structure must be conditioned for about a 
week in order to allow for a high degree of condensation 
of the resin. The initial condensation during the first 
few hours is not sufficient to withstand the stresses of 
machining or exposure to variable moisture conditions. 
It is noted therefore that presses are tied up for con- 
siderable periods, and about a week must elapse prior 
to the time the assembly can be put into further pro- 
duction process. For very large or possibly more com- 
plicated assemblies, the very, brief assembly life of the 
cold-setting resins, 15-30 min., may involve difficulties. 
Since they are reactive at room temperature, conden- 
sation proceeds rapidly after spreading. Even the pot- 
life is relatively short, since condensation proceeds in 

Fig. 1 — Pilot scale apparatus for the resin impregnation of 
fabric, under strictly controlled conditions. 



Fig. 2 — Shows multi-ply laminated wood being assembled 
by the new process in the laboratory .A laboratory hydraulic 
press with 14 by 14 in. platens is shown, and the arrange- 
ment of glue lines in parallel is noted. 

the mixing vessel in which the resin is dispersed in the 

It is apparent that both the press-time and the sub- 
sequent hardening time with cold-setting resins may 
both be radically reduced by raising the temperature 
in the glue line subsequent to lay-up. In order to ac- 
complish this, the whole assembly must be heated. 
Various methods of heat transfer have been attempted, 
e.g., immersion of the assembly in hot or boiling water, 
or subjecting the assembly to an atmosphere of steam. 
Such methods are cumbersome, and the difficulties in- 
volved in an assembly 50 ft. long and 15 in. in cross- 
section can well be imagined. Assemblies of relatively 
small cross-section, e.g., ski blanks, have however been 
subjected to heat in an oven with reasonably good 

The urea cold-setting adhesives, the only ones com- 
mercially available at the moment, must be regarded 
as inferior to the hot-setting resins from the point of 
view of durability under severe conditions. This quality 
factor makes it further desirable to develop a method 
for the utilization of hot-setting resins in thick 


An alternative means of supplying heat to the glue 
lines of a thick assembly, viz., high-frequency heating, 
has recently been introduced and has been widely noted. 
In this method, the whole assembly acts as the dielectric 
of a condenser in a high-frequency circuit. The material 
is thus heated in the high frequency electrostatic f eld 
by dielectric loss, or heat energy produced by molecular 
distortion in the very rapidly alternating field. 

High-frequency heating, as applied to the gluing of 
wood, acts not only on the glue line but on the whole 
assembly. Calculations of power requirements involve 
the physical properties and dimensions of the wood. 

Heat requirements are based not on the weight of glue 
to be heated, or total area of glue line, but rather on 
the total weight and specific heat of the assembly. The 
glue line becomes a negligible factor in such calculations 
in thick assemblies. The whole of the wood must there- 
fore be heated, and the attendant direct disadvantages 
are power losses in heat uselessly applied, and moisture 
losses from the wood. If however the plane of the glue 
line is set parallel to the electrostatic field and perpen- 
dicular to the electrodes, the power and time require- 
ments are greatly reduced. Godfrey and Bilhuber ( 1 ) 
have recently noted the various factors which enter into 
the application of this method. The dimensions of the 
electrodes in relation to the frequency and the tuning 
of the circuit with regard to the capacity introduced 
must be considered. Variation in moisture content of 
the laminae results in variation in temperatures pro- 
duced. The electrodes must be thermally insulated for 
higher temperatures to avoid temperature differentials. 
Certain difficulties have arisen with regard to flash- 
over in the squeeze-out, and safety precautions must be 
rigidly adhered to in view of the power used. The appli- 
cability of the method to very large assemblies, e.g., 
50-60 ft. length and 10 glue lines to a total thickness 
of 15-18 in., is apparently not immediately visualized 
in present descriptions. The cost of the high frequency 
generating units of large power output is an important 

It is apparent that this method of introducing heat 
into relatively remote glue lines is a promising one. 
Some of the difficulties apparent at present will, no 
doubt be ironed out as further experience is gained 
with the method. 


In the present work, a method was sought by which 
the glue line could be heated directly. Electrical means 
appeared most feasible, and a number of experiments 
were carried out using the glue line as a resistor. Syn- 
thetic resin glues in aqueous dispersion show a low 
conductivity, which decreases to nil as the glue dries. 
The addition of inorganic salts to increase ionic con- 
ductivity is of little assistance in this regard. The in- 
corporation of finely powdered metallic conductors 
showed that conduction and heating effects were pro- 
duced only at such high concentrations as to render the 
wood to wood bonding action of the glue impossible. 
Furthermore metallic inserts expand with heat and con- 
tract after the adhesive has set and the source of heat 
has been removed, thus setting up serious stresses in 
the glue line. Various carbon blacks, including finely 
divided reinforcing blacks, were incorporated into glue 
dispersions. It was found, however, that the conduc- 
tivity attained for a usable concentration of black was 
low, and the heating effect produced in the glue line 
was correspondingly low. Graphite yielded results which 
showed little improvement. 

Results were then obtained with acetylene black 
which were of quite a different order. Acetylene black ( 2 ) 
is manufactured by the controlled combustion of acety- 
lene and shows quite remarkable electrical properties 
when dispersed in non-conducting materials. This action 
in rubber is well known and the so-called conductive 
rubber is an article of commerce. The specific reason 
for the special behaviour of acetylene black in com- 
parison with other blacks is not understood. It is quite 
possible that this is linked with specialized surface 

1 W. Godfrey and P. H. Bilhuber, Modern Plastics, Septem- 
ber, 1943. 

2 Manufactured by Shawinigan Chemicals Ltd., Shawinigan 
Falls, Que., Canada. 



properties on each particle, which may bring about a 
sticking and chain formation between the particles. 
Such chain formations, branched to form a scaffolding 
structure, would explain the high conductivity of rela- 
tively dilute dispersions of acetylene black in a non- 
conducting medium. Streptococci-like chains would 
provide a number of paths for electrical conductivity, 
with most of the surface left free for the action of the 
medium as desired. Further evidence for this structure 
is provided by viscosity considerations. 

In general then, the gluing development described 
in the present study consists essentially of the use of 
a synthetic resin adhesive in conjunction with acetylene 
black or other highly conductive black, the glue line 
thus being rendered conductive. Electrodes of suitable 
type are placed at the edges of the glue line and a low 
voltage current of ordinary characteristics, e.g., direct 
current or 60-cycle a.c, is passed through the glue line. 
Rapid heating is obtained directly in the adhesive, and 
the latter is thus conveniently and efficiently hardened. 
The various factors involved are discussed individually 
in the following sections. 

The development thus far has taken several chief 
forms of application, as follows: 

1. Glue-black dispersion — In this form, the black is 
added directly to the liquid glue and the mixture is 
spread on the wood. Electrodes are placed in position, 
and the glue is set by resistance heating. 

2. Carrier for the black — In this form, the black is 
coated on the threads of a fabric mesh under controlled 
conditions in order to provide for uniformity. The nor- 
mal glue is spread on the wood surface, the conductive 
carrier is inserted in the glue line, electrodes are added, 
and the glue is set rapidly by resistance heating. 

3. Carrier for the black and the glue — In this form, the 
fabric mesh carrier is successively coated with (1) the 
black on the threads of the fabric, and (2) the glue as 
a continuous film over the whole area of the fabric. In 
this form, the user avoids the spreading of glue entirely. 
The conductive glue film is placed between the wood 
surfaces to be joined, electrodes are added, and the 
glue fuses and sets rapidly by resistance heating. 

Figure 1 shows a pilot plant scale laboratory unit 
used in coating fabric mesh with such materials. 

The current used is that directly obtainable in or- 
dinary lighting and power circuits, either d.c, 60-cycle 
a.c. or the like. The voltage used will obviously depend 
on the width of the glue line, i.e., the dimension in the 
direction of current flow. In general, laminated wood 
is not used in widths greater than 18 in. and 220 volts 
is sufficient for this dimension. 110 volts has been found 
ample for widths ranging up to 6 in. and may be satis- 
factorily used up to about 12 in. It is apparent that 
the use of higher voltage will increase the power input 
accordingly, and consequently decrease the time neces- 
sary to reach a given temperature in the glue line. For 
any purpose involving much greater widths, it is appar- 
ent that the distance may be effectively reduced, and 
the necessary potential lowered, by the addition of a 
third electrode in the glue line acting as a ground for 
the outside electrode. The current drawn in the process 
for a given voltage will vary directly as the total area 
of glue line. This will vary not only as the voltage, but 
also with the concentration of conductive black per 
unit area, but a typical example might be about 12 
amps, per 1,000 sq. in. at 220 volts, using fabric mesh 
carrier. Glue lines are all attached in parallel, and the 
total current consumption is additive. 

The process is essentially independent of the dimen- 
sions of the assembly being glued. The time necessary 
to reach a given temperature in the glue line is inde- 

pendent of the length of the assembly, the thickness of 
each layer, and of the number of glue lines being heated 
in parallel. These dimensions affect merely the amount 
of current which will be drawn by the circuit. The time 
of gluing is also essentially independent of the width 
of the assembly, so long as the potential used is increased 
with wider assemblies. The method lends itself well 
particularly to large scale work. 

The time necessary to bring the glue line up to the 
required temperature may obviously be varied almost 
at will. Using a high voltage, the power input may be 
made so large that the whole operation is completed in 
a matter of seconds. Generally, there is no reason for 
any excessive speed, and using voltages from 110-220, 
with a normal concentration of black as noted above, 
the time under pressure may range from about 2 min. 
to 15 min. depending on conditions. This obviously 
constitutes a tremendous reduction in time from the 
week or more now required using a cold-setting glue 
at room temperature. 

The electrodes generally used are fine copper wire, 
of sufficient gauge to handle the current drawn. Very 
long assemblies may entail an appreciable voltage drop 
and, in such cases, the potential may be fed in at more 
than one point. The electrodes may be readily recovered 
for repeated use by trimming off the outside edges of 
the completed assemblies. Figure 2 shows an experi- 
mental assembly in a laboratory hydraulic press. The 
pressure required is that normally used in wood gluing, 
i.e., from 150 to 300 lb. per sq. in., and pressure may be 
applied in any convenient manner, e.g., by clamps, 
jigs, hydraulic press, screw press, hydraulic hose 
press, etc. 

The process has the advantage of being essentially 
independent of variations in moisture content of adja- 
cent layers, and of the absolute moisture content of 
the wood. The wood is heated to only a relatively small 
extent by thermal conductivity from the glue lines. 

The equipment needed for this gluing process is vir- 
tually negligible. A circuit leading to bus bars in prox- 
imity to the work, accompanying switches and meters, 
complete the list. The end-point required can be readily 
calculated on the basis of the work done or It at a 
given voltage, and therefore the indicator may be either 
a watt-hour meter or an ammeter in conjunction with 
a stop-watch. The efficiency of the process is obviously 
100 per cent. It may be of interest to give one average 
figure which we have observed by way of power re- 
quirements; viz., 0.4 watt-hrs. per sq. in. of glue line 
area, to an end-point of 250 deg. F. 

(Continued on page 103) 

Fig. 3 — Shows wood failure obtained in standard shear test 
specimens and also in breaking into glue lines of larger 





Chairman, Conservation Committee, Department of Munitions and Supply, Ottawa, and Chairman, Conservation Sub-Committee , 

Joint War Production Committee, U.S. and Canada. 

Paper presented at a joint meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers and The Engineering Institute 

of Canada at Toronto, Ont., on October 1st, 1943. 

SUMMARY — The paper deals with the organization of the 
Conservation Committee of the Department of Munitions 
and Supply and gives illustrated examples of improve- 
ments in tools and methods adopted by some Canadian 
firms in order to conserve materials and manpower. 

Conservation is a word with many meanings, but 
for our purposes to-day it means any project initiated 
in a manufacturer's plant, which results in the pro- 
duction of more war stores by the men and machines, 
and with the materials available to them. 


For the benefit of our American friends, I think I 
should point out that we have here in Canada an 
integrated set-up, known as the Department of Muni- 
tions and Supply, which places and supervises all con- 
tracts and orders for all supplies and munitions of war 
of whatever character. This same Department includes 
the controllers of most of the raw materials and of 
machine tools. 

It will be seen, therefore, that this one Department 
controls the orders, the raw materials and the machine 
tools. The man-power supply is the problem of the 
Department of Labour. 

It is evident that the staggering responsibility laid 
upon this Department could not be carried out by any 
one group of men. The policy, therefore, is to transfer 
a part of this responsibility to the manufacturer with 
his contract. 

It becomes the contractor's job to produce the goods, 
subject only to the limitations imposed by the inspec- 
tion and design authorities and by the controllers of 
raw materials and machine tools. This is done in the 
belief that you cannot pass on responsibility for the 
accomplishment of a nearly impossible job, and then 
insist on directing the manner in which the job will 
be done. 

I have outlined this chain of authority to explain 
why practically all of the successful conservation pro- 
jects in Canada's war effort stem from the manufac- 
turers and their employees and not the Government. 


The Government has, however, taken a hand in the 
distribution of information regarding successful con- 
servation projects. On October 17th, 1942, a meeting 
of 1300 war contractors was held in Toronto. Its pur- 
pose was to link together all of the hundreds of con- 
servation projects in Canada's war industries. At that 
meeting over a thousand samples of successful projects 
were exhibited. This exhibit has been shown to several 
thousand manufacturers and their employees in Toronto, 
Montreal and Ottawa. It will shortly be transferred to 
Washington at the request of the Combined Con- 
servation Committee. This educational work has been 
under the direction of the Conservation Committee of 
the Department of Munitions and Supply. Monthly 
mailings are made by the Committee to six hundred 
war contractors. These mailings have contained thou- 
sands of valuable leads about ways in which savings 
have been made in Canada and the United States. The 

Conservation Sub-Committee of the Joint War Pro- 
duction Committee, U. S. and Canada, has arranged a 
steady flow of information between Canada and the 
United States. 

The Department maintains a permanent representa- 
tive in the Conservation Division of the War Produc- 
tion Board in Washington. This representative also 
maintains close contact with the U.S. Army, U.S. 
Navy and Air officials, and the Maritime Commission. 
He is Canada's member on the Combined Conservation 
Committee, which co-ordinates conservation efforts 
between Great Britain, United States and Canada. 


The foregoing statements outline the machinery 
which exists for co-ordinating the conservation efforts 
in Canada and between Canada and other countries. 
Back of this effort, of course, lies another picture. The 
foundation of any programme for the conservation of 
raw materials in war time must be government stock 
piles and government controls. Only by use of such 
devices can a frantic hoarding of raw materials be 
prevented. The control system is ideal for maintaining 
steady pressure in selected fields where substitutions 
must be made if the raw materials are to go around, 
and supplies required for war needs are to be where 
they are needed, when they are needed. 

It became evident in 1941 that the demand for raw 
materials in this war would be without precedent, and 
that the war would have to be organized on a global 
basis. Among the results of that realization were the 
formation of the Material Co-ordinating Committee, 
United States and Canada, in May, 1941, and the 
setting up of the Combined Raw Materials Board in 
the fall of that year. Excellent co-ordination in the 
distribution of "policy and consumption data" between 
Britain, United States and Canada was obtained. A 
good practical job of controlling Canada's basic war 
materials has been done through the various sub-com- 
mittees and through friendly and whole-hearted co- 
operation betwen the officers of our controls in Ottawa 
and the material branches of the War Production Board 
in Washington. Although geographic and other differ- 
ences existing between Canada, Great Britain and the 
United States have necessitated differences in control 
measures in certain instances, yet, generally speaking, 
the control measures in the three countries are parallel. 

To-day, we are feeling the good effects of the anti- 
submarine campaign in the North Atlantic and of the 
opening of the Mediterranean's shorter shipping lanes. 
Some of the pressure on the supply situation which 
was so heavy during 1942 and the early part of 1943 
has been lifted. 


No good purpose could be achieved by hiding these 
facts, but let us not think that we are out of the 
woods yet. 

The supply of nickel is just meeting the demand, 
and any increase in demand or decrease in production 
could be very serious. Cadmium is critical. A sub- 
stitute should be found wherever possible. Tin is a 



wasting asset and must be protected by strict con- 
servation measures. Supplies of other non-ferrous 
metals seem fairly adequate for the moment, but any 
large demand for any of them, caused by a shift in a 
munitions programme, could radically change the pic- 
ture. In the ferrous field the situation on sheets is very 
tight, as is the situation on malleable castings. 

In the rubber field we have another wasting asset. 
If any of you have in your plant an order for some part 
that requires the use of crude rubber I urge upon 
everyone concerned to take immediate and drastic 
action to find a substitute, either in the synthetic group 
or the plastic group. If you are entertaining the idea 
that you will continue to get crude rubber, other than 
a certain amount for blending purposes, for any product 
regardless of how urgent it may be, you are labouring 
under a misapprehension. If, on the other hand, you 
are trying to get rid of the use of crude in some product 
and are not satisfied with the progress that your rubber 
manufacturer is making, I suggest that you ask him 
to place the problem before the Rubber Technical and 
Conservation Committee for an opinion. This body 
operates under the Office of the Rubber Controller, 
but should be approached through your rubber manu- 


The Rubber Committee is one of the many com- 
mittees serving the Department of Munitions and 
Supply. This device for dealing with difficult problems 
has been used freely by the Department. It would be 
impossible to tell adequately of all the excellent work 
done by these groups, but I should like to touch briefly 
on a few committees that deal directly with production 
problems and operate under the Co-ordinator of Pro- 
duction. It is my hope that some of this audience will 
be able to benefit from this information. 


I will mention first the committee whose affairs arc 
so capably directed by the chairman of this meeting 
(J. G. Notman). 

The efforts of management throughout Canada have 
resulted in the freeing of a large number of machine 
tools for other work either in the manufacturer's plant 
or in some other plant on urgent war work. Changes in 
programme have also contributed to releasing a certain 
number of machine tools for other work. In order that 
the best possible use might be made of Canada's 
machine tools and equipment, a central organization 
was set up known as the Machine Tool War Service 
Committee under the joint direction of the Co-ordinator 
of Production and the Machine Tools Controller. This 
committee keep^ up-to-date records of all the govern- 
ment-owned machine tools released by various con- 
tractors and also receives requests from the various 
Production Branches for machine tools and equipment 
required to balance out operations or increase pro- 
duction. Carrying out the main function of the com- 
mittee, namely, to see that the best possible use is 
made of Canada's machine tools and equipment, the 
committee allots machine tools to the various con- 
tractors on the basis of the programme priority estab- 
lished from time to time by the Production Board of 
Munitions and Supply. 

The committee is a particularly active one and 
through its efforts considerable savings have been 
effected. When it was decided some months ago that 
Canada should fill an order for a certain type of 20 mm. 
gun, the original estimate for the cost of machine tools 
required for the job was $1,800,000. The committee 

m rswa 


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Fiji. 1 — Milling fixture for breech ring, showing hardened 

Mocks affixed for easy adjustment of milling cutter 


1-ig. 2 — Adjusting position of cutter to finish top face of 
breech ring and hack of pintle hip at the same time. 

was able to place in the particular shop selected for the 
job $1,300,000 worth of the type of tools required. An 
urgent request a few weeks ago for increased aircraft 
propeller production resulted in the transfer of $300,000 
worth of machine tools to a particular plant within ten 
days time. With the ever-changing requirements of the 
war it is obvious that this committee can continue to 
serve a very useful purpose in connection with our war 


The Bolt and Screw War Service Committee is doing 
a good job of organizing for the best use of automatic 
screw machines and heading machines in Canadian 

The Drop Forge War Service Committee performs 
the same service in relation to our drop forge capacity. 

The Plastics Technical Committee, cooperating with 
the Chemicals Controller, stands ready to give expert 
assistance to those in war industries who are designing 
new plastic parts, or who are having trouble with pro- 


So much for material shortages and the steps that 
have been taken to relieve them. You do not need to 
be told that we have a labour shortage in Canada. 
Labour is our most critical shortage. In fact, if we could 




- CYUNOEff TO at GfiOCVU) 

Fig. 3 — Cross sections and longitudinal section of cylinder 

and broaching bar, showing cutting tools and copy bar in 


Fig. 4 — Copy bars for the four passes needed to finish each 

get the labour we could relieve some of our critical 
material shortages very satisfactorily. The conservation 
of man-hours is one of the most serious of the imme- 
diate tasks that face us. 

About two years ago Mr. Howe said "What we make 
with what we have will be the measure of our greatness 
in this war." Circumstances have sharpened that 
remark. It might well read now: "What we make with 
the men and the women we have will be the measure 
of our greatness in this war." 


I will not touch here upon such matters as incentive 
pay, planning, or any other such methods for reducing 
man-hours required, for these things will be covered 
adequately by other speakers, but I do want to cover 
one subject which might be considered to come in this 

Some manufacturing organizations have persuaded 
large numbers of employees to contribute to the saving 
of man-hours by offering them an incentive through 
Employee Suggestion Plans. The Canadian Govern- 
ment has recognized the possibilities of Suggestion 
Plans, by allowing the awards made under these plans 
to be charged to expense for income tax purposes when 
employed in war contractors' plants. It is also the 

practice to exempt the employee from income tax on 
his or her awards. It is only necessary to have the 
Suggestion Plan approved by the Minister or Deputy 
Minister of Munitions and Supply. The Department 
has issued a booklet on this subject, and it is yours 
for the asking. 

Some remarkable results have been obtained by the 
John Inglis Company plant in Toronto. In a little over 
a year 7,500 suggestions have been received and nearly 
1 ,000 of these have been accepted, with awards granted 
to the amount of $40,000. Over 600,000 machine-hours 
were saved, in addition to substantial savings of 
material and machine tools. Altogether in this plant 
during the past twelve months changes in process have 
resulted in a projected annual saving of 4,000,000 man- 

Similar and equally praise-worthy results are being 
secured in other plants, but in my opinion, more 
general interest should be taken in the Employee 
Suggestion Plan idea, because it can be used to get 
each employee interested in his own job, and to encour- 
age him to find a way to get more work out of each 
hour. This is one avenue that may well be explored by 
manufacturers — particularly those whose work involves 
repetitive operations. 

That much has been accomplished by way of con- 
serving labour in war industries has, I believe, been 
proved by the fact that in practically every instance 
our most optimistic production expectations have been 
realized, and in a lot of cases, performance has been 
two, three or four times what was originally expected. 
Time will not permit me to go into the detail which 
would be necessary to do justice to management and 
labour for what has been accomplished in this country, 
but no paper on the subject of conservation would be 
complete unless it gave at least a few examples of 
what has been done and what is being done in this 
line by engineers in this country responsible for the 
prosecution of the war. 


A noteworthy instance of this is to be found in 
action in the 6-pounder programme at Dominion 
Engineering Works, Ordnance Plant. This plant was 
one of the first in the country to be set up for the pro- 
duction of tank and anti-tank guns. It was equipped 
on the basis of British manuals which recorded the 
experience of producing similar guns in United King- 
dom arsenals. In order to get the plant into operation 
in the shortest possible time, a comparable list of 
machine tools w r as purchased from United States and 
Canadian sources. Realizing that it would be impossible 
to staff the plant with experienced mechanics, the 
engineering staff decided that it would be essential to 
build into the jigs, tools and fixtures for the job extreme 
accuracy and means of simplifying the various opera- 
tions. Results have proved that for a moderate cost of 
tooling of between $40 and $60 per gun that the pro- 
duction hours per gun in the United Kingdom of 
around 1,600 man-hours have been reduced to some- 
thing less than 350 man-hours in Canada. This reduc- 
tion in man-hours enabled the plant to produce four 
times the rated capacity with the result that Canada 
has been able to build up her supply of this particular 
item in a far shorter time than was originally antici- 
pated. With the cut-back to the original planned rate 
of production, machine tools and labour have been 
diverted to the production of anti-aircraft gun mounts, 
anti-aircraft controls, anti-aircraft guns, aircraft under- 
carriages and numerous other places in our war effort 
where machine tools w r ere required. 




One of the main contributing factors to the success 
of this operation was the application of tool setting 
and gauging blocks to the various production fixtures. 
The application and use of these tool setting and 
gauging blocks are shown in the accompanying photo- 
graphs — 

Figure 1 shows a typical milling fixture for an opera- 
tion on the breech ring, which includes (a) facing the 
back of the pintle lug to a definite height in relation 
to the muzzle face of the ring, (b) facing the top face 
of the ring in relation to the pintle hole, (c) facing 
the top face of the pintle lug to size in relation to both 
the hole and the top face of the ring. On the right hand 
side of the picture, near the operator's hand, are shown 
three hardened setting and gauging blocks these are 
attached to the fixture, and establish the three dimen- 
sions in question. 

Figure 2 shows the operator setting the milling cutter 
to the vertical hardened block which establishes the 
dimension of the top face of the ring (item a) (using a 
.fifteen thousandths feeler). In this particular case, the 
one cutter not only faces the top of the ring but at 
the same time faces the back of the pintle lug to size, 
(item b) For this purpose the cutter has to be adjusted 
vertically to the horizontal hardened block (using a 
fifteen thousandths feeler) which establishes the height 
of the back of the pintle lug. The lower vertical setting 
block controls item (c), the facing of the pintle lug 

It can be seen that use of these hardened tool-setting 
and gauging blocks reduces the actual performance of 
the operation to a matter of being able to operate the 
controls of the machine and to set the cutters to the 
gauge blocks using a feeler. The fifteen thousandths 
feeler is standard throughout the plant so that errors 
from picking up the wrong thickness of feeler are 
eliminated. Close to ten million man hours have been 
saved in this particular plant. 


The next example relates to the cutting of the grooves 
in the cylinder of the 6-pounder recuperator, where 
General Motors' engineers developed a very efficient 
and outstanding broaching tool for this operation. The 
cutting time on this job was reduced to 45 minutes, as 
compared to \ x /i hours at one other source, and we 
understand that in another plant the time was 6 hrs 
per job. 

A cross section of the cylinder shows five grooves 
whose depth increases from zero at one end to 73 one- 
thousandths at the other. These five grooves have to 
be broached, and the tolerance for the variation in 
depth at any point in the groove is plus or minus 2 

The principle adopted in this improved method of 
broaching requires the use of a round broaching bar 
carrying ten cutting tools as shown in Fig. 3, each 
cutting tool removing 2 one-thousandths. Thus one 
pass of this broach through the cylinder removes a 
total depth of 20 one-thousandths, and four passes will 
complete one groove to the required depth. Therefore, 
twenty passes will complete all five grooves in the 
cylinder. This operation, including the indexing of the 
part after every four passes and the necessary cleaning 
of broaching tools before the return stroke after every 
pass, also the clamping and removing of the part, 
entails an average time of 45 minutes. 

It will be noted from the figure that the cylinder to 
be broached and the copy bar are stationary, while the 
broach carrying the ten cutting tools is moving through 


5 — Universal carrier drive sprockets produced in 
"christmas-tree" mould. 

the cylinder. The copy bars then control the depth of 
cut as the tools slide over them. 

Four different copy bars are used, one for each pass, 
as shown in Fig. 4. For the first pass, the lowest copy 
bar is inserted, so that the cutting of the groove does 
not start until the cutters are well to the centre of the 
cylinder. The copy bar for the second pass is shaped 
so that the cutting starts sooner, and at the last pass 
the correct shape and depth of the last copy bar is 
reproduced in the groove. Only the last copy bar needs 
to be 100 per cent accurate, since it is the one which 
determines the finished dimensions. 

It will be of interest to you to know that approxi- 
mately 400 or 500 jobs were produced before resharpen- 
ing was necessary. When resharpening became neces- 
sary, only the highest cutting tool was replaced by a 
new one, as in regrinding each tool, they were used on 
the next lower stage. In other words, only one cutting 
tool was discarded at each sharpening, and even these 
tools were reclaimed by a building up on the sliding 
surface with Ampco metal. 


Another valuable contribution to production engi- 
neering in Canada since the outbreak of war has been 
the development of a centrifugal casting technique by 
the Ford Motor Company of Canada. 

Centrifugal casting is, in many instances, an alter- 
native for forging. It is a process of pouring metal at 
a given temperature while spinning the mould at a 
certain predetermined speed. Under ideal conditions 
centrifugal castings can be produced possessing physical 
properties even better than those of forgings. This is 



Fig. 6 — Illustrating the saving of material effected by the 
centrifugal method of casting. 

explained on comparison of the two methods. In 
forging, bar stock is heated to a given temperature, 
around a bright cherry red, and hammered into shape, 
consequently perfect cohesion in the molecular structure 
cannot be obtained, whereas with a spun castings, 

poured at a given temperature, the metal being liquid 
gives perfect cohesion as the molecules take their set. 

The value of centrifugal casting in war production 
has been amply demonstrated in the Ford foundry. As 
an example, take the drive sprockets for the universal 
carrier which are now produced as a centrifugal casting. 
In the original British design these sprockets were 
flame-cut from a solid rolled plate about two feet square. 
All that was obtained from the first operation was a 
ring approximately four inches wide into which the 
sprocket teeth had to be gashed and the part was 
finished machined all over. Now cast as a "spinner" 
the rough casting obtained is approximately the size 
and shape of the finished sprocket complete with teeth. 
Only minor machining is required. The drive sprockets 
are cast in a dry sand "Christmas tree" and are pro- 
duced 13 to a mould. In use the cast sprockets have 
been found to outwear the original flame-cut type by 
a wide margin. It is estimated that on this one part 
alone the adoption of centrifugal casting has enabled 
Ford of Canada to substitute approximately 1,800,000 
lb. of scrap for the 8,860,000 lb. of virgin rolled stock 
needed for a year's production. In addition centrifugal 
casting of this part has resulted in a saving of 725,000 
man-hours a year and a total of $1,720,000 in cost. 


Following presentation of the paper "The Continuing Need for the Conservation of Resources'* by Mr. Howard 
Coonley (published in the November 1943 Journal), and presentation of the above paper, the following discussion 
took place at the meeting. 

Thornton Lewis 1 

Mr. Howard Coonley's excellent paper has given an 
overall picture of the conservation measure set in 
motion by the War Production Board. This programme 
provides for comprehensive action to determine the raw 
material resources available, the current requirements 
for such material and an attempt through conservation 
and conversion to bring into balance the demands and 
the supplies available. By determining the relative 
importance of the various needs and controlling the 
distribution of the supply of materials, the vital de- 
mands for the war effort have been satisfied. 

Mr. Coonley has cited many cases of substitution, 
conversion and down grading which have resulted in 
the conservation of critical materials. 

It may be of interest in connection with Mr. Coon- 
ley's paper, handling the broader application of the 
subject, to extend the discussion and get a picture of 
conservation work in one of the operating agencies. 

The Ordnance Department of the United States 
Army Service Forces is directly responsible for the 
development, design, procurement, supply and main- 
tenance of all weapons, ammunition, tanks and combat 
and transport vehicles used by the Army and supplied 
to our Allies through Lend-Lease. 

In no branch of the Government was the need for 
conservation more keenly appreciated than in the 
Ordnance Department. Accordingly a Conservation 
Branch was established in the Technical Division, and 
a Suggestion and Conversion Section was created in the 
Industrial Division, in order to effect conservation in 
new or existing designs already in production. Further, 
Conversion Engineering Sections were established in 
each of the Ordnance Department's district offices. In 
functioning through these thirteen field offices as well 

1 Deputy Chief, Production Service Branch, Office of the Chief 
of Ordnance, War Department, Washington, D.C. 

as at headquarters in Washington, the Ordnance 
Department conservation organization is unique among 
the armed forces, and to this field contact we attribute 
much of our success. 

Thus, the problem of conservation was tackled from 
two angles: first, new ordnance designs, and second, the 
much greater field of ordnance material already being 
manufactured. The problem was so large it was realized 
that the Army alone could not do the whole job, but 
by means of a promotional campaign, the brains and 
ingenuity of engineers in private industry were mobilized. 

Here in the Dominion of Canada a similar campaign 
was implemented. Also, after the United States 
Ordnance Department had organized its efforts, full 
information on its methods was furnished to Great 
Britain through the Ministry of Production in Washing- 
ton. One of its members, Mr. A. J. T. Taylor, a member 
of The Engineering Institute of Canada, flew to London 
carrying photographs, samples, directives, etc., which 
were all exhibited in London to some of the highest 
officials of the British Government. 

From the United States Army Ordnance Depart- 
ment's programme, truly remarkable results have 

As so often happens when a development is under- 
taken to secure a specific saving, other benefits are also 
realized. This has been the experience in our Conversion 
Engineering Programme. When a conversion study was 
finally completed, not only was a saving in critical 
materials accomplished but in most cases there was also 
a reduction of machine hours and overall cost. In many 
instances fewer critical machine tools were also required. 

Some few illustrations may be in order. It was found 
that fragmentation bombs were doubly effective and 
safe to use if dropped at low altitudes by parachutes. 
Present procurement created a demand for over 44 
million yards of parachute cloth which, in the past, 



had been made from high tenacity rayon 36 in. wide. 
This rayon was no longer available because it was 
required for war vehicle tires. Here we literally "cut 
the chutes to fit the cloth." Semi-high tenacity rayon 
was substituted and the width changed from 30 to 28 
in., all waste being eliminated. Over 12 million sq. yds. 
of this critical material were saved, and over 13 million 
lb. of high tension rayon made available for military 

The shipping band for 250-lb. bombs was formerly 
made with two circular steel strips formed into 
U-shaped sections, each weighing five pounds. These 
have now been replaced by laminated, impregnated 
paper bands secured by a light steel strip. On the next 
million bombs shipped, this idea saved more than nine 
million pounds of steel. This design has now been 
adopted on the 500-lb. and 1000-lb. bombs with even 
greater unit savings. 

The new mechanical solderless method of crimping 
windshields on armor piercing shot not only has proved 
superior, but will save 1,873,000 lb. of solder on the 
production in the last seven months of 1943 of shot 
ranging in size from 37mm. to 3-in. Most important, 
however, is that slightly more than half of this weight 
is bismuth, which is vitally needed in pharmaceuticals 
for medical treatment. Bismuth has become increasingly 
critical as production for war has advanced. 

Plastics have replaced critical non-ferrous metals for 
many uses. In 1943 we will use over 8,250,000 lb. of 

Our greatest savings were accomplished in the non- 
ferrous and ferrous group of metals, particularly where 
carbon and low alloy steels were substituted for high 
alloy steels. 

The demand for many critical production tools was 
eliminated, idle machines put to work, and 44,000 tons 
of steel alone have been saved, on 1943 production, 
through the introduction of steel stampings. 

These substitutions not only saved critical materials 
but allowed, in many instances, an enormous increase 
of production. 

A case of conservation, in which two separate Army 
services have co-operated, recently came to my atten- 
tion. In making air field landing mats from SAE 1010 
steel plate, holes are punched, creating millions of 10 
gage discs approximately 234 hi. in diameter. Formerly 
the Engineer Corps sent these discs back to the steel 
mills as scrap. The Ordnance Department has found a 
half-dozen uses for these discs in the manufacture of 
ammunition components. Even these uses will not 
completely consume the entire supply, but we will 
continue our search to find additional places where 
these discs may be employed. 

Savings of the following critical materials, based on 
1943 procurement, will be effected by the Ordnance 
Department Conservation Programme : 

Aluminum Enough to build 25,000 fighter planes 

Copper Over 200,000 tons 

Crude Rubber. . Over 115,000 tons 

Steel Over 622,000 tons 

Zinc Over 100,000,000 lb. 

Nickel Over 50,000,000 lb. 

Molvbdenum. . . Over 5,000,000 lb. 

Chromium Over 12,000,000 lb. 

Tin Over 5,200,000 lb. 

Tungsten Over 9,000,000 lb. 

Our constant aim has been to "down grade" from 
critical materials to materials less critical and therefore 
easier to obtain. 

Suggestions received by our Conversion Sections in 
13 months total over 3300. About 800 have not yet 

been acted upon, 1200 have been rejected, and over 
1300 accepted for production. Over 50 per cent of all 
suggestions considered have been adopted. This high 
percentage is a tribute to the fine intelligence and 
ingenuity of the industrial engineers who have co- 
operated with the Ordnance Department in this pro- 

G. R. Langley, m.e.i.c. 2 

Ways of economizing in the use of materials, are very 
important and a short description of some of those 
adopted at our Peterborough Works during the last 
three years may be interesting. 

In flame cutting irregular-shaped pieces from steel 
plate, a little planning yields big results. We use junior 
draftsmen to make full size layouts of the pieces on 
heavy template paper. These are cut out and shuffled 
around on pressboard sheets the same size as standard 
steel plate, until the most economical cutting positions 
are found. The cutouts are then pasted down on the 
pressboard. The flame cutting department scribes 
around the cutouts and uses the resulting scribed 
grooves to guide the flame cutters. This scheme also 
permits the Stores and Purchasing Departments to 
arrange for exact requirements with confidence and the 
overall savings more than offset the small cost of 
producing the cutting plan. 

Even though the best cutting plan is followed there 
are always many small pieces of scrap plate left. In 
normal times it is customary and probably economical 
to save only the largest pieces and sell the balance as 
scrap. Under wartime conditions it is necessary to 
minimize the load on rolling mills by saving quite small 
pieces. We find that the utilization of these small pieces 
is greatly facilitated by tables. Which show the small 
parts in common use that can be made from the small 
odds and ends left over from the cutting. New plate is 
never used for any part shown on one of the indices 
unless no scrap pieces are available. The plan works so 
well that it has been extended to other sheet materials. 

In connection with certain punched parts, waste is 
frequently involved through the careless assumption 
that small nicks or flats cannot be tolerated. For 
example investigation showed a surprising number of 
cases where it was quite unnecessary to allow the cus- 
tomary margins between punchings and at the side 
when punching circles or segments from magnetic sheet 
steel. On one single job over 35 tons of sheet was saved 
by allowing small flats on the side, together with the 
small nicks that are the inevitable result if there is no 
allowance between punchings. It is incorrect to call 
these flats and nicks, imperfections, in cases where they 
have no effect on the appearance or performance of the 
finished machine. 

An article was published in the Engineering Journal, 
January 1943, on an extremely simple scheme developed 
at Peterborough for eliminating all waste in the use of 
welding electrodes. This is in use in a number of plants, 
but in view of the shortage of electrode producing 
capacity it is regrettable that it is not yet in general use. 

H. Thomasson, m.e.i.c. 3 

An important phase in any conservation programme 
is the reclamation of used, broken or damaged items. 
This is particularly true in the case of special tools such 
as drills, reamers, taps, dies, milling cutters, and form 
tools. All of which are both scarce and subject to abuse 

2 Engineer, Peterborough Works, Canadian General Electric 
Company, Limited, Peterborough, Ont. 

3 Welding Engineer, Canadian Westinghouse Company Limited 
Hamilton. Ont. 



by relatively untrained help, now of necessity using 

Reclamation of tools breaks down into two major 
divisions, first, those which only require sharpening or 
repairs that can best be made by modern grinding 
equipment, and, second, those repairs that involve the 
use of welding processes to add metal or join parts. 

Broken tools of relatively small cross section are 
repaired by the use of special low temperature silver 
soldiers; the essential requirements in this work are 
cleanliness and patience, while the major pitfall is that 
of alignment, and special attention should be given to 
this point. 

This method of tool repair is very successful on high 
speed steel tools which are not reduced in hardness by 
the process, though appreciable softening occurs if it 
is used on tools made of plain carbon tool steels. 

The second type of repair is where a non cutting 
portion of a tool such as the tang or shank of drills, 
reamers, end mills, and similar tools has been broken 
or damaged to the point where metal must be added. 
In such a case a new piece is arc-welded on to the 
broken end. Such welding though strong in itself 
embrittles the material near the weld, but this is over- 
come by a stress relief tempering treatment which 
toughens both the weld and adjacent metal. This 
method is quite successful, and is also used to repair 
carbon steel tools when they are of sufficient value to 
warrant it. 

The third type of repair is when portions are broken 
on or off the cutting edges of valuable tools, such as 
milling cutters. Here we use arc welding with electrodes 
of high speed steel to replace the broken portion or to 
build up worn teeth. The same method is also used to 
build up punches and dies, and we have found that the 
use of carbon blocks as an aid to controlling the shape 
of the deposit has a double value in that it results in 
sounder metal than is the case when carbon is not used. 

The most recently developed repair method is to use 
the atomic-hydrogen process of welding in the repair 
of chipped dies, form punches, and similar items. This 
method has the advantage of being able to deposit 
metal of any desired analysis, due to the fact that 
every element is transferred from the filler metal into 
the weld without loss except carbon, and carbon loss 
can be controlled to some extent. Another factor is 
that filler rod can be forged from any odd piece stock 
that is of the desired analysis which is — all elements 
except carbon as desired in the weld and carbon approxi- 
mately 0.40 per cent excess. This method involves 
annealing and re-heattreating the part and is at its 
best on very expensive dies. As an example, some time 
ago we repaired a die-casting die, saving 75 per cent 
of the replacement cost. The repaired die has been in 
service for several months and has produced over ten 
thousand castings. 

The problems involved in this work are not welding 
problems, but are problems of metallurgy and associated 
heat treatment due to the heat effects from the welding. 

It is certainly not advisable to throw problems of this 
type into a welding shop unless they have the necessary 
technical assistance. 

William A. Duncan, m.e.i.c. 4 

One of the most urgent war requirements has been 
armoured vehicles of all kinds. Welding procedures 
were established for bulletproof plate for scout cars, 
after a great deal of painstaking development. Then 
the introduction of automatic welding greatly acceler- 
ated production, for one automatic electric welding head 
will do as much welding as ten to twelve manual arc 
welding operators. 

The original welding rod used for this application 
was an austenitic rod containing high percentages of 
chromium and nickel — both critical materials. Further 
development, with the co-operation of the manufac- 
turers of these vehicles, finally resulted in a ferritic rod 
for automatic electric welding. This met all physical 
requirements and passed the ballistic tests of the 
Inspection Board of the United Kingdom and Canada. 
It has resulted in an estimated annual saving of 81,000 
man-hours and 25,000 lb. of critical alloys (mostly 
nickel and chromium). 

Practically all bronze welding rods for the production, 
maintenance, and repair of machinery and equipment 
contained about one per cent of tin — a most critical 
material. At the urgent request of the Metals Controller 
the welding industry developed a substitute bronze rod 
containing no tin whatever and thereby saved approxi- 
mately 8,750 lb. of tin annually. 

Another highly important development by the weld- 
ing industry is the increased use of automatic welding 
in shipbuilding. Because of the need for speed in ship- 
building and for large amounts of welding of all kinds, 
and because of the difficulty of obtaining a sufficient 
number of qualified manual arc welders, the introduc- 
tion of automatic welding was a godsend. This can be 
realised when we consider that a single automatic weld- 
ing unit in a shipyard, operated by only two men 
(operator and helper) has welded more than 600 lin. 
ft. in a day— a job that would normally require ten to 
fourteen men for manual arc welding. 

We could cite from our own records innumerable 
instances where bronze-welding has put damaged 
machinery back into service in a matter of hours, thus 
avoiding production delays of weeks and even months. 
Two examples will suffice: 

A 500-lb. cast iron slide of a hot nut making machine 
in a steel plant cracked. It was repaired by bronze- 
welding and put back into service in nine hours. The 
replacement part could not have been obtained in less 
than three months. 

A large press gear from a machine essential to pro- 
duction of war materials in a shell plant was broken. 
Again a replacement could not be obtained in less than 
three months. It was bronze-welded and returned to 
service in thirteen hours. 

4 Manager, Process Service, Dominion Oxygen Company 
Limited, Toronto, Ont. 





Wages Payment Division, Personnel Department, General Electric Company, Schenectady, N.Y. 

An article written at the request of the Institute Committee on Industrial Relations, heing 

one of a series prepared for the Journal. 

There is nothing particularly new in the principle of 
job evaluation. We have been evaluating jobs since the 
beginning of industrial organization. The president of 
the company has always received more than the office 
boy, and the tool and die maker has always received 
more than the sweeper. The only point at issue is how 
much more should the president receive than the office 
boy and how much more should the tool and die maker 
receive than the sweeper. After all, an employee views 
his rate of pay and compares it with the rates of pay 
on other jobs. If the rate of pay that he is receiving 
cannot be proved to be a correct one as compared with 
other jobs with which he is familiar, a potential indus- 
trial relation situation exists. 

It must be borne in mind that in any plan for deter- 
mining rates of pay there are two different phases: 
first, evaluating the job, and second, evaluating the 
contribution the employee makes on the job. These 
are two separate and distinct things and must not be 
confused. The discussion of this paper will be confined 
to job evaluation. 

The principal purposes of job evaluation are: 

1. To establish proper differentials between jobs in 
the same factory. 

2. To establish proper wage levels. 

3. To establish proper rates on new jobs. 

4. To establish promotional sequence. 

Unless a plan of job evaluation is so simple, so easily 
understood, that any employee, after having been given 
proper instructions, can evaluate his job, it will probably 
be unsatisfactory. 

There are two schools of thought in job evaluation 
plans. The first is by the grading method, which is 
usually done by a committee which considers jobs as a 
whole and puts them in grades with like jobs. The chief 
objections are: first, it is difficult to prove to an em- 
ployee that his job has been put in the proper grade, 
as the grading, after all, is only the opinion of a group; 
second, as time goes on, the personnel of the committee 
changes and there may be differences of opinion about 
jobs, particularly on border-line cases. 

The second system is the numerical point rating sys- 
tem which is in use at the General Electric Company. 
There are several variations to this system, most of 
which are workable and are in the main, satisfactory. 
The system which I will now describe has been in use 
in the General Electric Company for over ten years. 

In factory jobs we concluded, after long study, that 
the compensatory characteristics were : mentality, skill, 
responsibility, mental application, physical application, 
working conditions. 


Our definition of mentality is mental capacity, that 
is, the mental capacity required to do the job. Such men- 
tal capacity is gained usually in the ordinary sense 
through schooling. It does not make any difference 
whether the knowledge is gained in a formal or an in- 
formal way, but it is the mental development that an 
employee must have before he is qualified to do the 
job in question. 


After consulting many authorities, and checking with 
many superintendents, we arrived at the conclusion 
that skill could best be defined as "learning time." By 
learning time we mean the total time required on pre- 
vious jobs plus the time required on the job in question 
so that the employee can perform the job in an expe- 
ditious manner. 


In evaluating the responsibility required on a job, 
we measured the chance of hazard or error and its prob- 
able cost in material or machinery. If a man is operating 
an expensive piece of equipment, which is practically 
fool-proof, the job responsibility is low. If, on the other 
hand, he is working with very expensive materials, or 
with expensive equipment, which he can wreck, through 
an error in judgment, the job responsibility is high. 


The definition of these two characteristics is the same 
and, therefore, we classify them together. It is the de- 
gree and continuity of application. If the job requires 
constant physical effort, the physical application is high. 
If it requires constant mental effort, the mental appli- 
cation is high. 


We do not believe that working conditions are a 
very serious thing. The modern shop of to-day is a good 
place in which to work. Large amounts of money have 
been expended in making work places safe, clean, light, 
and wholesome, but there are certain jobs which have 
hazards to clothing or health for which the employee 
working on such jobs should be compensated. 

In setting up this system of job evaluation no attempt 
was made to prove or disprove any theory of wages. 
A survey of many firms was made to find the ideas of 
industry as to the worth between different jobs, and 
with this information on hand we weighted the charac- 
teristics so as to arrive at a wage scale, which was in 
agreement with what industry was accustomed to pay. 
We felt that all jobs had something in common and 
that we should evaluate only those parts of the jobs 
which differed from other jobs. We, therefore, adopted 
a base of 400 points which would apply to all jobs. The 
reason we chose 400 points was that at the time we 
installed the system the National Labour Relations 
Board had just come into being and they had decided 
that 40c per hour was the minimum pay for most in- 
dustrial establishments and as we wanted to have a 
large number of points we chose a multiplier of 10. 

To set up a job evaluation system such as has been 
outlined, it is necessary to select some fifty jobs ranging 
from the highest to the lowest, making very detailed 
analysis of each job and ranging them from high to low 
in each characteristic. After the key list is developed, 
evaluating any job becomes very simple. It really be-, 
comes a comparison of jobs rather than an evaluation 
system. Every job should be analyzed in each character- 
istic in respect to some job close to it. As an example — 
in evaluating skill, does it take longer to learn to do 
this new job than it does some job already evaluated ? 
(Continued on page 103) 




Together with Committee and Branch Reports 

In the history of a society such as the Institute, it is 
difficult to pick out any one year and say it was the 
best or the most outstanding. Doubtless each year as 
it goes by seems to qualify for these titles. Certainly 
this is true of 1943, and the report which follows will 
give some indication of the reasons for making that 

Size is not necessarily an indication of greatness. 
Nevertheless, it is important and has a definite bearing 
on the success and activities of an organization. Last 
year saw the Institute membership reach a new level 
of 6,073, with an increase much greater than has oc- 
curred in previous years. 

Finances, too, are used as a gauge in appraising an 
organization and its work. As the reports of the Finance 
Committee and the treasurer indicate, the Institute's 
finances for the year have been very satisfactory. There 
is a substantial balance, in spite of the fact. that the 
cost of doing business has increased and that fees of all 
members overseas and members in combatant areas 
have been remitted. An expansion in activities has also 
brought about certain additional expenses, but in spite 
of these reductions in income and increases in expendi- 
tures, the net balance is quite satisfactory. 

The best medium by which to judge of the work of 
a society is the work of its committees. It is doubtful 
if the Institute has ever had more special committees 
than it has had in the last year. All these have been 
active and have made considerable progress, although 
in every instance the objective has not yet been at- 
tained. In such instances, the committee is continuing 
in 1944. 

Visits to Branches 

President K. M. Cameron, during his term of office, 
visited every branch of the Institute and attended every 
Council meeting. In addition he held Institute meetings 
in three other places where branches are not yet estab- 
lished. He visited and spoke to the students at every 
university but one, where engineering degrees are given. 
During his tour of the western branches he also spoke 
to several sections of the McGill Graduates' Society. 

Council Meetings 

Council held many of its meetings away from head- 
quarters. Such meetings were held in Winnipeg, London, 
Toronto, Quebec and Saint John. In all, there were 12 
meetings of Council held throughout the year, with an 
average attendance of 13. Out of a total of 43 council- 
lors, 36 attended at least one meeting and represented 
20 out of 25 branches. The practice of holding these 
regional meetings of Council has been fully justified. 


The financial statement very largely follows that of 
1942. One noticeable difference is that the large amount 
of arrears of fees which were collected the previous 
year has not been repeated last year. Doubtless this is 
due to the fact that the arrears have been very largely 
cleaned up. There is a substantial increase in the amount 
of current fees received. Members will find the reports 
of the treasurer and the Finance Committee both in- 
teresting and illuminating. 

Annual Meeting 

The Annual Meeting at Toronto set some new records. 
Registration was approximately 750, which is the largest 
number ever registered for an annual meeting in that 
city. A splendid programme was arranged by the local 
papers committee, and every detail of a full meeting 
was carried out by the local committee to the pleasure 
and satisfaction of everyone present. 

Members in Active Service 

It is difficult to secure up to date information about 
members in the services. Such persons change quickly 
from place to place; sometimes their location is a 
matter for secrecy; usually they are too busy in matters 
of greater urgency to keep Headquarters informed. 
Nevertheless, some information has been received, and 
more is being sought as a basis of a permanent record. 
In the last war 36 per cent of the entire membership 
was in the services. 

While it is difficult to render much useful service to 
the members overseas, the Institute is more than ever 
interested in them and would be glad of opportunities 
to assist. It is proud of their record of honours won for 
gallantry, and of promotion through merit. Engineers 
at home acknowledge their indebtedness to their over- 
seas associates, and are grateful for the prestige which 
is being added to the word "engineer" in all the four 
corners of the earth. 

Collective Bargaining 

Another activity which was carried out in co-opera- 
tion with several other technical organizations was the 
presentation of a brief to the McTague Commission. It 
had to do with the possible inclusion of engineers in 
compulsory collective bargaining, a procedure which the 
brief insisted must not be established. 

Engineering Students 

There has been a great increase in interest and ac- 
tivity shown towards the Institute by the students in 
engineering in many of the universities. Requests for 
Student Sections have been received from four univer- 
sities, and negotiations are under way for the comple- 
tion of agreements. In the meantime there have been 
substantial increases in the number of students who 
have joined the Institute in the regular way. 

Special Assignments 

The Institute accepted an assignment from the Army 
Technical Development Board with reference to land 
mines, which developed into a nation-wide activity. 
Six other societies were asked by the Institute to join 
in the work so that the endeavour could be carried out 
co-operatively and therefore more comprehensively. All 
those members who participated will be glad to know 
that the Board was very appreciative of the way the 
project was handled, and was quite pleased with the 
final results. 

International Relations 

It is a real pleasure to report that relationships with 
sister societies in other countries have developed con- 



siderably throughout the year. There have been several 
matters of joint interest and concern with both British 
and American organizations, and the indications are 
that the future holds considerable promise of greater 
opportunities for joint effort on behalf of the profession. 

An interesting feature of every annual meeting is the 
presence of officers of American societies. Institute 
members look forward to these visits as opportunities 
to make or renew friendships of great value. In turn 
the officers of the Institute attend the meetings of sev- 
eral societies in the States, and are given a very warm 

Among last year's events of international importance 
were the joint meeting with The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers in Toronto, the completion of a 
co-operative agreement with the A.S.M.E., the meeting 
of the Engineer's Council for Professional Development 
in New York, and discussions of co-operation with the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers carried out 
by committees appointed by the presidents of the two 

Joint Meeting with A.S.M.E. 

One of the highlights of the year was the meeting 
held in Toronto on September 30th and October 1st 
and 2nd with The American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers. The executive of the Toronto section of the 
A.S.M.E. and the branch of the Institute formed a 
joint local committee to carry out the meeting. There 
was a registration of 800, with a large group coming 
from the United States. Three days and nights of pro- 
fessional sessions provided an unusually full programme 
of great value. 

In addition to the professional and technical features, 
the meeting afforded special opportunities for the devel- 
opment of international contacts and goodwill. It was 
a pleasant and profitable experience, which it is hoped 
may be repeated frequently in the future. 

Co-operative Agreement with A.S.M.E. 

New ground was broken in an expanding programme 
when the members of a joint committee signed a co- 
operative agreement in October at Toronto between the 
A.S.M.E. and the E.I.C. The relationships with this 
society have always been cordial and friendly, but it 
was the opinion of officers of both organizations that 
more progress could be made on behalf of the profession 
if an organized basis of co-operation could be estab- 
lished. It is expected that the committee established 
by the agreement will shortly report on endeavours 
which may be undertaken jointly, to the advantage of 
both groups and of the profession at large. 

Engineers' Council for Professional 

The E.C.P.D. is one channel through which definite 
progress has been made towards the improvement of 
international relations. The co-operative efforts of 
members of the Institute and members of the seven 
American societies, working on committees that are 
grappling with the problems of the profession, have 
brought American and Canadian engineers appreciably 
closer together. This association is a rare privilege for 
Canadians, and at the same time should be the most 
effective means for establishing professional recognition 
on both sides of the border. 

Roll of the Institute 

The membership of all classifications now totals 6,073, 
which is again a record. New names added to the roll 
for the year 1943 amounted to 562, but deaths, resigna- 
tions and removals reduce the net figure to a gain of 421. 

During the year 1943, 546 candidates were elected to 
various grades in the Institute. These were classified 
as follows: Honorary Member, 1; Members, 162; 
Juniors, 32; Students, 340; Affiliates, 11. The elections 
for the previous year totalled 469. Sixteen reinstate- 
ments were effected, and 13 life memberships were 

Transfers from one grade to another were as follows : 
Junior to Member, 72; Student to Member, 23; Student 
to Junior, 95; Student to Affiliate, 2; a total of 192. 

The names of those elected or transferred are pub- 
lished in the Journal each month immediately following 
the election. 

Removals from the Roll 

There have been removed from the roll during the 
year 1943, for non-payment of fees and by resignation, 
41 Members; 2 Juniors; 26 Students; and 7 Affiliates; 
a total of 96. 

Deceased Members 

During the year 1943 the deaths of forty-five mem- 
bers of the Institute have been reported as follows: 


Allison, John Logie Montreal, Que. 

Baker, James Davidson Edmonton, Alta. 

Burnett, Francis Charles Edward. . . .Montreal West, Que. 

Campbell, John George William Halifax, N.S. 

Clark, George Silas Montreal, Que. 

Colhoun, George A Hamilton, Ont. 

Condon, Frederick Oxley Moncton, N.B. 

Cornish, Wilfred Ernest Edmonton, Alta. 

Crowley, Charles James Toronto, Ont. 

Dupuis, Louis Charles Levis, Que. 

Farquharson, Stanley Montreal, Que. 

Fetterly, Philip Austin Calgary, Alta. 

Fulton, William Norwood, Man. 

Gibbs, Charles Richard Kalamazoo, Mich., U.S.A. 

Harkness, Andrew Harkness Toronto, Ont. 

Harrington, Conrad Dawson Montreal, Que. 

Harrington, John Lyle Kansas City, Mo., U.S.A. 

Hole, John Toronto, Ont. 

Howse, George Wesley '. Hamilton, Ont. 

Kennedy, William Montreal, Que. 

King, Harry Molyneux Niagara Falls, Ont. 

Kugel, Emil Montreal, Que. 

Larner, Chester Waters Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

Libby, Philip Nason Kingsport, Tenn., U.S.A. 

Livingstone, Robert Lethbridge, Alta. 

MacKenzie, Charles Edward Springhill, N.S. 

Main, Daniel Todd Montreal, Que. 

Matheson, Arthur John Toronto, Ont. 

McBride, Wilbert George Montreal, Que. 

Nicholson, John B New York, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Nowlan, Brete Cassius Montreal, Que. 

Ord, Lewis Redman Toronto, Ont. 

Pacy, Ernest Harold Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. 

Paine, Nathan Deane Montreal, Que. 

Stead, Geoffrey Saint John, N.B. 

Stevenson, Charles Lester Ottawa, Ont. 

Stewart, Robert A New Glasgow, N.S. 

Sutherland, Alexander Wolfville, N.S. 

Symes, Cyril Barron Fort William, Ont. 

Wain, John Bernard Montreal, Que. 

Westbye, Peder Pederson Hamilton, Ont. 

Wilson, LeRoy Z Sydney, Australia 

Wingfield, Harold Ernest Stratford, Ont. 


Flahault, Jean E Arvida, Que. 


Polley, Edward Victor Toronto, Ont. 



Total Membership 

The membership of the Institute as at December 
31st, 1943, totals 6,073. The corresponding number for 
the year 1942 was 5,652. 

1942 1943 

Honorary Members 16 17 

Members 3,727 3,820 

Juniors 655 665 

Students 1,158 1,471 

Affiliates 96 100 

5,652 6,073 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Council, 

K. M. Cameron, m.e.i.c, President. 

L. Austin Wright, m.e.i.c, General Secretary. 


The report of the Finance Committee shows that from 
a financial point of view the Institute has had a satis- 
factory year. 

The securities as shown in the auditor's statement 
have been checked and found in order. The market 
value of these at to-day's date is approximately $27,250 
as against $26,558, the cost of the Institute. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. V. Christie, m.e.i.c, Treasurer. 


Your Finance Committee is pleased to again report 
a satisfactory year for the Institute. 

The balance sheet prepared by the auditors shows a 
surplus of approximately $2,600 for the year's opera- 
tion. You will notice that additional reserves have been 
set aside for the building reserve fund, thus making the 
total in that fund $5,000. 

Your attention is called to the bank overdraft. This 
is due to two things. (1) The Institute paid out in ad- 
vance for the Army Technical Development Board 
approximately $2,000 in accounts, return for which will 
not be made until January. (2) During the year $10,000 
of Victory Loan bonds were purchased which exceeded 
the surplus of last year. Consequently the working capi- 
tal has been reduced, but the Finance Committee has 
thought it better to use the bank accommodation than 
to sell any of the bonds. 

The special fund known as the Past Presidents' Fund 
has been examined and approved by the Finance Com- 
mittee. This fund does not appear among the other 
accounts of the Institute. 

The committee would also like to comment on the 
fact that the cost of a great many supplies and services 
which are used by the Institute have increased materi- 
ally through the year, and contribute to the increase 
in expenditures. The committee feels that in view of 
the remission of fees to members overseas and in com- 
batant areas, and the increase in costs, the statement 
for the year makes a very satisfactory showing. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. McLeod, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


The Sir John Kennedy Medal has been awarded by 
the Council of the Institute to Chalmers Jack Mac- 
kenzie, cm.g.,:ll.d.,, m.e.i.c, acting president of the 
National Construction Council, at Ottawa, and dean of 
engineering at the University of Saskatchewan. 


Since the last annual report, seven meetings of your 
Committee on Industrial Relations have been held, viz. : 
April 9th, May 7th, June 21st, September 30, Novem- 
ber 5th and December 3rd, 1943. 

The papers arranged by Professor Viteles and Dr. 
Bryce M. Stewart for presentation at the Annual Meet- 
ing held in February, 1943, were published in the Journal 
together with the discussion. 

The University Syllabus on Industrial Relations 
which was under preparation was brought to a comple- 
tion and at the request of the committee, was sent out 
by letter from the president of the Institute to the 
universities and colleges. The syllabus is under con- 
sideration by committees in most of the universities 
and colleges and from information presently in the 
hands of the committee, it is being well received. 

Speakers on standards pertaining to industrial rela- 
tions have been provided to the Branches on request 
and from the experience so far obtained, it is felt that 
a wider dissemination of information can be obtained 
by this means than by almost any other available. 

The reports commonly known as the Beveridge, the 
Marsh, the Haegerty and Whitton have been received 
by the committee and have been given very careful 
study and discussed at a number of the meetings. 

Papers on specific subjects pertaining to industrial 
relations have been prepared, at the request of the Com- 
mittee, by Professor M. A. MacKenzie, Mr. Weed, Dr. 
Dowd and Professor Panabaker and forwarded to Head- 
quarters for publication in the Journal. These were 
papers by international authorities on the problems be- 
fore them and of vital interest to members of the Insti- 
tute. Because of a crowded publication programme and 
the shortage of paper none of these papers appeared 
during the year, but the first two are scheduled for the 
January and February, 1944, issues. 

The subject of collective bargaining has received very 
serious consideration at almost every meeting of your 
committee. Certain fundamentals have been developed, 
but as yet your committee is not prepared to report 
on this most important subject. 

Your committee requested Headquarters to state if 
the matter of demobilization and retraining of personnel 
from the armed forces, came within the purview of this 
committee or if it was being placed in the hands of some 
other committee. We were assured that it should come 
within the purview of the Committee on Industrial Rela- 
tions. Acting on this premise, the responsible officers 
of the various sections of the armed forces and of the 
Department of Pensions and National Health have been 
interviewed and rather complete reports of the present 
status of the situation have been presented to the com- 
mittee. Arrangements have also been made whereby 
your committee will officially be kept in touch with the 
developments in the methods to be used by the armed 
forces and the Department of Pensions and National 
Health pertaining to this subject. 

At the request of the committee in charge of the joint 
meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers and The Engineering Institute of Canada, held 
in Toronto early in October, 1943, your committee ar- 
ranged to have Professor J. C. Cameron, a member of 



the Committee on Industrial Relations and on the fac- 
ulty of Queen's University, present a paper at a lunch- 
eon on the subject of industrial relations. This paper 
was broadcast and was extremely well received and 
has been published in the Journal. 

One of the most important subjects receiving the 
attention of members of the Institute in industry dur- 
ing the past few years has been that of job classification 
and wage schedules. This matter has received the care- 
ful consideration and study of your committee at dif- 
ferent times and possibly at a later date, a report may 
be presented but some of the essentials of this subject 
were prepared by Mr. Weed in the form of a paper 
which will appear in the February, 1944, issue. 

While the interest of any such committee as the Com- 
mittee on Industrial Relations in the work of the Inter- 
national Labour Office is important, yet the fact that 
this office due to war conditions has been transferred 
from Geneva to Montreal, makes it all the more im- 
portant for Canadians and particularly Canadian engi- 
neers to be more conversant with the operations of this 
most important body. Your committee has been made 
aware of the work being carried on by the International 
Labour Office and intends to keep abreast with the 
problems before that organization. 

A request was made for a paper to be presented at 
the Annual Meeting to be held at Quebec. It was 
thought that such a paper should be a broad subject 
of general interest. Arrangements have therefore been 
made to have Mr. Maurice Stack of the staff of the 
International Labour Office present a report on the 
Beveridge, Marsh, Haegerty and Whitton plans. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Wills Maclachlan, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


During the year 1943, members of your committee 
have individually and collectively, where possible, fur- 
thered contact of members of the Institute and of Ca- 
nadian engineers generally, with engineers of other coun- 
tries. Due to the conditions imposed by the war, such 
contact has not been made as frequently and readily as 
might have occurred under normal conditions. 

Participation of the Institute in the deliberations of 
the Engineers' Council for Professional Development 
in the United States has continued, and meetings of 
their committees in the United States have been at- 
tended by members of the Institute. These representa- 
tions from Canada have been accorded a cordial and 
very gratifying reception, and the mutual contribution 
of engineers on both sides of the line has been very 

The work of the Committee of the Institute on Pro- 
fessional Interests in establishing an agreement with 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers has 
contributed in considerable measure to a better under- 
standing and a cordial relationship between the 
mechanical engineers of Canada and the United States. 
While this has not been a direct activity of the Com- 
mittee on International Relations, that committee de- 
sires to express its appreciation for an effort which 
promises to contribute to their work, materially. 

Individual members of your committee have en- 
deavoured to carry forward the work of international 
relations, wherever possible. This has been accomplished 
by participation of members of the Institute in conven- 
tions of engineering bodies in the United States, and 
particularly during the joint meeting in Toronto with 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 

American associations which have been contacted in 
this manner include the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical 
Engineers, The American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, the American Çociety of Chemical Engineers, and 
the American Waterworks Association. 

One of the outstanding contributions to international 
relationship during the course of the year, has been 
the unanimous election of Mr. W. L. Batt of the United 
States to honorary membership in The Engineering In- 
stitute of Canada. This recognition by Canadian engi- 
neers of the ability and merit of an American engineer, 
for the first time, has added to international relations 
and understanding. 

Your committee desires to acknowledge the gracious 
and cordial good wishes expressed to the engineers of 
Canada on Dominion Day, by the engineers of the 
Argentine, South America. This expression of good 
wishes and greetings on the part of the Argentine engi- 
neers has been suitably acknowledged on behalf of the 
Institute, and it is hoped the relations will be further 
promoted and carried forward in the future. 

M. J. McHenry, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


Your Committee on Western Water Problems has 
been inactive during the year 1943 and has little to 
report. As interest grows in post-war reconstruction 
other opportunities will no doubt present themselves 
for your committee to point out the merits of the con- 
struction of works to utilize Canada's share of the 
waters of the St. Mary and Milk rivers in Alberta as a 
means of providing employment and also of bringing 
about a permanent increase in the productive resources 
of our country. 

We therefore suggest that your committee be con- 
tinued so as to be in readiness to resume its activities 
as soon as the occasion arises. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


During 1943, the terms of an agreement between the 
Institute and the Association of Professional Engineers 
of Manitoba were completed and approved by the 
Institute. Negotiations for a similar agreement with 
the Corporation of Professional Engineers of Quebec 
are still in progress. So far as is known, the existing 
agreements for the provinces of Saskatchewan, Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick and Alberta are working out 
to the satisfaction of everyone concerned. 

During the year, the committee was asked to confer 
with a special committee appointed by the president 
of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers to 
consider ways and means for promoting co-operation 
between the two societies. To this end, the two com- 
mittees met in Montreal on December 10, 1943, for 
an exploratory conference. Satisfactory progress was 

As a result of conferences between members of the 
committee and representatives of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers in New York on August 23rd, 
1943, and in Toronto on October 1st, 1943, a co-opera- 
tive agreement between the two societies was com- 
pleted, which clarifies and codifies the close friendly 
relations which have existed for many years. Prelim- 
inary discussions indicate that a similar agreement can 



be effected with at least one other of the Founder 
Societies of the United States. 

At the request of the president, two members of the 
committee attended a meeting in Montreal on Decem- 
ber 11th, 1943, of representatives of several engineering 
and technical societies called to, consider ways and 
means for promoting co-operation between such bodies 
in Canada. As a result of this meeting, a committee was 
set up to prepare a constitution for an organization 
which could be set up primarily to enable conjoint 
action, particularly during the post-war period, should 
it be necessary for the engineers of Canada to speak 
with one voice. It is a moot question whether such a 
committee can be set up, even as an experiment, on a 
basis satisfactory to the majority of the engineering 
organizations of the Dominion without the danger of 
adding another organization to the many which now 
exist which may well infringe in the fields already cov- 
ered by existing organizations and which may add sub- 
stantially to the total of dues already required of Ca- 
nadian engineers. 

J. B. Challies, m.e.i. c, Chairman. 


No legislation affecting the interests of the Institute 
or of the engineering profession in general, came to the 
attention of the committee during the year 1943. There 
is consequently nothing to report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John L. Lang, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


During the year, your committee has held several 
meetings to direct the editorial policy of the Journal 
and to judge the papers submitted for publication. 

The May issue of the Journal marked the 25th anni- 
versary of its foundation. The event was acknowledged 
by the publication of 23 short articles describing the 
achievements of the past quarter-century in the various 
fields of engineering. Other articles in the back section 
constituted a retrospect into the first numbers. Com- 
ments from various sources indicate that this number 
was well received. 

The wartime restrictions on the use of paper made 
it necessary to adopt, last September, a lighter stock 
for the text section of the Journal. For the same reasons, 
the format was reduced, starting with the January 1944 

Your committee wishes to acknowledge the valuable 
source of Journal material provided by the papers 
presented at joint meetings with sister American socie- 
ties, such as were held at Niagara Falls with the 
American Society of Civil Engineers in October, 1942, 
and with The American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers at Toronto in October, 1943. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. A. Lalonde, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


Your committee was not assigned any new duties 
during the year 1943 until September. At the Council 
meeting held in London on September 11th, the com- 
mittee was directed to prepare a submission to the 
House of Commons Committee on Reconstruction 
directing its attention to the urgency of having engi- 
neering studies and plans started at once so that selected 
construction projects would be available on very short 
notice as required by any post-war situation that might 

The brief on this subject is now under preparation 


and the final draft should be in Council's hands in 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. C. Miller, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


The Membership Committee for 1943 consisted of 
the two 1942 members with one new member. All were 
resident in Toronto, so that meetings could be held on 
short notice as required. 

During the year, your committee continued its studies 
relating to membership classifications and methods of 
judging qualifications of applicants. This was in accord- 
ance with the discussion which took place at the meet- 
ing of Council in Toronto in February, 1943. 

The work has now been completed and the report is 
in your hands. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John G. Hall, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


During 1943 as in the previous year, the activities 
of the Employment Service have been limited on ac- 
count of the regulations governing the placement of 

The following table gives comparative figures of the 
work done: 

1942 1943 

Registered members 34 59 

Registered non-members 45 46 

Number of members advertising for a 

position 19 21 

Replies received from employers 48 30 

Vacant positions registered 134 113 

Vacancies advertised in the Journal 58 36 

Replies received to advertised positions ... . 101 93 
Men's records forwarded to prospective 

employers 35 13 

Men notified of vacancies 117 91 

Placements definitely known 30 19 

Close co-operation has been continued with the War- 
time Bureau of Technical Personnel. Members who have 
visited Headquarters with a view to discussing employ- 
ment problems have been properly instructed with 
regards to the Wartime Bureau regulations. 

The completion of large war construction projects 
towards the end of the year and the proposed slowing 
up of production in munitions factories has resulted in 
several of our members contacting the Employment 
Service for re-location. This would indicate that the 
Service will become very active again in the near future. 
L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 


It is difficult for this committee to make any detailed 
report at this stage of its work. There have been com- 
munications and interviews with interested officers and 
officials, but the culmination of the efforts of the com- 
mittee will not be apparent until early in 1944. Con- 
siderable encouragement has been received from influ- 
ential sources, and there is reason to believe that some, 
if not all, of the points raised will be settled along the 
lines recommended. 

The committee's final brief lays stress on three im- 
portant matters, of which strong complaint has been 
and is still being made: 

1. Failure of the Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps 
to give senior appointments to engineers, whereby they 
might administer the work being done by engineers. To 
this end it is urged that electrical and mechanical engi- 


neering work be removed from the Ordnance Corps and 
assigned to a special corps established for this purpose, 
similar to the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. 

2. The appointment of non-technical persons to posi- 
tions of definite engineering character. 

3. The failure to give to engineers, for professional 
services, rank or pay on a basis similar to that estab- 
lished for other professions. 

At this stage, the committee does not want to make 
any recommendations to Council, but believes that fur- 
ther action should be withheld until the Department 
of National Defence has given some reply to the latest 
representations. However, the committee still feels that 
these matters should be attacked constantly until satis- 
factory results are obtained. It is hoped that some real 
progress can be reported early in the year. 
Respectfully submitted, 

D. S. Ellis, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


The question referred to your committee is a broad 
and deep one and while opinion is not unanimous there 
seems to be a majority agreement that the Canons of 
Ethics for Engineers as prepared by the Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development are not just right 
and that there should be a separation between Canons 
of Ethics and a Code of Practice. 

A correct definition of the phrase "Canons of Ethics" 
appears to be "fundamental laws of moral problems". 
It is felt these should be few in number. 

But the young engineer, and all engineers, require 
something more than this to guide them in carrying on 
the practice of their profession and involving things 
which cross the border-line of morals and expand into 
the field of public practice and possibly civil and crimi- 
nal law. These things it is felt should be included in a 
Code of Practice which should be sectionized and even- 


For the Year Ended 31st December, 1943 


Membership Fees: 1943 

Arrears « 4,219.28 

Current 29,614.40 

Advance 618.55 

Entrance 2,514.00 

« 5,049.11 


$36,966.23 «35,722.27 


Journal Subscriptions $ 8,909.31 « 8,263.77 

Journal Sales 76.50 74.41 

Journal Advertising 23,126.45 18,645.42 

«32,112.26 «26,983.60 

Income from Investments. 
Refund of Hall Expense. 
Sundry Revenue 





Total Revenue for Year «70,431.80 «63,790.53 


Building Expense: 

Property and Water Taxes 



Light, Gas and Power 

Caretaker's Wages and Services 
House Expense and Repairs 
Building Fund Reserve 













« 6,164.55 « 7,841.61 


Journal Salaries and Expense «24.537.31 

Provincial Sales Tax 3.44 

Sundry Printing 891.52 




25,425.39 $20,982.41 

Office Expense: 

Salaries «16,865.59 

Telegrams, Postage and Excise Stamps 1,420.65 

Telephones 646.59 

Office Supplies and Stationery 1,536.1^ 

Audit and Legal Fees 255.00 

Messenger and Express 141.93 

Miscellaneous 646.54 

Depreciation — Furniture and Fixtures 364.48 


«21,876.90 «17,303.11 

General Expense: 

Annual and Professional Meetings . « 1,371.86 

Meetings of Council 747.89 

Travelling 1,540.67 

Branch Stationery 122.25 

Prizes 357.05 

Library Salary and Expense 1,900.54 

Interest, Discount and Exchange. . . . 176.55 

Examinations and Certificates 27.68 

Webster Lectures — net 

Committee Expenses 1,095.22 

Advances re Overseas Children 

National Construction Council 150.00 

Sundry Expense 161.41 

« 7,651.12 

Rebates to Branches 6,712.40 

Total Expenditures 67,830.36 

Surplus for Year 2,601.44 

« 1,689.73 

« 7,928.64 



«70,431.80 $63,790.53 



tually expanded to cover the widely different needs of, 
for example, the construction engineer, the mechanical 
engineer, the chemical engineer and the surveyor, it 
being remarked in this latter connection that the pro- 
posed E.C.P.D. canons bear the imprint of undue refer- 
ence to problems relating especially to construction and 
contracting work. 

As regards Canons of Ethics the following which cover 
the engineer's duties to the state, to the profession, to 
employer or client, to fellow engineers, to himself, are 
suggested : 

Canons of Ethics 

1. The engineer owes a duty to the state that 
sound engineering practice be employed in all its 
physical developments. He shall interest himself 
in the public welfare and be ready to apply his 
special knowledge, skill and training for the benefit 
of mankind. 

2. He shall ever uphold the honour and dignity 
of his profession and co-operate in upbuilding it by 
imparting information and experience to other en- 
gineers or students and by contributing to the 
work of engineering societies, schools and the 
scientific press. 

3. The keystone of professional conduct is in- 
tegrity; and the engineer shall discharge his pro- 
fessional duties with fidelity to employers and 
clients and with fairness and impartiality to em- 
ployees and contractors. 

4. In his dealings with his fellow engineers he 
shall be friendly, fair and tolerant and shall not 
injure another's reputation falsely or attempt to 
supplant him or compete unfairly. 

5. He shall not, in any respect, act in a manner 
which may bring discredit on his profession; he 
shall strictly respect all confidence imparted to him ; 


As at 31st December, 1943 


Cash on hand and in bank 

Accounts Receivable less Reserve . . . 

Arrears of Fees — Estimated 

Army Technical Development Board 




.$10,226.97 $ 8,123.46 

Special Funds — Investment Account: 
Investments— At cost . . . «5,988.89 
Cash in Savings Accounts 1,115.72 

7.104.61 7,522.33 

Investments — At Cost: 
Bonds — 

Dominion of Canada 

3% 1951 .... 2,500.00 
3% 1956... 5,500.00 
3% 1957... 10,000.00 
43^% 1946... 96.50 

\Y 2 % 1958... 180.00 

434% 1959.... 4,090.71 

Montreal Tramways 

5% 1951 .... 950.30 

5% t 1955.. . . 2,199.00 

Province of Saskatchewan 

5% 1959.... 502.50 

Shares — 

Canada Permanent 
Mortgage Corpora- 
tion — 2 shares 

Montreal Light, Heat 
& Power Cons. — 

40 shares N.P.V 

(Estimated market value 

Sundry Advances 

Deposit with Postmaster 

Prepaid Insurance 

Gold Medal 

Library — At cost less depreciation. . . . 
Furniture and Fixtures — At cost less 


Land and Buildings — Cost less depre- 


324.50 $26,558.51 $16,558.51 















,727.57 $73,677.76 


Current: 1943 

Secured Overdraft $ 6,507.44 

Accounts Payable 2,976.67 

Rebates to Branches 376.63 

$ 9.860.74 

Special Funds: 

As per Statement attached $ 7,092.61 


Building Fund 5,000.00 

Building Maintenance 2,000.00 

Surplus Account: 

Balance as at 31st Decem- 
ber, 1942 $58,172.78 


Excess of Revenue over 
Expenditure for year as 
per Statement attached 2,601.44 


$ 2,674.23 

$ 3,181.53 
$ 6,823.45 


60.774.22 58,172.78 

,727.57 $73,677.76 

We have audited the books and vouchers of The Engineering Institute of Canada for the year ended 31st December, 1943, and 
have received all the information we required. In our opinion the above Statement of Assets and Liabilities and attached Statement 
of Revenue and Expenditure for 1943 are properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct view of the Institute's affairs as at 
31st December, 1943, and of its operations for the year ended that date, according to the best of our information and the explana- 
tions given to us and as shown bv the books. 

(Sgd.) Ritchie. Brown & Co., 
Montreal, 20th January, 1944. Chartered Accountants. 



he shall avoid association with any enterprise of 
questionable character and shall advertise only in 
a dignified manner. 

As regards the Code of Practice it is considered that 
the 31 sections proposed by the E.C.P.D. as Canons 
of Ethics might be adopted with the change in name 
after slight changes in wording, some combination of 
what are now separate sections and understanding that 
the whole in future may be expended to cover the 
entire field of engineering. 

Submitted on behalf of the Committee, 

F. H. Peters, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


The organization of this committee has remained the 
same as it was at the close of last year. 

In connection with engineering features of civil de- 
fence this committee has continued its co-operation with 
the Director of Civil Air Raid Precautions, (Hon. Dr. 
R. J. Manion, until his death on July 2, 1943, and sub- 
sequently Brig. Gen. Alex Ross), and with the Canadian 
Engineering Standards Association. The Branch Com- 
mittees have continued their co-operation with pro- 
vincial and local A.R.P. organizations. In the provinces 
of Ontario and Quebec special arrangements have been 
made for technical personnel of The Engineering Insti- 
tute of Canada, the Royal Architectural Institute of 
Canada, and the Canadian Construction Association, 
to be readily and quickly available locally to A.R.P. 
organizations for consultation purposes. 

Meetings with Dr. Manion and with the Hon. C. D. 
Howe early in the year seemed to give promise of action 
on the joint submission of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, 
and the Canadian Construction Association, to the 
Prime Minister under date of November 3, 1942, but 
no action by the Government has yet been reported. 

The committee has issued specifications and instruc- 
tions relative to the engineering features of civil defence 
in connection with the protection of existing and pro- 
posed hotel, apartment, office, store, plant and other 
buildings, and dwellings, and of the personnel and equip- 
ment in them. This report was issued in incomplete 
form as some of the information ultimately to be ap- 
pended to it is secret and confidential and not yet 
available for general distribution. 

Because of changing conditions it has been considered 
undesirable to issue specifications for detached air raid 
shelters, and this assignment is being held in abeyance. 

Because of improvement in the war situation, and 
because the special assignments to this committee have 
been substantially fulfilled, this committee is now less 
active than heretofore. It is endeavouring, however, to 
maintain its organization, including that of the Branch 
Committees, so as to permit of promptly taking up 
further assignments should that become necessary. 

John E. Armstrong, m.e.i.c, Chairman 


The report of the Papers Committee for 1943 is prac- 
tically nil. This is not because efforts have not been 
made to assist the Branches, but because the Branches 
have shown complete ability to stand on their own feet 
and to provide what seemed to be very excellent pro- 
grammes without asking for assistance from the Papers 

A letter was circulated to Branch Secretaries early 
in the year asking whether the Papers Committee could 

render assistance and, if so, along what lines, and later 
a further circular was sent to certain Branches which 
it was thought would have some difficulty in getting 
speakers because of their geographical location. In no 
case, however, was any request for assistance received. 

Through Headquarters, a catalogue was prepared 
and sent to all Branches and to Engineering Under- 
graduates Societies, containing a descriptive list of 
films available to such groups as our Branches from 
industrial firms in Canada. 

At the present time, the Papers Committee is nego- 
tiating with the Director of Public Relations (Army) 
with a view to obtaining a film showing the work of 
Canadian Engineers overseas, which could be sent to 
all the Branches from coast to coast, and it is hoped 
that this may be ready early in the new year. 
Respectfully submitted, 

L. F. Grant, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


During the summer months, headquarters were gone 
over and given a general cleanup and interior painting, 
with very good results, including miscellaneous repairs 
to windows, pipe covering, etc. Three fluorescent fix- 
tures were placed in the reading room, first floor, to the 
satisfaction of many. Repairs to the front steps were 
completed and should give service for a few years, 
although the ironwork is badly corroded. 

Venetian blinds would be very desirable for the read- 
ing room, especially when the reading room is being 
used at night. War conditions make it impossible to 
get them. It is recommended that this item be kept in 
mind for the future. 

The staff is to be complimented on its efficiency and 


Tabulated below is a summary of the accessions to 
the library in the past year, together with the number 
of requests for information addressed to the librarian: 

Books presented by the publishers for review in The 

Engineering Journal 88 

Books presented to the library 1 

Proceedings and Transactions 22 

Reports (including Standards and Tentative Standards) . 256 

ARP and Civilian Defence 14 

We also acquired material published by the Office of Civilian 
Defence, Washinton, D.C. 

Requests for information 2,272 

Divided as follows: 

By phone 984 

By letter 955 

In person 333 

Books borrowed 476 

Bibliographies made 23, a total of 27 pages 

Photostats made 70 negatives 

30 positives 
1 figure 
1 enlargement 
Books borrowed on inter-library loan 20 

Following the recommendation of this Committee of 
1942, more publishers have been contacted, and the 
presentations to the library of technical books for re- 
view in the Engineering Journal have increased. 

At the request of this Committee, your Finance Com- 
mittee has agreed to make available annually a sum 
of $200.00 for the upkeep and purchase of up-to-date 
technical books for the Library. 

It is urged that members interested in the Library 

should send in suggestions and recommendations on 

the best technical books published, so that a few of 

the best in each branch of engineering may be acquired. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. V. Gage, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 




The reference to this subject in the January Journal 
brings Council pretty well up to date on the work of 
this committee. So far the actual progress made in 
terms of objectives accomplished amounts to absolutely 
nothing. The committee presented a strong brief to the 
Coon Committee which was studying civil service rates 
of pay, and was greatly encouraged by that committee, 
but in the recommendations made subsequently by the 
Treasury Board, supposedly based on the report of 
the Coon Committee, no mention was made of the 

Later, the committee waited on the Hon. Mr. 
Ilsley, and again urged that something be done 
for this low salary group. Mr. Ilsley seemed of the 
opinion that nothing could be done at that time, but 
promised to give the matter full consideration. 

Again later, the committee wrote the Hon. Mr. 
McLarty, who has been appointed chairman of a Sub- 
Committee of the Cabinet to look into the matter. 
This correspondence appears in the January Journal 

The committee proposes to maintain its interest and 
to seize every opportunity to emphasize to the proper 
officials the inadequacy of the wage schedule, and the 
serious effects that will accrue to the services, particu- 
larly in the post-war period, from such conditions. 
Respectfully submitted, 

N. B. MacRostie, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


Your committee asks leave to make its fifth annual 


Requests for further copies of the booklet "The Pro- 
fession of Engineering in Canada" have continued, 
especially from the universities. These requests have 
been filled until there remain not more than 600 copies 
of the first edition. Your committee will request au- 
thority to print a second edition in 1944. The brochure 
"La Profession d'Ingénieur au Canada" has been used 
to excellent purpose in Quebec, and it is being distri- 
buted by our committees and by the universities. 


The several branch committees have continued their 
activities; some functioning much more energetically 
than others. It now appears that where a counsellor is 
named for each high school, the co-operation with the 
school authorities becomes more personal and active. 
This method is recommended. 

The committee wishes to thank those members of 
the local committees who have helped so materially. 


The Institute has continued its very active partici- 
pation with the E.C.P.D. The E.C.P.D. is now exam- 
ining the efficacy of certain aptitude tests and has the 
substantial assistance of the Carnegie Foundation for 
the Advancement of Teaching in this study. About 
4,500 first year engineering students from several uni- 
versities are being given the tests, and it is expected 
that much valuable information will be available when 
they are completed. This work includes the design of 
tests to determine the probability that a prospective 
student will satisfactorily complete an engineering cur- 
riculum, and a plan to determine the validity of such 
tests. This will be of material assistance to your com- 
mittee in its future activities. 

A Manual for Junior Engineers is now being pre- 
pared under the editorship of Dr. W. E. Wickenden. It 
is expected that this will give many helpful aids to the 
young men of our profession. 


Your committee was asked to assist the Wartime 
Bureau of Technical Personnel in encouraging students 
to enter science courses as a war measure. Some progress 
was made, but owing to the fact that all schools had 
closed when the programme was announced, it was not 
as successful as was hoped. It is not known whether 
this programme will be followed in 1944. 

Discussions with the Canadian Legion Educational 
Services indicate that your Committee may be able to 
give some assistance to their programme of post-war 
rehabilitation. The Legion have requested permission 
to use the booklet "The Profession of Engineering in 
Canada" in their series of occupational manuals "Let's 
Discuss Jobs," for the guidance of men in the services 
who are planning for their return to civilian life. The 
booklet is at present being printed with special cover 
design to fit in the Canadian Legion series. 

The Student Engineering Societies of several of our 
universities are interested in a closer relationship with 
the Institute. It is, expected that further progress will 
be made during 1944. 


Copies of Dr. D. W. Mead's booklet on "Standards 
of Professional Relations and Conduct" were distributed 
to all members of the graduating classes of 1943. A 
programme of further distributions of timely articles 
is now being worked out. We are anxious that Institute 
members prepare some of these articles. 

The Junior Sections of the Montreal and Toronto 
Branches have been very active. Members of your com- 
mittee have addressed each of these sections, and we 
are encouraged by the enthusiasm of the younger mem- 
bers. It is probable that our student guidance contacts 
will be reflected in the interest of students and of the 
younger graduates in the affairs of the Institute. During 
the year, a Junior Section of the Saguenay Branch was 
formed and is operating successfully. 


Your committee recommends: 

(1) That all branches be urged to continue their 
Student Guidance Committees, and that these com- 
mittees make definite contacts with educational 
authorities ; 

(2) That the closest possible relationships be devel- 
oped and maintained with engineering students gener- 
ally, and with organized student engineering societies 
at the universities; 

(3) That the sum of $400.00 be authorized for the 
printing of 10,000 copies of a second edition of "The 
Profession of Engineering in Canada," and its distribu- 
tion, and for the printing of articles for issue to uni- 
versity students and others. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the committee, 

Harry F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


In presenting our report for the year 1943, I can only 
repeat the statement that I made last year, viz., there 
is plenty of work for the committee to do in more favour- 
able times which present pressure on its members will 
not permit undertaking now; and I therefore recom- 
mend we should maintain the committee in its present 



form ready to work actively when the war is over, for 
at that time there will be much deferred maintenance 
work to be carried out on concrete structures and the 
work of the committee will be of interest to a great 
many of the Institute's members. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. B. Young, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


Your Board of Examiners and Education for the 
year 1943 has had prepared and read the following 
examination papers with the results as indicated: 

Number of Number 
Candidates Passing 
Schedule A 
Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, 
Trigonometry, Chemistry, Geo- 
graphy, History 1 1 

Schedule B 
Elementary Physics and 

Mechanics 1 1 

Strength and Elasticity of 

Materials 1 1 

Schedule C 
Electrical Engineerings — 

III A. General Paper 3 3 

III B. Utilization of Electric 

Power 3 3 

Structural Engineering — 

VII A. General Paper 1 

Mechanical Engineering — 

IV A. General Paper 2 

IV B.(2)Steam Power 2 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. A. Spencer, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


The reports of the examiners appointed in the various 
zones to judge the papers submitted for the prizes for 
Students and Juniors of the Institute were submitted 
to Council at its meeting on December 18th, 1943, and 
the following awards were made: 

H. N. Ruttan Prize (Western Provinces), to N. 
Safran, jr.E.i.c., for his paper "Synthetic Rubber". 

John Galbraith Prize (Province of Ontario), to A. C. 
Northover, jr.E.i.c, for his paper "New Methods and 
Substitute Materials in Wartime Construction". 

Phelps Johnson Prize (Province of Quebec — English), 
to B. Mroz, s.E.i.c, for his paper "Portland-Montreal 
Pipe Line". 

Ernest Marceau Prize (Province of Quebec — French), 
to Henri Audet, s.E.i.c., for his paper "Locomotive de 
manoeuvre Diesel-electrique 660 B.h.p.". 

Martin Murphy Prize (Maritime Provinces), to 
James L. Belyea, s.E.i.c, for his paper "Simplification 
in the Design of Automatic Weapons". 


It is the unanimous recommendation of your com- 
mittee that the Gzowski Medal for the year 1943 be 
awarded to Frank E. Sterns, m.e.i.c, for his paper 
"Transit Shed with Concrete Roof Arches," as pub- 
lished in the June, 1943, issue of the Journal. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. H. Powell, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


Carrying out the instructions pertaining to the award 
of the Julian C. Smith Medal for 1943, the special com- 
mittee consisting of Past-President C. J. Mackenzie, 
C. R. Young and myself has made a selection of two 
names, which have been submitted by letter ballot to 
all councillors. 

As a result, Julian C. Smith Medals for 1943 are 
being awarded to: 

Mr. George Joseph Desbarats, C.M.G., Ottawa, Ont. 

Dr. Frederic Henry Sexton, President, Nova Scotia 
Technical College, Halifax, N.S. 

Respectfully submitted, 

K. M. Cameron, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


The Duggan Medal and Prize Committee has ex- 
amined carefully the papers presented to the Institute 
during the prize year which appear to meet the con- 
ditions for this award. 

The committee has reached a unanimous decision 
that the most meritorious one is that by W. R. Stickney, 
m.e.i.c, on "Electrical Arc Welding," as published in 
the February 1943 issue of the Journal, and therefore 
recommends that the Duggan Medal and Prize be 
awarded to Mr. Stickney. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. M. Fleming, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


Chairman: H. C. Fitz-James 

Branch Representative 

Border Cities C. G. R. Armstrong 

Calgary F. K. Beach 

Cape Breton J. R. Morrison 

Edmonton J. Garrett 

Halifax J. R. Kaye 

Hamilton W. J. W. Reid 

Kingston J. R. Carter 

Lakehead E. L. Goodall 

Lethbridge A. J. Branch 

London F. T. Julian 

Moncton A. Gordon 

Montreal J. M. Crawford 

Niagara Peninsula C. G. Cline 

Ottawa N. B. MacRostie 

Peterborough W. T. Fanjoy 

Quebec E. D. Gray-Donald 

Saguenay N. F. McCaghey 

Saint John D. R. Smith 

Saskatchewan E. K. Phillips 

St. Maurice Valley M. Eaton 

Sault Ste. Marie E. M. MacQuarrie 

Toronto A. E. Berry 

Vancouver H. N. Macpherson 

Victoria S. H. Frame 

Winnipeg D. M. Stephens 


Your committee considers that none of the papers 
submitted was of sufficient merit in the field for which 
the Leonard Medal was intended, and accordingly 
recommends that no award be made this year. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Alan E. Cameron, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 


Your Committee considers that none of the papers 
submitted is eligible for the Plummer Medal and ac- 
cordingly recommends that no award be made this year. 
Respectfully submitted, 

0. W. Ellis, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



Abstracts of Reports from Branches 


The Executive Committee held eight meetings dur- 
ing the year for the transaction of Branch business. 

The Executive appointed Mr. A. H. MacQuarrie as 
chairman of two sub-committees on post-war planning; 
one was a sub-committee to the Windsor Chamber of 
Commerce Committee on local post-war plans, and the 
other was as regional representative of the National 
Construction Council of Canada to act as chairman of 
a sub-committee on post-war planning. 

Nine Branch meetings were held during the year, as 
follows, the attendance being shown in brackets. 

Jan. 22 — G. H. Strickland, Superintendent of Filtration, Windsor 
Utilities Commission, spoke on Water Purification. 

Feb. 19 — A. G. Turnbull, Commercial Engineer in charge of In- 
dustrial Control, Canadian General Electric Company, 
spoke on Electronics in Industry. (39.) 

Mar. 19 — R. B. Young, Assistant Chief Testing Engineer for the 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, gave a 
paper on Recent Developments in Concrete 
Technology. (42.) 

Apr. 16 — W. C. Krug, of the firm of Draper, Dobie & Company, 
members of the Toronto Stock Exchange, talked on 
Revolutionary Changes in Money. (41.) 

May 21 — M. J. Ackroyd, Outside Plant Engineer of the western 
Ontario area, Bell Telephone Company of Canada, and 
Vice-President of the Association of Professional Engin- 
eers of Ontario, outlined the work of the Association 
and gave a paper entitled Blue Reels Turning. (39.) 

Sep. 10 — This dinner was held in honour of the president of the 
Institute, K. M. Cameron, who talked on Post-war 
Plans. The general secretary, Dr. L. Austin Wright, 
accompanied the president and spoke on the activities 
of the Institute. (46.) 

Oct. 15 — W. Moffat, of the Canadian Westinghouse Company 
Limited, Hamilton, gave an illustrated lecture on 
Cleaning Air Electrically. (32.) 

Nov. 19 — H. Mabson, Chief Inspector for the Industrial Accident 
Prevention Association Incorporated, gave a paper on 
Some Engineering Aspects of Industrial Safety. 

Dec. 17 — Annual meeting and election of officers. C. M. Goodrich, 
Consulting Engineer for the Canadian Bridge Company 
Limited, related Some Experiences— 1917-1919. (27.) 


The following report covers the activities of the 
Branch for the year 1943: 

Jan. 14 — Synthetic Rubber and Radio Service, Yesterday, 
To-day and Tomorrow, by N. Safran and A. Ainlay 


Feb. 12 — Some Modern Aspects of Physics, by W. K. Allan, 
B.A. (43.) 

Feb. 25 — The Influence of Disease on History, by W. A. 
Lincoln, M.D. (38.) 

Annual meeting, followed by dinner. (60.) 
Welding, by H. Thomasson. (200.) 
Dinner meeting, followed by president's address. (124.) 
Water Development Possibilities in the Post-war 
Period, by W. L. Foss. (39.) 

The Shipshaw Development, by L. A. Thorssen. (62.) 
Annual joint dinner meeting of Alberta Association of 
Professional Engineers, The Rocky Mountain Branch 
of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 
and the Calgary Branch of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada. 

Dec. 9 — Lights and Shadows in the Agricultural Picture, 
by J. E. Brownke. (31.) 


The Branch was pleased to receive a visit from the 
president and general secretary in April, on which occa- 











Nov. 27 

Note — For Membership and Financial 
Statements see pages 100 and 101 

sion there was a dinner meeting at the Y.M.C.A., 
following which the president and others spoke. 

In November, a very large meeting under the auspices 
of the Branch was held at St. George's Hall, at which 
Prof. A. E. Flynn gave an illustrated talk soliciting 
active co-operation of all technical personnel in the 
solution of a war problem. 


During the year the Branch held seven general meet- 
ings and, in addition, two meetings were held in 
conjunction with other societies. As in 1942, the attend- 
ance of American engineers has been a welcome feature 
at most of our meetings. The following is a summary of 
our regular meetings with attendances shown in 
brackets. Except for the two meetings in November, 
these were all preceded by an informal dinner. 

Jan. 14 — The Alaska Highway, by Col. Theodore Wyman, Jr., 
in command of the United States Engineer Forces, 
North West Service Command. (58.) 

Feb. 23— Alternative Fuels for Motor Vehicles, by W. A. 

Lang, Research Chemist, Research Council of Alberta. 

Mar. 20 — Joint meeting with Alberta Association of Professional 
Engineers and Canadian Institute of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy. The dinner was followed by an illustrated lecture 
on Canada Moves North, by R. H. Finnie, which 
included a new reel of pictures on the Alaska Highway. 

Apr. 29 — The Shipshaw Development, by L. A. Thorssen of 
the Department of Civil Engineering, University of 
Alberta. (67.) 

May 25 — Adapt to New Changes Quickly, by R. V. Carey of 
Messrs. Bechtel, Price, Callahan's Canol staff. (37.) 

Oct. 19 — Post-war Planning, by the president of the E.I.C., 
K. M. Cameron, on the occasion of his annual visit to 
the west. A special invitation was given to McGill 
graduates to attend this meeting. (86.) 

Nov. 3 — Special joint meeting with other engineering and chem- 
ical societies addressed bv Mr. Stacey of Vancouver. 

Nov. 5 — Astronomy, by Dr. J. W. Campbell, Professor of 
Mathematics at the University of Alberta. This was 
followed by an inspection of the observatory and reflect- 
ing telescope recently installed on the University 
campus. (17.) 

Dec. 7 — Elements of Design of Family Aircraft, by D. D. 
Dick, student at the University of Alberta. (30.) 


During the year meetings were held as follows: 

Jan. 28 — Combined annual banquet at Nova Scotian Hotel. (230.) 

Feb. 25 — H. W. Lea, Director of the Wartime Bureau of Tech- 
nical Personnel, spoke on the operations and policies of 
his Bureau. (130.) 

Mar. 25 — I. P. Macnab, Chairman of the Local Committee on 
Engineering Features of Civil Defence, introduced and 
showed a British sound film on bombs, which dealt in 
particular with the location and treatment of unex- 
ploded bombs. (90.) 

Apr. 19 — K. M. Cameron, president of the Institute, was our 
guest. He addressed the meeting on The Present and 
Post-war Problems of Engineers, and reviewed in 
brief the various committees of the Institute that 
already were active or in a state of organization. Dr. L. 
Austin Wright, general secretary of the Institute, L. D. 
Currie, Minister of Mines and Labour, and G. S. 
Kinlev, Deputv Mayor, also addressed the meeting. 



Oct. 28 — H. F. Ryan, Canadian General Electric Company, 
addressed the meeting on the science of Electronics. 

Nov. 25 — W. D. Outhit, Registrar of Probate, Halifax, addressed 
the meeting, his topic being Some Will and Some 
Won't. (59.) 

Nov. 9 — This special meeting of all technical personnel in the 
vicinity of Halifax was sponsored by the Institute, and 
was addressed by Dr. Alan E. Cameron. (206.) 


The Branch held the following meetings, the attend- 
ance figures being given in brackets: 

Jan. 13 — Annual meeting and dinner. The guest speaker was 
Dean C. R. Young, who spoke on the subject, The 
Engineering Profession in Wartime. The general 
secretary, L. Austin Wright, was also present and 
addressed the meeting briefly. (78.) 

Mar. 1 — Synthetic Rubber, by E. R. Rowzee, Factory Mana- 
ger of the Canadian Synthetic Rubber Company, 
Toronto. (80.) 

Apr. 7 — Welding — A Conservation, Salvage and Reclama- 
tion Tool, by H. Thomasson, Welding Engineer of the 
Canadian Westinghouse Company, Hamilton. This 
was a joint dinner meeting with the American Water 
Works Association, Canadian Section, on the occasion 
of their 23rd Annual Convention. (150.) 

Apr. 16 — Developments in Materials for Electrical Equip- 
ment, by D. R. Kellogg, Ph.D., Assistant to Manager, 
Engineering and Standards Department, Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, 
Pa., U.S.A. This was our annual joint meeting with the 
Toronto Section, A. I. HE. A complimentary supper was 
provided by the Canadian Westinghouse Company in 
their cafeteria. (165.) 

May 19 — Special meeting in honour of K. M. Cameron, president 
of the Institute. Dinner was served in McMaster Uni- 
versity Refectory prior to the meeting. The president 
spoke on the subject, The Engineer and Post-war 
Construction. Dr. L. A. Wright, general secretary, 
gave a short talk regarding Institute affairs. Through 
the courtesy of the Norton Company of Canada, two 
interesting films on abrasives were shown. (75.) 

Oct. 14 — Ogoki Diversion, by J. R. Montague, Assistant Hy- 
draulic Engineer for the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission. This was a joint meeting with the Hamil- 
ton Group of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers at the Westinghouse Auditorium. (110.) 

Oct. 28 — Plastics, by J. A. Palmer, Plastics Development 
Division, the Dow Chemical Company, Midland, 
Michigan, U.S.A. (110.) 

Nov. 17 — Conservation and the Engineer, by Professor R. F. 
Legget of the Department of Civil Engineering of the 
University of Toronto. (28.) 

Dec. 13 — Electronics, by H. W. Blackett of the Canadian 
Westinghouse Company, Hamilton. (100.) 

The Executive Committee of the Hamilton Branch 
held seven meetings during the year, with an average 
attendance of six members. 


During the year the following meetings were held by 

the Branch: 

Feb. 3 — Special meeting held jointly with the Ontario Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers and the Engineering 
Society of Queen's University. Prof. J. A. Van den 
Broek of the University of Michigan spoke on Theory 
of Limit Design. 

Feb. 24 — Dr. P. M. Haenni, Director of Research, Aluminum 
Laboratories Ltd., spoke on Development of Alumi- 
num as a Construction Metal. 

Nov. 11 — Regular meeting held at Queen's University. Dr. A. L. 
Clark, Hon.M.E.I.C, former dean of the Faculty of 
Applied Science at Queen's University, gave an account 
of his trip down the Mackenzie to the Arctic Ocean, 
illustrated with slides. 

Nov. 29 — Joint meeting held with members and students of the 
Faculty of Applied Science, Queen's University, on the 
occasion of the president's visit. Mr. Cameron spoke on 
Post-war Reconstruction. 


The Branch held the following meetings during the 

Apr. 29 — Dinner meeting, Fort William. A. D. Norton, chief 
tool designer and methods supervisor at the Canadian 
Car and Foundry Co. Ltd., Fort William, spoke on 
A General Survey of Aircraft Tooling Problems. 

Oct. 6 — Regular meeting, Fort William. Mr. Otto Holden spoke 
on the Ogoki Diversion, illustrated with slides and 

Oct. 25 — Special meeting on the occasion of the President's and 
the assistant general secretary's visit. Mr. Cameron 
addressed a dinner meeting in the Royal Edward Hotel, 
at which the presidents and executives of local Cham- 
bers of Commerce, also chairman of Civic Rehabilita- 
tion Committees, were invited guests. Mr. Cameron 
spoke on Some Aspects of the Post-war Problems. 


During the year, the Executive held six business 
meetings. Nine regular and special meetings were held 
as follows: Attendance is given in brackets. 

Jan. 27 — Annual meeting and election of officers. Hitler or 
Mein Kempf, Which Was First, by Dr. Karel 
Rybka, of Toronto. (49.) 

Feb. 17— Field of Modern Plastics, by W. M. Williams, Gen- 
eral Sales Manager, Plastics Division, Canadian 
Industries, Ltd., Toronto. (45.) 

Mar. 24 — Reducing the Overhead, by M. J. Ackroyd, Plant 
Engineer, Bell Telephone Co. of Canada. (42.) 

Apr. 21 — Flood Control and Its Relation to Water Supply 

and Erosion, by W. R. Smith, County Engineer, 
Middlesex County, London. (96.) 

May 26 — Modern Engineering in Timber, by Prof. C. F. 

Morrison, University of Toronto. (35.) 

Sep. 11 — Special supper meeting for president K. M. Cameron. 

Oct. — Modern Highway Construction, by G. O. Howell, 
Dept. of Highways, London, and G. May, General 
Supply Co. of Canada, Toronto. (125.) 

Nov. 10 — Synthetic Rubber, by E. R. Rowzee, Canadian 
Synthetic Rubber Company, Sarnia. (45.) 

Dec. 10 — Electrons and Ignitrons, by J. T. Thwaites, Canadian 
Westinghouse, Hamilton. (40.) 


The President of the Institute paid a brief visit to 
the Lethbridge Branch on Saturday, October 9. 

Following a luncheon with some of the Executive 
members, Mr. Sauder drove Mr. Cameron through a 
portion of the irrigated district. Returning to Leth- 
bridge, Mr. Cameron addressed the members of the 
Branch on Institute affairs. 


The Executive Committee held four meetings. Seven 
meetings of the Branch were held as follows : 

Apr. 13 — A combined meeting of Moncton Branch and the 
Engineering Society of Mount Allison was held in the 
Science Building of the University. A technicolour film 
dealing with airport construction in Labrador was 

Apr. 14 — A dinner meeting was held in the Y.M.C.A. in honour 
of the president of the Institute, K. M. Cameron. 

Apr. 20 — A meeting was held in the city hall, at which the 
Labrador airport films were shown. 

Apr. 27 — A meeting was held in the city hall for the purpose of 
nominating branch officers for 1943-44. 

May 31 — Annual Meeting. 

Oct. 18 — A meeting was held in the city hall. Winsby Walker, 
Shop Superintendent, Canadian National Railways, 
Moncton, gave an address on Locomotives, Large 
and Small. 

Dec. 16 — A meeting was held in the city hall. Films were shown 
dealing with the life of Dr. Diesel, the Portland to 
Montreal pipe line, and lubricating oils. 




Twenty-five meetings have been held during the year 
1943, with an average attendance of around 140. In 
addition to the regular programme, a special visit was 
arranged during the summer to the new Canadian 
National Terminal. Of the regular meetings, one was a 
joint meeting with the Montreal Section of the Institute 
of Radio Engineers and two were joint meetings with 
the Montreal Section of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. The visit to the Noorduyn Air- 
craft plant in October was apparently much appreciated 
as nearly 400 members made the trip. 

Following is the list of meetings held during the year, 
with attendance shown in brackets: 
Jan. 15 — Annual Meeting of the Branch. (100.) 
Jan. 21 — New Methods for the Production of Light Metals, 

by Dr. L. M. Pidgeon. (125.) 
Jan. 28 — Structural Rubber for Vibration and Shock, bv 

J. W. Devorss. (90.) 
Feb. 4 — Fishway Problems in Quebec Rivers, by Percy 

E. Nobbs. (80.) 
Feb. 11 — History and Fundamentals of Resin Chemistry 

and Fabrication Problems of Phenol Formalde- 
hyde Plastics, by A. E. Byrne. (75.) 
Feb. 18 — Post-war Reconstruction, by K. M. Cameron. (120.) 
Feb. 25— Annual Social Evening. (200.) 
Mar. 4 — Launching of 10,000-Ton Cargo Vessels, by P. G. A. 

Brault. (175.) 
Mar. 11— The Technician at War, by Dr. H. G. Littler. (150.) 
Mar. 18 — Modern Engineering in Timber, by Carson F. 

Morrison. (180.) 
Mar. 25 — Wartime Chemicals and Explosives Programme, 

by H. Crabtree. (150.) 
Apr. 1 — Pre-Stressed Concrete, by A. J. Durelli. (110.) 
Apr. 8 — Some war films. (150.) 
Sep. 30 — The Engineer of Tomorrow, by H. F. Bennett. 

Oct. 7 — St. Lawrence River Control and Remedial Dams, 

Soulanges Section, by M. V. Sauer. (160.) 
Oct. 14 — Visit to Noorduyn Aircraft plant. (400.) 
Oct. 21 — Signalling and Interlocking of Montreal Ter- 
minal, C.N.R., by J. J. VanHom. (125.) 
Oct. 28— Ignitron Rectifiers, by J. T. Thwaites. (210.) 
Nov. 4 — Plastics in Engineering, by Dr. W. Gallay. (210.) 
Nov. 11 — Soil Engineering as Applied to Modern Highway 

Construction, by Dr. Norman W. McLeod. (120.) 
Nov. 18— Annual Student Night. (100.) 
Nov. 25 — Post-war Planning by Industry, by W. A. Irvine. 

Dec. 2 — Montreal Housing and Planning Problems, by 

Percy E. Nobbs. (140.) 
Dec. 9— The World's Largest Plate Mill, by Dr. W. G. 

Theisinger. (130.) 
Dec. 16 — Inductive Co-Ordination Aspects of Mercury Arc 

Rectifier Installations, by D. J. McDonald. (70.) 


As in the previous years, since the beginning of the 
war, the activities of the Junior Section have been more 
difficult to maintain. The attendance at meetings 
showed a decrease compared to the last few years. The 
number of meetings has, however, been maintained at 
eight, which compares favourably with the preceding 

The following is a list of the Junior Section meetings, 
with the attendance given in brackets: 
Feb. 1 — Annual Meeting. Mr. J. A. McCrory spoke on the 

Professional Activities of the Engineer. (63.) 
Feb. 22 — Pre-Columbian Engineering in America, by R. 

Quintal. (14.) 
Mar. 8 — Development and Construction of Outdoor Power 

Substations, by T. Wildi. (21.) 
Mar. 22 — Joint meeting at Ecole Polytechnique with the Mon- 
treal Branch and Alumni Association of Polytechnique 
— The Engineer and the War, by John Holm. 

Apr. 12— Tool Design, by M. Conklin. (27.) 

Oct. 25 — Opening Night. Mr. R. S. Eadie, chairman of the 
Montreal Branch, addressed the members. Mr. Jacques 
Benoît, Chairman of the Local Committee on the 
Welfare of the Young Engineer, spoke on the work and 
aims of his committee. (14.) 

Nov. 8 — Scientific Management and Industrial Adminis- 
tration, by Captain A. C. Rayment. (12.) 

Nov. 18 — Annual Student Night. Spot-Welding Aluminum, 
by D. R. Brown (McGill) ; Supercharging Aircraft 
Engines, by A. Clément (Ecole Polytechnique); 
Northern Pipe Line Construction, by G. H. 
Galbraith (McGill) ; Toll-Office Circuits and Equip- 
ment, by A. A. Prud'homme (Ecole Polytechnique). 


The programme committee arranged and conducted 

the following general professional meetings: 

Feb. 19 — Dinner meeting at Niagara Falls. Professor J. L. 
Synge, of the University of Toronto, spoke on Mathe- 
matics and the Engineer. 

Mar. 23 — Joint evening meeting with the Foster-Wheeler Engi- 
neering Society, held on the premises of the Foster- 
Wheeler Company, St. Catharines. First there was an 
inspection trip through the plant, and then a lecture by 
Mr. N. I. Battista, of Courtauld's (Canada) Limited, 
on Synthetic Fibres. This evening was also Ladies' 

Apr. 29 — Dinner meeting at Niagara Falls. Mr. Paul Ackerman, 
Consulting Electrical Engineer, spoke on Industrial 
Democracy and Its Survival. 

May 20 — Branch annual meeting, held at St. Catharines. Our 
guests of honour on this occasion were Mr. K. M. 
Cameron, E.I.C., president; and Dr. L. A. Wright, 
E.I.C., general secretary. President Cameron spoke to 
the Branch on the work of the. reconstruction commit- 
tees and Dr. Wright outlined E.I.C. activities. 

Oct. 21 — Inspection trip and dinner meeting at the new Decew 
Falls Development, near St. Catharines. The late 
afternoon was devoted to a complete inspection of the 
work, and in the evening Mr. John Dibblee gave an 
illustrated talk on the design and construction of the 
Decew Falls plant. 

Nov. 25 — Dinner meeting at Niagara Falls. Dr. M. Rosten, 
chemical engineer, Ontario Paper Company, spoke on 
A New Age in Agriculture and Forestry. 


The following meetings were held during the year, 

the attendance being shown in brackets: 

Jan. 14 — Annual evening meeting. An address entitled Wardens 
of Power was given by Dr. T. H. Hogg, Chairman and 
Chief Engineer of the Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission, illustrated with Kodachrome slides and a 
sound motion picture film in full colour. (102.) 

Jan. 21 — Evening meeting. The Engineer and Industrial 
Relations, by J. C. Cameron, Associate Professor, 
Commerce and Administration, Queen's University. 
Due to the intensely cold weather, the attendance was 
only 16. 

Feb. 25 — Evening meeting, with Dr. Walter Clark, of the Re- 
search Laboratories of the Eastman Kodak Co., 
Rochester, N.Y., who was to have spoken on Colour 
Photography. However, owing to transportation diffi- 
culties, Dr. Clark was compelled to cancel his engage- 
ment at the last moment. 

Mar. 18 — Luncheon meeting, Chateau Laurier, in honour of Mr. 
K. M. Cameron upon his election to the presidency of 
the E.I.C. The Minister of Public Works, the Hon. Mr. 
A. Fournier, and the Deputy Minister, Mr. Emmett 
Murphy, also spoke briefly following Mr. Cameron's 
address. (102.) 

Apr. 1 — Luncheon meeting, Chateau Laurier, at which two 
sound colour films, "Bouncing Molecules," and 
"Rubber Goes Synthetic," were shown. These were 
presented by P. Lebel, Asphalt Technologist for the 
Imperial Oil Co. of Canada, Montreal. (110.) 

May 27 — Luncheon meeting, Chateau Laurier, with a short ex- 
planatory address by Lieut. -Col. Erwin, Asst. U.S. 
Military Attaché for Air, supplemented by a sound 
colour film entitled "Hazards of Ice for Airmen." 
This concluded the winter series of Branch meetings. 



Oct. 28 — Luncheon meeting, Chateau Laurier, with an address 
entitled Our Chief Needs (Military and Industrial), 

given by Capt. A. C. Rayment. (110.) 
Nov. 25 — Luncheon meeting, Chateau Laurier, Major S. O- 
Roberts, R.C.C.S., speaker, with a sound film entitled 
"Signal Communications in the Field." A com- 
plete field "walkie-talkie" was also demonstrated by 
two non-commissioned officers. (100.) 
Dec. 16 — Luncheon meeting, Chateau Laurier. An address on 
Sanitation was delivered by Major F. Alport, consult- 
ing engineer to the Naval Service Branch. (67.) 


The following meetings were held during the year» 
witll attendances shown in brackets: 
Jan. 23 — Social Evening (Ladies' Night). 
Feb. 4 — Mr. R. F. Cline of the Norton Company, Niagara 

Falls Abrasives. (33.) 
Feb. 18 — Mr. R. E. Hayes of the General Supply Co., Ottawa, 

Earth Moving Takes Wings. (33.) 
Mar. 4 — Mr. Wills Maclachlan — Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario. (26.) 
Mar. 25 — Dr. L. M. Pidgeon of the National Research Council, 

The Metal Magnesium. (75.) 
Apr. 8 — Mr. G. R. Langley of the Canadian General Electric 

Company, Peterborough. (76.) 
Apr. 22 — Mr. George Rishor of the Canadian General Electric 

Company, Peterborough, Synthetic Rubber and 

Rubber Substitutes. (29.) 
May 6— Student Night. Mr. G. M. McHenry, Some Aspects 

of the Boulder Dam Power Development. 

Mr. A. C. Northover, New Methods of Material 

Substitution in Wartime. (44.) 
May 20 — Annual Business Meeting. 
June 19 — Annual Picnic. 
Oct. 28 — Mr. C. Neal, Carboloy Division, Canadian General 

Electric Company, Cemented Carbide, the Magic 

Metal. (51.) 
Nov. 18 — Annual Dinner. Speakers: President K. M. Cameron 

and Dr. L. Jocelyn Rogers. (105.) 
Dec. 9— Mr. J. S. Fullerton of Handy & Harman. (47.) 


Ten general Branch meetings were held throughout 
the year, as listed below, the attendance being shown 
in brackets: 

Jan. 25 — Metals in the War, by H. J. Roast, Vice-President, 
Canadian Bronze Co., Montreal. (45.) 

Feb. 3 — Le Chauffage des Habitations, by Huet Massue, 
Shawinigan Water & Power Co., Montreal. (40.) 

Feb. 22 — Abris contre les raids aériens et leur degré de 
sécurité, by J. A. Piché, Dominion Public Works 
Dept., Quebec. (25.) 

Mar. 22 — Comment doubler l'effet calorifique d'un com- 
bustible, by E. J. Fournier, Quebec. (30.) 

Apr. 12 — Junior Night. Applied Soil Mechanics, by Guillaume 
Piette, Soils Engineer, Highway Dept., Quebec. 
Traffic Survey, by J. P. Lecavalier, Asst. District 
Engineer, Highway Dept., Quebec. (35.) 

Apr. 19 — Steel for the Armed Forces. Bethlehem Steel Cor- 
poration sound film. Remarks by W. Waddington. (40.) 

May 3 — Assurance-Chômage: Loi Sociale, by S. Picard, 
Director, Unemployment Insurance Office, Quebec. 

June 19 — Luncheon and Business Meeting. President K. M. 
Cameron's visit. (50.) 

Sep. 20 — Third Annual Golf Tournament, Royal Quebec Golf 
Club; supper and dance. (35.) 

Dec. 20 — A propos d'éducation, by Adrien Pouliot, Dean, 
Faculty of Science, Laval University. Films: "Wright 
Builds for Air Supremacy"; "Cyclone Combus- 
tion." (50.) 


During the year, the Branch held general meetings 
as follows: 

Jan. 28 — Handicrafts, by Dr. Ivan H. Crowell, Director of 
Handicrafts, Mac Donald College, Montreal. This was 

a joint meeting with the Women's Canadian Club of 

the Saguenay. 
Mar. 11 — Fighter Operations Over Britain, by Flight Lieu- 
tenant C. W. Johnston. The subject was illustrated 

with two combat films taken over Egypt and England. 
Mar. 18 — Transite, by Mr. L. C. Harris, Manager of Power 

Products and Industrial Division, Canadian Johns- 

Manville Co. Ltd., Montreal. 
June 3 — Modern Incineration of Refuse and Garbage, by 

Mr. George R. Nielsen, Vice-President of the F. L. 

Smidth Company, New York, N.Y. Paper read by Mr. 

W. R. Hoyer in the absence of Mr. Nielsen. 
June 24 — Primary Design and Construction Features of 

Shipshaw Development, by Dr. H. G. Acres, 

Niagara Falls. 
June 26 — Annual Meeting. Official visit of President Cameron, 

general secretary and party. 
July 29 — Post-war View of the Aluminum Situation, by Mr. 

P. M. Haenni of the Aluminum Laboratories Ltd., 

Kingston, Ont. 
Oct. 25 — Recent Engineering Development — Gas Turbines, 

by Mr. F. Nagler, Chief Mechanical Engineer, Allis- 

Chalmers, Milwaukee. 

Recent Hydro-Electric Developments in the 

United States, by Mr. J. F. Roberts, Manager of the 

Hydraulic Department, Allis-Chalmers, Milwaukee. 

The lectures were illustrated with slides and, during the 

coffee hour which followed, Mr. Nagler explained and 

demonstrated the use of the bow and arrow in big 

game hunting. 
Dec. 9 — Bridges of the Newfoundland Railway, by S. R. 

Banks, Aluminum Company of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, 
• Quebec. 


Five meetings of the Branch were held in the Admiral 
Beatty Hotel, as noted below, with the attendance at 
each meeting given in brackets. 

Jan. 29 — The annual joint dinner meeting of the Branch and the 
Association of Professional Engineers of the Province 
of New Brunswick. A programme of varied motion 
pictures, shown by Mr. J. H. Hoyt, was enjoyed by those 
present. (50.) 

Mar. 19 — A coloured film entitled "The Inside of Arc Welding" 
was shown. (67.) 

Apr. 16 — A supper meeting, on the occasion of a visit from 
President Cameron, the general secretary and several 
members of Council. (44.) 

May 11 — Annual meeting and dinner of the Branch at which 
the present officers of the Branch were elected. (29.) 

Oct. 27 — A supper meeting at which the three films, "The 
City," "Timber Front" and "The Face of Time" 
were shown. The subject of "The City" was town plan- 
ning, "Timber Front" dealt with the forest and the 
National War Effort, and "The Face of Time" showed 
the developments and methods used in carrying out 
geological surveys. (34.) 


Five meetings were held during the year, three at 
Shawinigan Falls and two at Trois-Rivières. Attendance 
is given in brackets. 

Mar. 18 — Dinner and Annual Meeting with installation of new 
officers, at the Cascade Inn, Shawinigan Falls. A talk 
was given by Mr. C. S. Kane on Post-war Planning. 

June 23 — Dinner meeting at St. Maurice Hotel, Trois-Rivières, 
to welcome President Cameron and party. Before din- 
ner an inspection trip was made to the Trois-Rivières 
plant of the Canada Iron Foundries, Limited. President 
Cameron addressed the gathering on Post-war Recon- 
struction. (74.) 

Oct. 26 — Dinner meeting at the Cascade Inn, Shawinigan Falls. 
Mr. H. L. Sheen, of the Canadian General Electric 
Company, Limited, gave an illustrated address on 
Electronics. (85. )• 

Nov. 2 — A meeting was held at the Three Rivers Club, Trois- 
Rivières, of all Technical men in the district, and a 
joint committee was formed under the chairmanship 
of Mr. Horace Freeman. (40.) 
A similar meeting was held in Shawinigan Falls, in con- 






V x 

-0 4) 




































Hon. Members 










































Hon. Members 

































Grand Total December 31st, 1943 

December 31st, 1942 

Branch Affiliates, December 31st, 1943.. 





















Balance as of December 31st, 1942 


Rebates from Institute Headquarters. . . 

Payments by Professional Assns 

Branch Affiliate Dues 



277 . 77 








424 . 57 






















Total Income 












Printing, Notices, Postage© 

































General Meeting Expense© 

Special Meeting Expense® 

Honorarium for Secretary 

Stenographic Services 

Travelling Expenses® 



Subscriptions to .other organizations . . . 
Subscriptions to The Journal 

Special Expenses 




Total Disbursements 

Surplus or Deficit 

Balance as of December 31, 1943 




























©Includes general printing, meeting notices, postage, telegraph, telephone and stationery. 

©Includes rental of rooms, lanterns, operators, lantern slides and other expenses. 

©Includes dinners, entertainments, social functions, and so forth. ©Includes speakers, councillors or branch officers. 














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*For voting purposes only, there 

should be added to Montreal Branch, 

an addii 

ional 317 membe 

rs, 181 be 

ng resident in the United 

States, 94 in British 

possessions and 30 

in Foreign countries. 




873 . 76 














232 . 20 








































184 . 50 



107 . 55 















228 . 55 


































































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355 . 90 





junction with the Shawinigan Chemicals Society and a 
joint committee was formed under the chairmanship 
of Mr. A. F. G. Cadenhead. Mr. E. Gohier, Chief 
Engineer of the Roads Department of the Province of 
Quebec, addressed both meetings. 


All meetings were held jointly with the Association 
of Professional Engineers, and the respective pro- 
grammes were as follows: 

Jan. 20 — Regular meeting, addressed by Charles Eder, Assistant 
Manufacturing Superintendent, Regina Industries, 
Ltd., on Industrial Relations. 
Feb. 19 — Annual meeting, addressed by G. N. Griffin, Principal, 
Normal School, Regina, on The Challenge of 
Mar. 18 — Regular meeting; paper by Dean Morrison, University 
of Alberta, on The Effect of Aerial Bombing, read 
by D. A. R. McCannel; illustrated. 
May 20 — Special meeting, addressed by W. P. Dobson, President, 
Dominion Council of Professional Engineers, on 
Science in a Changing World. 
Oct. 6 — Special meeting, addressed by K. M. Cameron, presi- 
dent, Engineering Institute of Canada, on Post-war 
Nov. 18 — Regular meeting, addressed by N. B. Hutcheon, Assis- 
tant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University 
of Saskatchewan, on Recent Developments in 
Building Insulation; illustrated. 
Dec. 11 — Regular meeting, addressed by W. Lloyd Bunting, 
Saskatchewan Manager, Ducks Unlimited, on Water- 
fowl Conservation; illustrated. 


Jan. 29- 


dinner meetings were held during the year. The 
attendance was twenty-five members and 

-Design and Construction of Synchronous Ma- 
chines, by H. R. Sills. 
Feb. 26 — Moving Coal Bridge at the Algoma Steel Corpora- 
tion and Structural Construction, by D. C. 


Mar. 26 — Motion picture — "Hydro-Electric Development at La 

Apr. 30 — Uses of the Oxy-acetelyene Torch, by W. F. Buller. 

June 1 — Motion picture films — "Power to Win"; "Railroading," 
by L. W. Ashcroft. 

Sep. 24 — Producer Gas Fuels for Motor Cars, by H. M. Lake. 

Oct. 27 — Visit of President K. M. Cameron and Assistant 
Secretary Louis Trudel. 

Nov. 26 — Construction Experiences During Russia's Five- 
Year Plan, by J. P. Bendt. 

Dec. 17 — Annual meeting. 


The regular meetings held during the year are listed 
below, with the attendance given in brackets. 

Jan. 7— T. M. Moran, War Industry Problems. (50.) 

Jan. 21 — Students' Night: Joint meeting with the University of 
Toronto Engineering Society. 

John M. Dyke, The Solid Fuel Combustion Engine. 
Ronald Scott, Electronic Devices. 
R. B. Telford, Deep Wells. 
J. A. Legris, The Place of the Engineer in the 

Post-war World. 
W. E. A. Rispin, Synthetic Rubber. 
K. Stehling, Underground Gasification of Coal. 
Two films: "The Wardens of Power" and "The Master 
Plan," were shown through courtesy of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario. 

Feb. 18 — Professor K. B. Jackson, Photography in Engineer- 
ing. (70.) 

Mar. 4— E. L. Durkee, M.Am.Soc.C.E., The Rainbow Bridge. 

June 18 — Golf tournament. 

Oct. 21 — C. F. Morrison, Modern Timber Engineering. (95.) 

Nov. 4 — Col. G. W. Beecroft, The Engineer in the Armed 
Forces. (65.) 

Nov. 19 — A. H. Richardson, The Ganaraska Survey. (47.) 

Nov. 26 — Watkin Samuel, Steep Rock Iron Mine, Its History, 
Exploration, and Plans for Development. 

Joint meeting with the American Institute of Electrical 

Dec. 3 — Dean C. R. Young, Engineers' Council for Profes- 
sional Development. 
Dr. G. B. Langford, Engineering Education. (51.) 

At the beginning of the year a Junior Section of the 
Branch was inaugurated. This Section administers its 
own affairs and a connection between it and the Branch 
is maintained by one member of each Executive being, 
ex-officio, a member of the other. The Junior Section 
report follows. 


As this is our first annual report, a review of the 
formation of the Junior Section might be in order. 

In December, 1942, a group of young engineers, with 
the aid and guidance of Professor R. F. Legget, organ- 
ized a Junior Section of the Toronto Branch of the 
Engineering Institute of Canada. It was their desire to 
supplement existing technical organizations but in no 
way to supplant any of them. 

It was felt by the organizing committee that there 
was a definite need in Toronto for a group that would 
unite and strengthen all young engineers. A great num- 
ber of the recent engineering graduates working in 
Toronto were not connected with any technical society 
and had no engineering contacts at all outside of their 
office work. Some who were members of the senior 
branch of the Engineering Institute were not attending 
the meetings principally because of the lack of men of 
their own age at the meetings. The existing technical 
societies for young engineers were doing an excellent 
job in their own fields, but they consisted of several 
small groups of engineers. So it seemed desirable that 
these and other young engineers be united for their 
common benefit. Thus the idea of a Junior Section of 
the Engineering Institute in Toronto appealed strongly 
to young engineers and it was widely endorsed. 

Seven general meetings were held, four of which were 
dinner meetings. The speakers, subjects and attendance 
were as follows: 
Jan. 27- 

Geopolitics and Canada. 
Town Planning and 

-Professor Griffith Tavlor, 

Feb. 24 — Professor Eric R. Arthur, 

Housing. (65.) 
Mar. 24 — Dinner meeting at Hart House. Harry F. Bennett, The 

Engineer of Tomorrow. (75.) 

Annual elections. 
Apr. 22 — Dinner meeting at Diana Sweets. Mr. Herb. Smith, 

Professional Engineers Association of Ontario. 

Mr. John Layng, Planning the Small Town. (90.) 

Apr. 22 — Dinner meeting at Diana Sweets. Mr. Edmund Ricker. 
Review of Mr. Paul Ackerman's address, Industrial 
Democracy and Its Survival. 

Oct. 4 — Dinner meeting at Diana Sweets. Atlas Steel motion 
picture, "Vision Fulfilled. (110.) 

Nov. 1 — Professor T. R. Loudon, Aviation, Its Past, Present 
and Future. (160.) 

Dec. 6 — Dinner meeting at Diana Sweets. Dean C. R. Young, 
Humanistic Aspects of Engineering. 
Jack Powlesland, Salary Survey of Junior Engineers 
in Toronto. (110.) 


The Branch held the following meetings during the 

Feb. 18 — Mr. Gerald H. Heller, Personnel Supervisor, Dominion 
Bridge Co., Ordnance Plant, Vancouver, delivered an 
address on Industrial Relations. 

Mar. 25 — Mr. C. K. McLeod and his assistant, Mr. Richardson, 
delivered a paper on Old Time-Pieces. 



Apr. — Regular meeting of the Branch. Speaker: D. Keith 
MacBain, chief engineer, Pulp Division, Weyerhaeuser 
Timber Co., Everett and Longview, Wash., on The 
Weyerhaeuser Hydraulic Barker and Log Chip- 
ping Unit. 

May 17 — Mr. Harry C. Anderson, assistant chief engineer of the 
Department of Public Works of British Columbia, gave 
an address on The Alaska Highway. 

Oct. 12 — Dinner meeting on the occasion of the President's visit, 
Mr. Cameron, after addressing the audience on the 
Institute affairs, spoke on Post-war Reconstruction. 

Oct. — Mr. Norman R. Odling, Supervisor of Technical Staff, 
Western Canada, for the Canadian Broadcasting Cor- 
poration, delivered an address on the Technical 
Aspects of Broadcasting and Future Trends. 

Nov. 27 — Annual dinner and business meeting. Squadron-Leader 
Donaldson and Flying-Officer Lee, both of the R.C. A.F., 
spoke on Flying Control and Air Sea Rescue. 


Due to the difficulty in securing a place to hold eve- 
ning dinner meetings, on account of the blackout which 
was in force for a considerable period of the year, most 
of the general meetings were luncheon meetings. Since 
the time allowed for such meetings is limited, there 
were fewer papers presented this year than last year. 
Jan. 12 — Luncheon meeting. This was the annual meeting. 
June 8 — Lecture meeting. Wartime Salvage Welding, by 
H. Thomasson, welding engineer for the Canadian 
Westinghouse Ltd. 175 people were present. 
June 24 — Luncheon meeting. Mr. Créer, registrar of the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers of B.C., spoke to the 
members on the Association and on the newly-formed 
British Columbia Engineering Society. 
Oct. 15 — Joint dinner meeting with the Victoria McGill Gradu- 
ates Society in honour of the official visit of President 
and Mrs. Cameron. The dinner was attended by a total 
of fifty-six members and their ladies. 
Dec. 6 — Luncheon meeting. This was the annual nomination 

Dec. 21 — Luncheon meeting. The annual meeting for 1943. 
Address of the retiring chairman and of the new 
chairman, Lt.-Col. H. L. Sherwood. 


The following Branch meetings were held during the 

Jan. 7— The Hon. Errick F. Willis, Minister of Public Works 
for the Province of Manitoba, spoke on The Alaska 

Feb. 4 — Annual meeting of the Branch. Following the business 
of the meeting, an interesting film dealing with the 
subject of Town Planning was shown. 

Mar. 4 — Dinner meeting, at which Major H. G. L. Strange, of 
the Searle Grain Co., spoke on the Royal Engineers. 

Apr. 1 — Dinner meeting. Mr. L. B. Thompson, Supt. of the 
Dominion Experimental Farm at Swift Current, Sas- 
katchewan, gave a very interesting talk on Engineers 
in Agriculture. 

Apr. 22 — A coloured film, entitled "Wings Over the North," 
depicting the problems of transportation in the north 
country, was shown through the courtesy of Canadian 
Pacific Airlines Ltd. A film by Ducks Unlimited of 
Canada was also shown. 

Oct. 7 — A very interesting discussion on the report of the 
Manitoba Electrification Enquiry Commission, led by 
Mr. E. V. Caton, Mr. J . W. Sanger, Mr. L. McKay, and 
Mr. J. W. Tomlinson, was held in Theatre B at the 

Oct. 22 — On this date the Branch was honoured by having 
President K. M. Cameron and other members of his 
party as guests at a luncheon meeting at the Hudson's 
Bay Co. dining room. Mr. Cameron gave a very 
interesting talk on Post-war Planning. 

Nov. 18 — Mr. A. T. McCormick, District Manager, Dominion 
Sound Equipments Ltd., gave a very interesting illus- 
trated address on Noise in Industry. 

Dec. 2 — Dr. A. R. M. Lower, United College, spoke on Canada, 
the War, and the Future. 


(Continued from page 77) 

Tests have shown that the glue line is excellent in 
quality, i.e., shear strengths are high and the breaks 
are obtained in the wood rather than in the glue. 
Figure 3 shows some examples of assemblies made by 
the new process, and it is noted that the degree of wood 
failure is excellent. 

Large scale trials at an aircraft propeller plant ( 3 ) 
showed that the method was readily applicable on a 
larger scale. The assemblies were in general about 8 ft. 
in length, 10 in. wide and consisted of from 6 to 9 
laminae of % in. birch. Trials included variations in 
voltage, glues and other factors and many useful data 
were obtained. It was found that propeller blanks could 
be glued readily in as short a time as 2 min. using a 
hot-setting glue, and such blanks could be put into 
production immediately. This compares with a press 
time of 6 hrs. and a conditioning period of 7 days in 
the normal process using cold setting urea resin. 

Examples of engineering applications for laminated 
wood are propellers and spars in aircraft, keels and 
framing members in ships, engineering booms, trestles, 
laminated arches and trusses, pre-fabricated housing 
and farm building construction, timbers for various 
purposes, flooring, etc. 


In the development of the new electrical hot gluing 
technique described above, acknowledgment is made 
of the very valuable assistance rendered by Mr. G. G. 
Graham, formerly on the staff of the Division of Chem- 
istry, National Research Laboratories. 

3 S. & S. Aircraft Ltd., Winnipeg, Man. 


(Continued from page 85) 

After you have evaluated a certain number of jobs the 
job in question slips into its proper place without any 
question. This applies equally to the other characteristics. 


Assuming that the jobs have all been evaluated on 
the point rating system, we have a proper relationship 
between different jobs but we have not yet converted 
the points into money. To do this it is necessary for a 
company either to adopt an arbitrary value per point 
which will fit its present wage scale or to make surveys : 
first, either in the community in which their factory is 
located, or second, by making comparisons with com- 
petitors in the same line of work. It is a general practice 
to make surveys in the community in which the factory 
is located as most companies wish to pay the going rate 
being paid in the community. To make proper surveys 
it is necessary not only to have good descriptions of the 
jobs to be surveyed, but to have a range of jobs from 
the highest to the lowest. For survey purposes it is 
essential that the surveyor see and analyze the jobs in 
the factories being surveyed so that he can assure him- 
self that the job descriptions which he has given these 
factories are thoroughly understood by them. 

It is customary to obtain the number of employees 
on each job with the high, low and average of the earn- 
ings of the employees on that job. With this informa- 
tion, weighted averages can be set up for each job 
and a wage scale can be drawn which will give the 
proper relationship between points and money so that 
the factory making the survey can establish a proper 
wage level consistent with wages paid for work re- 
quiring like skills in the community. 



From Month to Month 


At the January meeting of Council resolutions from 
two branches, bearing on this subject, were discussed. 
Frequent reference was made to the situation in the 
States, for the double purpose of finding the circum- 
stances that were common to both countries, and the 
points of contrast. It was decided to have the president 
appoint a small committee to go into the situation in 
full detail, and to report at the February meeting in 

The situation in the States is materially different 
from that in Canada. Here there is no Wagner Act that 
provides nationally for compulsory collective bargain- 
ing, although some of the provinces are showing an 
interest in the subject. Ontario has an act that excludes 
"the learned and scientific professions," and the 
indications are that Quebec proposes to exclude them 
also in the legislation now being contemplated but 
the other provinces have not yet advanced sufficiently 
in their deliberations to indicate what form of legisla- 
tion they have in mind. 

The action of the American Society of Civil Engineers 
has precipitated the situation in the United States. 
There has been a lot of criticism, but the votes taken 
in the various districts of the Society, so far reporting, 
indicate an overwhelming majority "in favour." The 
first fourteen sections that reported showed an average 
of 94 per cent for and 6 per cent against. One section — 
Seattle — reported a favourable vote of 97 per cent. The 
report of the New York or Metropolitan Section was 
not clear, but a member of the committee that prepared 
the report indicated at the recent annual meeting of the 
Society, that the committee did not approve of the 
Society's method of proceeding, but nevertheless did 
not entirely disapprove of the principles. 

The subject is a serious one. If collective bargaining 
includes the engineers it doesn't seem reasonable to 
permit bargaining units of a heterogeneous nature to 
control them. If they must be organized it is their own 
organizations that should do it. In fact the experience 
in the States is that the members are demanding it. 
They do not want to join the labour unions; and they 
insist that their societies should serve them instead. 

The Council of the Institute will have the benefit of 
opinions from a large number who will be attending the 
annual meeting at Quebec. It is hoped that the situation 
may be revealed fully and that the best solution in the 
interests of the profession may not be difficult to find. 


Upon receipt of the news of General McNaughton's 
retirement President Cameron sent him a message 
(Engineering Journal, January, 1944) expressing the 
Institute's concern about his health, and assuring him 
of a welcome back in Canada. A reply has since been 
received which is published herewith: 

"Dear Mr. Cameron: — 

"I most heartily appreciate your kind message. 
Canadian engineers, both here in the United Kingdom 
and at home, have given outstanding service in develop- 
ing the Canadian Army into the fine instrument it is. 
In all departments, within the Army and without, we 
have had the greatest benefit from their wide know- 
ledge, vision, perseverance, and devotion to the cause. 

News of the Institute and other 
Societies, Comments and Correspon- 
dence, Elections and Transfers 

They have made a contribution of the greatest value in 
the present task which will endure into the future for 
the lasting benefit of Canada. I am very grateful for the 
help so freely given to me personally as well as to the 
Service, and I look forward to continued association in 
other fields as the call may come. 

"With kindest regards to you and to the members of 
The Engineering Institute. 

"(Signed) A. G. L. McNaughton." 


Under this heading Mechanical Engineering for 
January prints an editorial about five ships that are to 
be named for five distinguished American engineers. 
Such action is most unusual but naturally meets 
universal approval from engineers. The famous cable 
ship Lord Kelvin is perhaps the only other instance of 
this type of recognition for engineers and scientists. 

The five ships are being built for the United States 
Maritime Commission. The five engineers in their 
lifetime were all members of The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers. They all contributed substan- 
tially to the foundation of better management tech- 
niques, and so it is fitting that their names should be 
perpetuated in those giant products of engineering and 
management, the modern steam ship. 

Of the five engineers, Mechanical Engineering has 
the following to say: 

"Frederick W. Taylor, father of scientific manage- 
ment, who laid the foundations of modern management 
principles and practices and was the first to make a 
comprehensive study of the art of cutting metals." 

"Frank B. Gilbreth, whose work in time and motion 
study opened new and fruitful fields of increasing 
production with the reduction of fatigue." 

"Harrington Emerson, whose 'twelve principles of 
Scientific Management,' became household phrases a 
year ago." 

"Henry L. Gantt, the great philosopher and prota- 
gonist of modern management and champion of the 
working man, who, by means of the Gantt chart, 
brought orderly procedure to production." 

"John Edson Sweet, inventor, engine builder, and 
educator, who had 'to invade the ranks of foremen and 
machinists' to recruit his staff and whose more lasting 
honor was 'his influence over men, to cause them to 
think straight and live honorably'. " 

"In the ports of the Seven Seas men will read these 
names and wonder what they signify; Victory first for 
the United Nations as the result of untiring efforts of 
obscure workmen who day by day back up the heroic 
efforts of their brothers in the field — and after victory, 
the rebuilding of a war-torn world where the prin- 
ciples of sound management, the philosophy of an 
industrialized civilization that has come to respect 
human values, the quest for the 'one best way/ and 
that benign influence that causes men to think straight 
and live honorably shall inspire men with new courage 
and a new hope to work out their destinies in accord- 
ance with the fundamentals these engineers discovered 
and put into practice." 




It is surprising to find that some persons still believe 
themselves to be Associate Members of the Institute. 
This classification which was done away with in a by- 
law amendment in 1940, and, all persons in that group 
were automatically transferred to Member imme- 

At Headquarters many letters are received in which 
the writer says he is an Associate Member. Perhaps 
this shows a lack of interest in the intricacies of 
Institute affairs, or perhaps over pressure of more 
weighty matters. There was considerable reference to 
these changes in the Journal, both before and after 
the ballot, and every member was asked individually 
to vote on the proposal. But it just goes to show how 
difficult it is to keep every member informed of the 
multitude of things that take place in the life of the 

The purpose of this comment is to again inform those 
who were Associate Members in 1940 that they are now 


The Province of Quebec Association of Architects 
says the answer to that question is "No." To prove its 
contention it is taking legal action against a Montreal 
engineer — a member of the Engineering Institute and 
of the Corporation of Professional Engineers of Quebec 
— for having designed a building while not a member 
of the Association. The building was an industrial 
structure to be used for the manufacture of machine 

Aside entirely from the legal considerations, it is 
most lamentable that members of two professions so 
closely allied in practice should have to go to court to 
settle a detail which only they are technically qualified 
to understand and decide. A fine exhibition it will be, 
when these two splendid professions permit themselves 
to be dragged through the courts before the legal pro- 
fession, a performance from which only the legal 
profession can profit. The engineers and architects are 
bound to be losers, no matter who gets the decision. 

Injury will be done to every architect and engineer in 
Canada. A group of people is a profession only as long 
as the public grants it that distinction. Education, 
legislation, or registration do not make a profession. 
It is public respect, and just as soon as that respect is 
lost the professional status is lost. This washing of dirty 
linen in the open is a most unprofessional act, and the 
public will not hesitate to judge accordingly. Years of 
patient and intelligent upbuilding of the status of each 
group may well be lost in this unnecessary public show. 

Now for the legal considerations. First of all, it is 
possible that a decision unsatisfactory to both sides 
will be obtained. It may be that publicity will be the 
only thing gained; and nobody wants that. Why should 
this argument be settled by a lawyer or a group of 
them ? Surely the architects and engineers are not at 
this stage conceding to the lawyers a greater share of 
wisdom or intelligence. Surely they have the ability to 
settle the point themselves. Why can't they set up a 
tribunal of their own, if necessary, and agree to accept 
its decision as well as one reached by members of 
another profession ? Who would think of asking the 
engineers and architects to settle a dispute between 
two groups of lawyers ? 

It is the architects who have initiated the action. The 
engineers are going to fight it vigorously because an 

important section of their accustomed activities is 
endangered. Since the practice of engineering began, 
engineers have been designing buildings. They are not 
likely to abandon the field lightly. In their defence it 
may be necessary to say things uncomplimentary to the 
architects. It may be necessary to prove that in the 
public safety it is essential that engineers be allowed 
to continue to design buildings. In the prosecution of 
their case the architects may well introduce evidence 
that will be no credit to the engineers. What an exhibi- 
tion this will be ! The fact that the case ever gets to court 
will be an indictment of the architects and perhaps 
the engineers as well. 

This much can be said for the defendant. He did 
nothing that has not been done by engineers for over a 
century. He has not started this case. He and his 
supporters have endeavoured to settle it out of court. 
He can do nothing now but defend himself. That much 
he must do for the entire profession. He has been 
assured of the support of the Corporation of Profes- 
sional Engineers of Quebec and of the Engineering 

Surely some one or some group can prevent this 
fratricidal procedure. Are all the architects and all the 
engineers going to let themselves be dragged down by 
this unprofessional exhibition ? Isn't there someone, 
somewhere, strong enough and wise enough to save 
the situation for these two young and vigorous profes- 
sions, neither one of which can afford the consequences. 

The following letter was presented at the last Council 
meeting of the Institute as a progress report from the 
committee appointed by the Corporation: 

January 11th, 1944. 
Dear Mr. Wright : 

Re: Architects vs Brian R. Perry 

In view of the interest that The Engineering Insti- 
tute of Canada has taken in the legal action that has 
been instituted by the Architects' Association of the 
Province of Quebec against Brian R.Perry, it has been 
suggested that, as a member of the Committee set up 
to assist Mr. Perry in his defence, I give you a résumé 
of the status of the case for the information of the 
council of the Institute. This Committee is composed 
of Messrs. G. A. Gaherty, appointed by the E.I.C., 
C. C. Lindsay and myself, appointed by the C.P.E.Q. 
and A. D. Ross, appointed by Mr. Perry. 

You will recall that the action of the Architects' 
Association is based on the allegation that Mr. Perry 
infringed their Act because not being a member of this 
Association he designed and supervised the construc- 
tion of a factory building for Harrington Tool and Die 
Company. In other words, they contend that no one 
but an architect has the right to do work of that kind 
in the province of Quebec. Realizing the foolishness of 
such action on the part of the Architects' Association, 
the Committee has made a serious attempt to bring 
about some kind of agreement between the architects 
and engineers in this province but without receiving 
any serious consideration by the architects, so that the 
case is being proceeded with and is listed for trial 
during the February term of Court. 

At a number of meetings attended by all the members 
of the Committee the question of Mr. Perry's defence 
has been thoroughly discussed with Mr. Frank 
Chauvin, attorney for Mr. Perry, and Mr. Roger 
Brossard, k.c, counsel for the Corporation of Profes- 
sional Engineers. The line of action has been decided, 
witnesses have been chosen and we are giving every 



assistance possible to the lawyers in preparation of 
their defence. 

Although this case 
Perry for having done 
the province recognize 
appreciate the interest 
has expressed and the 
its representative Mr. 

has been taken against Mr. 
a specific job, the engineers of 
it as an attack upon them and 
that The Engineering Institute 
assistance it has given through 

(Signed) J. A. McCrory. 


In January the Montreal Gazette printed a short 
poignant article under the above heading, which will be 
received sympathetically by engineers all over Canada. 
It is reproduced herewith. 

"Perhaps you have heard this story before because 
they tell me it has been going the rounds for some two 
months now. My informant swears it is true and was 
sufficiently sure of his facts he gave me the party con- 
cerned with full authority to check its veracity. 

"It appears that a fairly well-known Montreal engi- 
neer was anxious to do his part in the war effort, but 
because of the nature of his calling had not been able 
to do much about it. A short time ago he noticed an 
advertisement by the Federal Government calling for 
the services of an engineer. He made application to the 
department concerned and awaited a reply. 

"When he did not hear from the government after a 
reasonable period of time, he decided to make a few 
inquiries on his own to find out if the position for which 
he had made application had been filled. He found out 
that it had been. 

"Being of a rather curious turn of mind, he decided 
to make a few more inquiries to learn just who had 
been given the position. Government officials being what 
they are, this took a little more time, but eventually 
he discovered what had happened. He found out the 
job had been filled alright, but you can imagine what 
was his surprise when he discovered that the person 
who had filled the job was a lawyer. 

"Now our friend was not the vindictive type. As a 
matter of fact, he had not cared very much in the first 
place whether or not he was given the job. He had made 
the application because he had honestly felt he might 
be doing something useful to help his country. 

"He had often heard stories of square pegs in round 
holes in the federal government service, but had always 
thought these stories had been circulated by opponents 
of the administration who sought to discredit the 
Ottawa authorities. But this time he was convinced and 
a little incensed, so he decided he had better write 
Ottawa a letter to explain his feelings in the matter. 

"This is the gist of the letter he sent the department: 

" 'Dear Sirs: I have just heard that the position of 
engineer for which I made application has been filled, 
and that the party who has been given the job is a 
lawyer. Just in case that any time in the future you 
might be in need of the services of a lawyer I would be 
glad if you would let me know. I'm an engineer." 


One of the interesting events of last week was the 
appearance of an authoritative book on Lend- Lease by 
E. R. Stettinius, Jr., former Lend- Lease Administrator 
and now Under-Secretary of State. Actually, the book 
is much more than a dissertation on Lend-Lease. It is an 
excellent and dramatic commentary on the major de- 
velopments in world events since 1938. It traces all the 

various factors which eventually lead to the Lend-Lease 
Act — the repeal of the Neutrality Act — the cash and 
carry policy — Dunkerque and the fall of France — the 
destroyers-for-bases deal — and finally H.R. 1776 — the 
Lend-Lease Act. The book also includes a very appre- 
ciative treatment of the whole question of Reverse 
Lend-Lease. In this connection it is clearly implied that 
Lend-Lease Aid, which the United States has so gen- 
erously provided to all the United Nations since March 
11, 1941, must be viewed against a background which 
extends back as far as 1938. It is emphasized that the 
tremendous expenditures made by Britain and France 
in the United States from 1938 onward alone made 
possible in time the eventual expansion of American 
industry into the great arsenal of democracy which it 
has now become. The point is clearly brought out that 
not only was British and French money expended in 
the purchase of munitions, but vast sums were also ex- 
pended in the building of physical plants, equipment 
and machine tools throughout the United States. 
Armies of technicians and workers were trained and 
designs, drawings and know-how were made available. 
The book, which runs to some 347 pages, is well illus- 
trated with both pictures and excellent charts. It is 
extremely well and readably written as a fast moving 
story. One reads this book as one would read a novel 
and in many sections one reads with a mounting sense 
of excitement. One particular chapter has to do with 
the hectic days and nights of negotiations aimed at 
taking over the French contracts and the French assets 
in the United States before the fall of France and the 
consequent freezing of all French assets and commit- 
ments. I was talking to Tom Childs the other day about 
this period in which he and the late Arthur Purvis 
figured so prominently. He told me that the chapter 
Only catches a small part of the actual excitement and 
tension of those days, but even so it makes excellent 

The publication of Mr. Stettinius' book at this time 
is most significant. Since Germany marched into Poland, 
most of the actions of the United Nations have been 
taken as the result of urgent and pressing necessities 
and have been governed largely by the exigencies of 
the situation at the moment. Policies have been directed 
to the central and all-important end of winning the 
war. We are now reaching a turning point. Policies 
and actions designed to win the war are now bearing 
fruit and justifying the wisdom and courage of those 
who put them into effect. From now on, however, poli- 
cies will have to be shaped with a view to their long 
term effects and to the maintenance of peace and inter- 
national co-operation. Many wartime measures will 
have to be reviewed and amended or abrogated. It is 
therefore particularly fitting that the public should now 
be made aware of what actually lay behind the many 
bold steps which had to be taken and that all of us 
should become aware of the tremendously complicated 
character of some of the difficulties. Only on the basis 
of such an appreciation can adequate and lasting solu- 
tions be reached in effecting transition to long term 
policies which will ensure a durable peace. Mr. Stet- 
tinius' book will certainly fill an important role in this 
kind of public education. The opening sentence of his 
preface sets the keynote — "The life-blood of our democ- 
racy is the free exchange of ideas." At the present time 
the whole question of Lend-Lease is much to the fore. 
With changed conditions, Congress is looking askance 
at some features of Lend-Lease. A return to normal 
channels of trade is being advocated. In this connection 
it is well to bear in mind the last paragraph in Mr. 
Stettinius' book: 



"Lend- Lease operations, as we know themnow, will 
some day draw to a close, but we know already that 
the principle of mutual aid in mutual self-interest 
that is embodied in the Lend-Lease Act must live on. 
To-day there is more unity of purpose and of action 
among freedom-loving peoples than ever before. In 
that unity we can find the strength to build a peace- 
ful world in which freedom and opportunity will be 
secure for all." 

It is particularly interesting that Mr. Stettinius' book 
should appear during the same week as the announce- 
ment of a complete reorganization of the State Depart- 
ment, of which he is now the Under-Secretary. One of 
the significant features of this reorganization is the 
establishment of a special division of post-war planning 
in the international field. The State Department has 
also made several important announcements regarding 
a plan for the organization of an International Educa- 
tion Office to deal with problems of educational re- 

While on the subject of Lend-Lease and international 
relations, I cannot resist the urge to write into the 
record, as it were, the significant clauses of the famous 
Article VII of the Master Lend-Lease Agreement. This 
article states that the terms and conditions of settle- 
ment of benefits provided under Lend-Lease between 
countries "shall be such as not to burden commerce 
between the two countries, but to promote mutually 
advantageous economic relations between them and the 
betterment of worldwide economic relations. To that 
end, they shall include provision for agreed action . . . 
open to participation by all other countries of like mind, 
directed to the expansion, by appropriate international 
and domestic measures, of production, employment, 
and the exchange and consumption of goods, which are 
the material foundations of the liberty and welfare of 
all peoples." 

The latest news releases indicate that American war 
production is still mounting in spite of cutbacks in 
some phases. Aircraft, shipbuilding and gun production 
in November showed well-sustained increases over 
October production. The aircraft goals for 1943 were 
exceeded and the present rate of production is very 
considerably higher than the 1943 average. At the same 
time increasing thought is being given to civilian pro- 
duction and, while officials of the War Production 
Board have warned that ordinary civilian needs must 
remain far down on the list behind essential war require- 
ments, an increasing range of civilian goods will prob- 
ably be permitted for production in order to take care 
od fluctuations incident to reconversion plans. In this 
connection, the problems of renegotiation and the prob- 
lems of termination of war contracts are also looming 
larger. Mr. Baruch's recommendations regarding con- 
tract terminations appear to be receiving general sup- 
port. Another interesting factor in the production pic- 
ture is the closure of four aluminum production lines in 
federally-owned plants. It is expected that these closures 
are but a forerunner in a fairly sweeping cutback in an 
aluminum output which has very considerably out- 
stripped consumption. Readjustments in the aluminum 
programme, the effects on price, and the international 
implications, particularly as between the U.S. and Can- 
ada, will be very interesting to watch. Also significant 
is the recent presidential directive giving top priority 
to the landing craft programme. Also much in the news 
have been the recent experiments being carried out both 
in England and the United States on various types of 
jet-propulsion, both for aircraft and missiles. Some 

authorities believe that the future of aircraft will be 
based on this principle. Also of interest in the technical 
field are recent announcements regarding the future of 
television. It is predicted that a very extensive tele- 
vision industry will be ready to go into operation as 
soon as peacetime conditions return and that plans are 
at present under way for the establishment of telecast- 
ing networks that will cover the whole country. The 
announcement by Alfred P. Sloane, Jr., of General 
Motors Corp., of a "Master Plan" for the reconversion 
to peacetime activity of General Motors plants calls 
for an expenditure of half a billion dollars. Another 
item of interest is that the country's largest war plant 
— the huge aeroplane engine plant built by the Dodge 
Division of the Chrysler Corporation — will shortly go 
into operation. The plant includes nineteen buildings. 
The main building covers eighty-two acres and has nearly 
four million square feet of floor space. Some 25,000 
persons will be employed. 

During a small lunch on Capitol Hill the other day, 
I met several members of the House Foreign Affairs 
Committee including the young and personable con- 
gressman Fulbright — author of the Resolution which 
bears his name. There are several new recruits to this 
most important committee who show great promise. 
Jan. 21/44 E. R. Jacobsen, m.e.i.c. 


Industrial Relations 

Dear Sir: 

I have read with much interest the paper "Trends 
in Industrial Relations" by Professor J. C. Cameron in 
the December issue of the Journal. The views expressed 
seem to me to be progressive and point the way to 
possible improvements in the field of industrial 

With one statement, however, I feel that I must dis- 
agree. Professor Cameron says "Their interests (em- 
ployers and employees) point in the same direction, the 
success of the undertaking. The idea that there is a 
necessary and a deep-rooted antagonism among them 
is fallacious and untenable." It seems to me that under 
the prevailing system of free enterprise, the "under- 
takings" of capital and labour in their participation in 
a commercial enterprise are quite different. It is the 
purpose of the capital investor to produce a profitable 
venture — one which will pay dividends on the capital 
invested. The success of the company, from his point 
of view, is measured chiefly by the magnitude of these 
dividends. Should a business or industrial plant cease 
to pay, it is shut down, except, of course, when a revival 
is anticipated. 

The aim of the labourer is to obtain a livelihood 
through the wages received. The success of his under- 
taking is measured chiefly by the magnitude of these 
wages, although there are other conditioning factors. 
It appears that these interests are certainly in opposi- 
tion. The greater the relative sums spent on wages, and 
services to benefit the workers, the less there remains 
for profits, and vice versa. It is in fact because of this 
basic conflict that there are labour troubles. Strikes, 
lockouts and other evidences of industrial friction have 
their roots in this issue. 

I do not imply that a rapprochement between labour 
and capital is impossible. Indeed, it is through just 
such attitudes as outlined by Professor Cameron on 
the part of both labour and capital that industrial peace 
.can be realized. What must be understood is that in 
that case opposite interests have been reconciled, and 



that such a situation always bears seeds of future 

I think it should also be pointed out that the pro- 
posals offered deal with only one phase of the labour 
problem; that is, the elimination of friction within or- 
ganizations, as evidenced by hard feelings, general dis- 
satisfaction, and ultimately by strikes and lockouts. 
There are, however, other, and more important prob- 
lems of labour which should receive the attention of all 
thinking people, especially engineers. These problems 
are general unemployment and low wages. It is not my 
intention to raise here the question of the causes of these 
conditions. They are inextricably bound up with the 
economic structure of our free-enterprise system. As a 
result, the steps required to eliminate them are basically 
economic in nature. Even the universal adoption by 
management of responsible policies such as illustrated 
in the case of "X Manufacturing Company" could not 
be of much help. Whatever the answer, steps must be 
taken to insure that the post-war world will not be 
plagued by these evils as it was in pre-war days. A 
good deal of the responsibility for clearly thinking out 
a satisfactory solution to this problem rests with the 
engineering profession. Let us hope that an increasing 
number of engineers, busy as they are, will give serious 
thought to this matter. 

Yours faithfully, 

Bernard Etkin, s.e.i.c. 
Toronto, December 30th, 1943. 


A regional meeting of Council was held at the Chateau 
Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario, on Saturday, January 15th, 
1944, at two o'clock p.m. 

Present: President K. M. Cameron (Ottawa) in the 
chair; Past-President C. J. Mackenzie (Ottawa); Vice- 
Presidents L. F. Grant (Kingston), and C. K. McLeod 
(Montreal); Councillors J. E. Armstrong (Montreal), 
E. V. Gage (Montreal), E. D. Gray-Donald (Quebec), 
R. E. Heartz (Montreal), N. B. MacRostie (Ottawa), 
T. A. McElhannev (Ottawa), G. M. Pitts (Montreal), 
W. J. W. Reid (Hamilton), C. E. Webb (Vancouver) 
and General Secretary L. Austin Wright. 

There were also present by invitation — Past Vice- 
President E. G. Cameron; Past-Councillors W. F. M. 
Bryce, O. S. Finnie, A. K. Hay, W. H. Munro, John 
Murphy, F. H. Peters, J. L. Rannie and E. Viens, all 
of Ottawa; and the following members of the Ottawa 
Branch — W. L. Saunders, chairman; G. H. Ferguson, 
immediate past-chairman, A. A. Swinnerton, secretarv- 
treasurer; J. H. Byrne, W. H. G. Flay, J. M. Wardle 
and C. D. Wight, members of the executive; W. J. 
LeClair, a member of the Ottawa Branch, and secretary- 
treasurer of the Canadian Lumbermen's Association, 
was also present to submit a proposal from the Associa- 
tion for the establishment of an Institute prize. 

President Cameron expressed his personal pleasure 
and satisfaction in holding a regional meeting of Council 
under the auspices of his own Branch. 

Remuneration of Engineers — City of Montreal — At the 
last meeting of Council in view of the impending strike 
among city employees, and at the request of twenty- 
five engineer employees, Mr. deGaspé Beaubien had 
been appointed chairman of a committee to aid in pro- 
tecting the interests of engineers. Immediate action had 
been taken, and Mr. Beaubien had submitted the fol- 
lowing report : 

December 22, 1943. 
"The engineers, who are employees of the City of 

Montreal, sent you a petition asking the Institute's 

protection in the event of a strike of the civil em- 
ployees of the City should be called and a hasty 
settlement prejudice their rights. 

"At the Council's meeting of Saturday last, you 
have appointed a Committee to interview the City 
authorities on behalf of its employees who are mem- 
bers of the Institute. On this Committee were Messrs. 
C. K. McLeod, Gordon Pitts, Louis Trudel and 

"The impending strike was called yesterday morn- 
ing and, as it was urgent that prompt action be taken 
before any commitment was made by the City, I took 
it upon myself to call upon the civic authorities im- 
mediately. Mr. Charles Lindsay, vice-president of 
the Corporation of Professional Engineers, and I vis- 
ited Mr. Asselin, chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee, and Mr. Honoré Parent, Public Works 
Director, and obtained from both the assurance that 
the engineering staff of the City Hall, not members 
of the Union and not on strike, would find themselves, 
when it comes to a settlement, in no less favourable 
position than the civic employees who are members 
of the Union." 

Employment Conditions with particular reference to 
Collective Bargaining and Remuneration — The general 
secretary presented resolutions from the Moncton and 
Halifax branches, dealing with remuneration of en- 

He explained the developments which had taken 
place in the United States and the part which was being 
played by the American Society of Civil Engineers. 
This society has determined that if engineers are to be 
forced into collective bargaining units by the working 
of the Wagner Act they would be much better off with 
units of their own choosing, and accordingly the society 
has outlined procedures by which each one of its sec- 
tions can establish if it so chooses a bargaining unit 
for its area. The situation in Canada is quite different 
in view of the fact that up to the present there is no 
Federal compulsory collective bargaining legislation. 
At the president's request the general secretary reviewed 
some of the developments that were associated with 
the collective bargaining legislation enacted in the prov- 
ince of Ontario. The "learned and scientific professions" 
are excluded from the workings of this legislation al- 
though a very definite attempt had been made by or- 
ganized labour to have them included. 

The general secretary also recalled to Council that 
the Institute, in association with the Canadian Institute 
of Mining and Metallurgy, the Canadian Institute of 
Chemistry, the Royal Architectural Institute of Can- 
ada, and the Dominion Council, had presented a brief 
to the McTague Commission asking that if Federal 
legislation were contemplated the "learned and scien- 
tific professions" be not included. 

At a previous meeting of Council this whole matter 
had been referred to the Committee on Professional 
Interests, but that committee felt that the subject lay 
somewhat outside of its terms of reference and that a 
special committee should be appointed. President 
Cameron thought that the terms of reference for the 
Committee on Industrial Relations might be wide 
enough to include this topic, but there was some dis- 
cussion which indicated that this angle of collective 
bargaining was not in the field of that committee. 

Mr. Pitts stated that the subject needed definite and 
astute study in order to determine a policy. He thought 
that the professions should not be included in unions 
or bargaining units of the usual labour type, but that 



through their own professional organizations they 
should seek the assistance which may be required. He 
thought that all the professional men in Canada should 
establish one Institute which could speak for the entire 
professional group in such matters. 

Mr. MacRostie supported Mr. Pitts and referred 
specifically to the engineers employed in the Civil 

Mr. Reid agreed that consideration should be given 
to the question as to where we are going in these col- 
lective bargaining matters. He thought there should be 
some group which could speak for the engineers and 
for the scientific man. He thought if the engineering 
organizations failed to meet this need they would not 
be achieving their objectives. Mr. Wight, Mr. Munro 
and Mr. Ferguson gave general support to Mr. Pitts' 
proposal for the professional institute. Mr. Munro em- 
phasized the need of some organization being able to 
speak for the engineers, particularly in the low salary 
brackets which are being paid sometimes less than or- 
dinary mechanics. 

Dean Mackenzie suggested that it be left to the presi- 
dent to select a small committee which could consider 
this matter and report to the next meeting. He em- 
phasized that some care should be taken in the selection 
of this group so that its recommendations would be 
based on the great volume of material which is avail- 
able for study. This was carried unanimously. 

Canadian Lumbermen's Association — The general sec- 
retary read the following letter which had been re- 
ceived from the Canadian Lumbermen's Association: 

December 28, 1943. 
"Dear Mr. Wright: 

"As previously informally discussed with President 
Cameron, Vice-President Lang and yourself, I have 
obtained authorization from the Directorate of this 
Association to offer to the Engineering Institute of 
Canada a prize of value approximately $100.00 per 
year to be competed for by your members. This 
Association wishes to leave the handling of such com- 
petition to the Council of the Institute, stipulating 
only that the prize be awarded for what in the opinion 
of the Council is the best paper or design dealing 
with wood structures submitted by its members dur- 
ing the year. 

"The undersigned will be very pleased to discuss 
details of this matter with you at any time which 
may be arranged. 

"Yours very truly, 

"(Signed) W. J. LeClair, 


At the president's request, Mr. LeClair reviewed the 
activities of his association, pointing out that seven 
years ago an engineer was engaged by a group of lum- 
bermen to advise on matters of trade promotion. This 
group endeavoured to prepare information that would 
develop a more extensive use of wood in building con- 
struction. A technical service was made available to 
engineers and the publication, Timber of Canada, was 
established. A scholarship had also been made available 
for university students and additional scholarships were 
being planned. 

In offering this prize to be awarded through The 
Engineering Institute the association was hoping for a 
further development in the technical knowledge associ- 
ated with the use of wood in construction. Mr. LeClair 

had found that there was a considerable lack of know- 
ledge of design and he hoped that this prize might 
stimulate efforts in that field. 

It was moved, seconded and unanimously agreed that 
the offer of the association be accepted and that the 
general secretary express to the Association the Insti- 
tute's appreciation. It was also agreed that a committee 
should be appointed immediately to draw up the terms 
and conditions under which the prize would be awarded. 
This committee was appointed as follows: T. A. 
McElhanney, Chairman, W. J. LeClair, G. M. Pitts. 

It was noted that the next meeting of Council would 
be held in Quebec City, on February 9th, 1944, the 
day previous to the annual general meeting. 

The Council rose at six thirty p.m. 

A number of applications were considered, and the following 
elections and transfers were effected: 


Blaylock, Peter Woodburn, B.Sc, (McGill), development engr., 
Shawinigan Chemicals, Ltd., Shawinigan Falls, Que. 

Czerwinski, Waclaw, Mech. Engr., (Politechnika Lwowska, 
Poland), chief engr., Canadian Wooden Aircraft, Toronto, Ont. 

LaMountain, George William, B.Sc, (U.S. Naval Academy), 
supt. of properties Aluminum Co. of Canada, Arvida, Que. 

Limoges, Jacques, B.A.Sc, CE., (Ecole Polytechnique), district 
engr., Dept. of Roads, Prov. of Quebec, Quebec, P.Q. 

Little, Elliott Menzies, B.A.Sc, (Univ. of Tor.), gen. mgr., 
Anglo-Canadian Pulp & Paper Mills Ltd., Quebec, P.Q. 

Ross, John Henry, B.Sc, (Mech.), (Queen's), works engr. and 
security officer, Small Arms Ltd., Long Branch, Ont. 

Simson, Fred Thomas, B.A.Sc, (Univ. of Tor.), hydraulic engr., 
Canadian & General Finance Co., Toronto, Ont. 

Theriault, Antonin, Brigadier, C.B.E., B.Sc, (Civil, Mining), 
(Ecole Polytechnique), chief supt. of Arsenals, Artillery Park, 
Quebec, P.Q. 


Carrick, Stanley Mirus, (Univ. of Man.), 365 Selkirk Ave., 
Winnipeg, Man. 

*Germain, Walter Edgar, struct'l. dftsman., Dept. of Works and 
Bldgs., Naval Service, Ottawa, Ont. 

Hand, Carl Everett, B.A.Sc, (Univ. of B.C.), shift engr., Arvida 
sub-station Aluminum Co. of Canada, Arvida, Que. 

McKeown, Lewis Austin, L.Sc, (Univ. of Montreal), service 
representative, Aluminate Chemicals, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

McLean, Glen Roland, B.Sc, (Chem. Eng.), (Univ. of Alta.), 
tech. service engr., Plastics Divn., Monsanto (Canada), Ltd., 
Bordeaux, Que. 

Woodall, Gordon, B.A.Sc, (Univ. of Toronto), designing struct'l 
engr., for E. A. Cross, consltg. engr., Toronto, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 

Codd, Percy, B.Eng., (Univ. of Sask.), U/T Navigator "B", 
"■■ R.C.A.F., Chatham, N.B. 

Schwartz, Harry H., B.Eng., (McGill), S.M. (M.I.T.), radio 
development engr., Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Solomon, Julius Denison, B.A.Sc, (Univ. of Toronto), develop- 
ment engr., Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 

McArthur, Donald Stewart, B.Sc, (Univ. of Alta.), progress 
engr., c/o J. Gordon Turnbull, Sverdrup & Parcel, White- 
horse, Y.T. 

Woodfield, Percy Raymond, B.Sc, (Univ. of Man.), engr. officer 
(Flight-Lieut.), R.C.A.F., Ottawa, Ont. 

Admitted as Students 

Burns, Donald Ripley, (Mount Allison Univ.), Sackville, N.B. 

Burris, Donald Archibald, (N.S. Tech. Coll.), Pine Hill Resi- 
dence, Halifax, N.S. 

Ewing, Kenneth Harry, (McGill Univ.), Geodetic Service of 
Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 

* Has passed the Institute examinations. 



Haig, Douglas Ernest, (Univ. of Man.), 163 Martin Ave., Win- 
nipeg, Man. 

Levasseur, J. A. Maurice, (Mtl. Tech. Scb.), technician, dftsman. 
Electrical Engrg. Dept., Sorel Industries Ltd., Sorel, Que. 

MacLean, Duart Alan, (Univ. of Man.), 214 Ashland Ave., 
Winnipeg, Man. 

Perkins, Douglas Harold, (Univ. of Toronto), 364 Victoria Park 
Ave., Toronto, Ont. 

Roy, Léo-Paul, (Ecole Polytechnique), 5517-4th Ave., Rose- 
mount, Montreal, Que. 

Steele, Owen Stevenson, (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 107 Walnut St., 
Halifax, N.S. 

Students at Laval University 

Beauchesne, Louis-Alfred, Parisville, county Lotbinière, Que. 
Bélanger, Cecilien, 312 St. Jean, Quebec, P.Q. 
Brule, Marcel, 69 Maréchal-Foch, Quebec, P.Q. 
D'Amours, Maurice, 160 Maisonneuve Ave., Quebec, P.Q. 
Dumont, Gilbert, Laval University, Faculty of Science, Quebec, 

Fournier, Gaston, Laval University, Quebec, P.Q. 

Fraser, Daniel Maurice, 69 Maréchal-Foch, Quebec, P.Q. 

Gareau, Grégoire, Faculté des Sciences, Laval Univ., Quebec, 

Hamel, René, 65 Maréchal-Foch., Quebec, P.Q. 

Lavallée, Paul, Faculté des Sciences, Laval Univ., Quebec, P.Q. 

Legendre, Rosaire, 26 Couillard St., Quebec, P.Q. 

Painchaud, Robert, 38 DuBuisson Street, Beauport, P.Q. 

Pouliot, Jean- Louis, Faculté des Sciences, Laval Univ., Que- 
bec, P.Q. 

Tremblay, Jules, 212 d'Aiguillon, Quebec, P.Q. 

Students at McGill University 
Cohen, Abbey, 4654 Hutchison St., Montreal, Que. 
Collet, Marc Armand, 223 Clarke Ave., Westmount, Que. 
Dunne, Gerald Joseph, Gervais Ave., Otterburn Park, Que. 
Segal, Perry, 6211 Lennox Ave., Apt. c-115, Montreal, Que. 
Slader, Geoffrey Yorke, 3482 Hutchison Street, Montreal, Que. 

Students at University of British Columbia 

Bentall, Robert Gilmour, 1531 Davie St., Vancouver, B.C. 
Ker, Walter Allan, 1556 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. 
Narod, Alvin Jackson, 105 Cook St., Victoria, B.C. 
Scarisbrick, Richard Gilbert, 980 Denman St., Vancouver, B.C. 
Wallace, John Merritt, 1757 W. 40th St., Vancouver, B.C. 

Engineering class of 1873 at McGill University. Back row, 
left to right: Clement H. McLeod, (secretary of E.I.C. for 
twenty-five years). Donald A. Stewart, Robert J. Brodie. 
Front row: Henry K. Wicksteed, George T. Kennedy, John 
F. Torrance. 




Through an oversight, the number of students in 
first year engineering at the University of Alberta was 
left out of the tabulation showing the registration in 
engineering courses at Canadian universities, on page 
689 of the December Journal. This figure is 149. 

The corrected totals for the current year are there- 
fore as follows: total registration in engineering at the 
University of Alberta: 367; total registration in the 
general course at all universities: 1,722; total number 
of engineering students at all universities: 4,610. 

It should be pointed out that, in certain instances, 
the registration figures in first year engineering include 
students of No. 2 Canadian Army course who, if suc- 
cessful, will be given full credit for the first year of 
the regular course. 

Although it was not mentioned in the table, there 
are at present, at the University of Toronto, seven 
students taking aeronautical engineering courses. 


The data contained in the following summary were obtained 
by a survey conducted by the Engineering Society of the Under- 
graduates and the Junior Panel of the Engineering Alumni 
Association, University of Toronto. It represents the actual 
average costs including tuition fees for average students for the 
year 1942-1943. 

The totals obtained are as follows: 

Toronto students.. . $579.00 

Students from outside of Toronto $805 . 00 

(The cost of transportation to and from home for visits must 
be added to this cost). 

18.4 per cent of the students surveyed belonged to fraternities 
and their annual average fee of $48.00 must be added to the 
above totals. 

These figures may be broken down as follows: 

Home in Home outside 

Toronto of Toronto 

Fees — tuition, societies and deposits. . . $291 .00 $291 .00 

Food and shelter — 

(a) living at home includes lunches 

only. . 50.00 

(b) students in residence 274.00 

students in boarding houses 279 . 00 

students in fraternity residence. . 303 . 00 

Cooperative res 218 . 00 

Rooming and eating meals out . . 280 . 00 

Transportation to and from School .... 22 . 00 

School socials 14.00 14.00 

Outside socials 68.00 68.00 

School equipment 40.00 40.00 

Clothing per 12 months. . 78.00 79.00 

Misc. Laundry, toilet articles, medical 

expense 15.50 42.00 

The costs of some expenditures may be expanded to show the 
variation obtained in the survey : , , 

Weekly Lost 
Low Average High 

Room rent $2.50 $3.30 $5.00 

Meals for the above 4.00 6.02 7.00 

Boarding house 8.00 9.30 14.00 

University residence 8 . 00 9.14 10 . 00 

Fraternity house (board) 8 . 50 10 . 00 1 1 . 20 

Co-operative residence 7 . 00 7 . 25 7 . 50 

University socials 1 .00 14.00 per yr. 75.00 

Other socials 25 2.25 7.00 

The students surveyed saved an average of $319.00 during 
the vacation and 11 per cent of them earned on an average of 
$113.00 during the term. 




Nearly three hundred years ago, when Ville-Marie 
had just been founded, a young Frenchman named 
Trottier left his native county, le Perche — now part of 
Normandy — and came to seek his fortune in New 
France. Prosperity followed, so that a century later 
one of his descendants, "le père Michel Trottier", was 
able to leave a substantial estate to each of his sons, 
who thus became landowners. One of them, Le Sieur 
Trottier de Beaubien, was the founder of the distin- 
guished family to which our new president belongs, a 
family whose members have 
long taken a notable part 
in Canadian affairs. 

President de Gaspé Beau- 
bien was born in 1881 at 
Outremont, Quebec, a son 
of the Honourable Louis 
Beaubien of Montreal. He 
was educated at the Collège 
de Montréal and the Col- 
lège Ste-Marie; then pro- 
ceeding to McGill Univer- 
sity where he took the en- 
gineering course and re- 
ceived the degree of B.Sc. 
in 1906. He remained at the 
University for a time as de- 
monstrator, and then went 
to the works of the West- 
inghouse Company at East 
Pittsburgh, having obtained 
experience with the Mont- 
real Light, Heat & Power 
Company as early as 1903. 

From 1908 until 1922 he 
practised as a consulting 
engineer in his own name, 
then for some years in part- 
nership under the name of 
Beaubien, Busfield & Com- 
pany. In 1929 the present 
consulting firm was estab- 
lished ; throughout this 
period Mr. Beaubien was 
engaged largely in 
hydro-electric and power development engineering. 

During the earlier years of Mr. Beaubien's career, his 
clients included cities like St. Jérôme, Drummondville, 
Farnham, Iberville and Montmagny, as well as com- 
mercial concerns like the Frontenac Breweries, the Cie 
Hydraulique de Portneuf and the Chicoutimi Pulp 
Company. Since then he has acted as consulting engin- 
eer for the cities of Montreal, Quebec, Outremont and 
Westmount and has been consulted by a number of 
power companies, such as the Southern Canada Power 
Company, the Montreal Island Power Company, the 
Shawinigan Water & Power Company and Montreal 
Light, Heat and Power Consolidated. 

In 1937, at the request of the City of Montreal, he 
undertook to report upon the tariff of rates charged by 
the Montreal Light, Heat and Power Consolidated for 
the supply of electric energy to the city for power, 
street lighting, etc., and is at the present time retained 
by the Public Service Board of the Province of Quebec 
to advise on rates for electric service to the public. 

Since June, 1942, Mr. 'Beaubien has been a 
member of the committee which is preparing the 

de Gaspé Beaubien, C.B.E., M.E.I.C 

French version of the National Building Code. 
As regards the war effort, his activities have been 
largely administrative. In 1942 he was appointed a 
member of No. 4 Rehabilitation Committee and later 
became joint chairman of a campaign committee for 
Military District No. 4 on recruiting in Montreal for 
the Reserve Army. He also served on the Sub-com- 
mittee on Post-War Construction Projects of the 
James Advisory Committee on Reconstruction. He is 
now a director of Defence Communications Limited, 

an important Crown 
company. He is past joint 
chairman of the National 
War Savings Committee, 
and is serving as a member 
of the National War Fi- 
nance Committee. In the re- 
cent Honours List, his work 
was fittingly recognized by 
the award of a C.B.E. 

Other technical and ex- 
ecutive appointments in- 
clude membership in the 
Electrical Commission of 
the City of Montreal, rep- 
resentation of the Canadian 
Chamber of Commerce on 
the main committee of the 
Engineering Standards As- 
sociation, besides director- 
ships in a number of prom- 
inent industrial concerns. 

Mr. Beaubien joined the 
Institute as a Student in 
1903, becoming an Associ- 
ate Member in 1908 and a 
Member in 1921. He was 
treasurer in 1938-'39 and '40 
and vice-president in 1941- 
'42, so that he takes the presi- 
dential chair with a real 
working knowledge of the 
problems of the Institute. 
His other technical society 
memberships include the 
Corporation of Professional Engineers of the Province 
of Quebec; the Association of Consulting Engineers; 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers; the 
Canadian Institute of International Affairs. 

Notwithstanding the many claims on his time, he 
has served as president of the Canadian Club of Mont- 
real (1939) ; the Rotary Club of Montreal (1940) ; and the 
Cercle Universitaire (1943). He is vice-president of the 
Royal Automobile Club of Canada, and for some years 
has taken an active interest in highway safety problems 
and the work of the Province of Quebec Safety League. 
The diversity of Mr. Beaubien's activities, and the 
well-merited esteem in which he is held by both French 
and English-speaking Canadians, effectively support 
the view that a well-balanced engineering training 
widens a man's interests, and gives him a broader out- 
look. His professional standing has been enhanced by 
his industrial and governmental contacts. The wide 
circle of his friends who already know and appreciate 
his personality and achievements will join with the 
membership of The Engineering Institute of Canada 
in welcoming his election as our new president. 




G. L. Dickson, m.e.i.c, has been elected vice-president 
of the Institute representing the maritime provinces. 
Born at Truro, N.S., he was educated at Acadia Univer- 
sity where he received a B.A. in 1900 and an M.A. in 
1901. From there he went to McGill University at 
Montreal, where he studied electrical engineering. From 
June, 1904, to March, 1910, he was employed as chief 
electrician by the Pictou County Electric Company. 
On March 1st, 1910, he joined the Nova Scotia Steel 
and Coal Company as an engineer at their iron mines 
at Wabana, Newfoundland. From June 1st, 1916, to 
October 17th, 1917, he was employed as manager with 
the Chambers FJectric Light and Power Company, 
Truro, N.S. 

minal grain elevators and was employed by that com- 
pany until 1932. From 1933 to 1935 he was associated 
with Mr. Howe in C. D. Howe and Company following 
the retirement of his partners. From 1936 to date he 
has been president of C. D. Howe Company Limited 
carrying on the business of the former company. 

Mr. Fleming joined the Institute as a Student in 
1917 transferring to Associate Member in 1928 and to 
Member in 1938. He was chairman of the Lakehead 
Branch in 1939-41 and councillor of the Institute in 

E. B. Wardle, m.e.i.c, consulting engineer, Consoli- 
dated Paper Corporation, Grand'Mère, Que., is the 


Geo. L. Dickson, M.E.I.C. 

J. M. Fleming, M.E.I.C. 

E. B. Wardle, M.E.I.C. 

On October 17th, 1917, he joined the Canadian Gov- 
ernment Railways and has worked for that company 
in various capacities since that time, first as a con- 
struction foreman and draughtsman, then as a general 
power plant inspector, and finally, from March 1st, 
1923, to December 31st, 1943, when he retired, as elec- 
trical and signal engineer, Atlantic region. 

Mr. Dickson joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1923, becoming a Member in 1940. He was 
president of the Association of Professional Engineers 
of New Brunswick in 1941 and, in that capacity, he 
signed the co-operative agreement between the Associ- 
ation and the Institute, early in 1942. 

John M. Fleming. M.E-*.e., president of C. D. Howe 
Company Limited, Port Arthur, Ont., is the newly 
elected vice-president of the Institute for the province 
of Ontario. Born in Winnipeg, Man., he received his 
engineering education at the University of Manitoba 
where he graduated in 1921. The following year he did 
post-graduate work at the University and also acted 
as demonstrator on the staff. 

He j oined the engineering staff of the Manitoba Power 
Company in 1922 working on the design of the Great 
Falls Power Company plant. In 1923 he was employed by 
Walbridge Aldinger Company as resident engineer on 
construction of a temporary railroad for the construc- 
tion of the aqueduct of the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma. 
Later in the same year, he was resident engineer for 
the Winnipeg Electric Railway Company on construc- 
tion of foundations for Koppers coke plant, Winnipeg. 

In 1924 he joined the staff of C. D. Howe & Company, 
consulting engineers, Port Arthur, on the design of ter- 

newly elected vice-president of the Institute for the 
province of Quebec. Born at Slaterville, R.I., he received 
his education at Dartmouth College, N.S., where he 
graduated as a B.S. in 1889. Upon graduation he joined 
the staff of Tower and Wallace, consulting engineers, 
New York, and later went with George F. Hardy, con- 
sulting engineer also of New York. In this capacity he 
was employed until 1914 in the design and supervision 
of construction of several pulp and paper mills in the 
United States and Canada, notably Oxford Paper Com- 
pany, Rumford Falls, Me., Champion Fibre Company, 
Canton, N.C.; Champion Coated Paper Company, 
Hamilton, Ohio ; Laurentide Company Limited, Grand'- 
Mère, Que.; Anglo-Newfoundland Development Com- 
pany, Grand Falls, Nfld.; Powell River Company Limi- 
ted, Powell, B.C.; also power station for Laurentide 
Power Company, Grand'Mère, Que. 

In 1914 he joined the staff of the Laurentide Com- 
pany Limited at Grand'Mère as chief engineer and in 
1932 he became chief engineer of Consolidated Paper 
Corporation with offices at Grand'Mère. Last year he 
became consulting engineer of the company. Since Sep- 
tember, 1942, Mr. Wardle is also acting as consulting 
engineer to the Newsprint Administrator, Wartime 
Prices and Trade Board. 

Mr. Wardle joined the Institute as a Member in 
1929. He was a member of Council in 1939-1940. 

A. S. G. Musgrave, m.e.i.c, municipal engineer for 
the Corporation of the District of Oak Bay, B.C., is 
the newly elected councillor representing the Victoria 
Branch. Born at Cork, Ireland, he was educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated in Arts 



A. S. G. Musgrave, M.E.I.C. 

James McMillan, M.E.I.C. 

William Meldrum, M.E.I.C. 

in 1911 and in engineering in 1912. He came to Canada 
in 1913 and was articled to a B.C. land surveyor until 
1914 when he enlisted for military service. From 1915 
to 1919 he was overseas in Belgium and in Palestine. 
In 1917 and 1918 he was G.S.O. 3 at General Allenby's 
Headquarters. He was awarded an M.B.E. and men- 
tioned in despatches. 

Returning to Canada in 1919 he qualified as a British 
Columbia land surveyor and entered private practice 
as civil engineer and land surveyor in the firm of 
Musgrave, Whyte and Moffatt. In 1935 he was ap- 
pointed to his present position. 

Mr. Musgrave joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1938 and became a Member in 1940. He 
was chairman of the Victoria Branch of the Institute 
in 1942 and, in 1943, he was a member of council of 
the Association of Professional Engineers of British 

James McMillan, m.e.i.c, has been elected councillor 
of the Institute representing the Calgary Branch. Born 
in Glasgow, Scotland, he was educated at the University 
of Alberta where he graduated in electrical engineering 
in 1924. Upon graduation he joined the staff of Ca- 
nadian Westinghouse Company Limited, Calgary, as a 
sales engineer. He had previously obtained employment 
with the same company during summer holidays, work- 
ing on the installation of switching equipment at 
Edmonton power house. In 1927 he joined the Calgary 
Power Company and was employed on general engin- 

eering work until 1931 when he became purchasing 
agent of the company, supervising construction of trans- 
mission lines, distribution system substations and 
switching structures, which position he still holds. Dur- 
ing the first world war he served with the 49th battalion 
(Edmonton Regiment) from 1915 to 1919. 

Mr. McMillan joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1934, becoming a Member in 1940. He 
served as secretary-treasurer of the Calgary Branch 
from 1935 to 1938, as vice-chairman in 1939-40 and as 
chairman in 1940-1941. He is a councillor of the Associ- 
ation of Professional Engineers of Alberta. 

William Meldrum, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected coun- 
cillor representing the Lethbridge Branch. Born at 
Johnstone, Scotland, he was educated at Halifax and 
Leeds, in England. He entered the coal mining profes- 
sion at Leeds and in 1909 he came to Canada, engaging 
in general survey work. He enlisted in the Royal 
Canadian Engineers in 1916 serving until 1920 when he 
joined the staff of the Department of Natural Resources, 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, as mining engineer 
and surveyor with the Gait Mines. When the larger 
mines of the Lethbridge coal field were amalgamated 
in 1935 he continued in the same capacity for the con- 
trolling company, The Lethbridge Collieries Limited. 
Mr. Meldrum joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1925 becoming a Member in 1940. He served 
as chairman of the Lethbridge Branch in 1932 and again 
in 1940. 

H. L. Brings, M.E.I.C. C. Stenbol, M.E.I.C. 


W. 8. Wilson, M.E.I.C. 


Alex. Love, M.E.I.C. 

A. W. F. McQueen, M.E.I.C. 

H. R. Sills, M.E.I.C. 

H. L. Briggs, M.E.i.c, newly elected councillor of the 
Institute for the Winnipeg Branch, is assistant chief 
engineer of the City of Winnipeg Hydro-Electric Sys- 
tem. He was born in the town of Killarney, Man. After 
completing his school education at that place, he spent 
several years with the Union (now the Royal) Bank of 
Canada, then taught school prior to studying engineer- 
ing at the University of Manitoba. He obtained his 
B.S. degree in electrical engineering in 1928, being 
awarded the University gold medal for general pro- 
ficiency in the course of studies. Since graduation and 
prior to his present appointment he has been succes- 
sively electrical draughtsman, assistant to chief oper- 
ator, relay engineer, then operating engineer, all with 
the Winnipeg Hydro. 

Mr. Briggs joined the Institute as a Student in 1926. 
He transferred to Associate Member in 1931 and he 
became a Member in 1940. After a number of terms on 
the executive committee of the Winnipeg Branch of 
the Institute, Mr. Briggs was branch secretary for two 
years, and branch chairman for the year 1940. During 
1940-41, he was president of the Manitoba Electrical 

Carl Stenbol, M.E.i.c, chief engineer of the Algoma 
Steel Corporation Limited, is the newly elected coun- 
cillor for the Sault Ste. Marie Branch. Born in Norway, 
he began his engineering career in this country with 
the Dominion Steel & Coal Company, Sydney, N.S. In 
1911 he joined the Algoma Steel Corporation as chief 
draughtsman. The following year and until 1914 he was 

smelter engineer and chief draughtsman with Canadian 
Copper Company. In 1915 he worked as a designer with 
the Anaconda Copper Company, Montana, and as 
mechanical engineer with Dome Mines Company. Dur- 
ing the first world war he was with the Canada Cement 
Company, Montreal, as superintendent of their steel 
and forge plant. He returned to Sault Ste. Marie in 
1917 and became assistant to the managing director 
of the Algoma Steel Corporation. He became mechani- 
cal superintendent in 1917 and a few years ago he was 
appointed chief engineer. 

Mr. Stenbol joined the Institute as a Member in 1921 . 

W. S. Wilson, M.E.i.c, the newly elected councillor of 
the Institute for the Toronto Branch is secretary and 
assistant dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and 
Engineering at the University of Toronto. Born in 
Gray County, near Hanover, Ont., he studied engineer- 
ing at the University of Toronto where he graduated 
in 1921. His course had been interrupted by the war 
during which he served in France with the 38th Ottawa 
Battalion. In 1921-1922 he was engaged on estimating 
and supervising construction work with Wilson and 
Falconer, and in 1922-1923 was estimator with Dowling- 
Williams Limited. From 1923 until 1926 he was demon- 
strator in the Department of Engineering Drawing, 
University of Toronto, and in the following year was 
with R.W.H. Binnie, general contractor, as estimator. 
In 1927 Mr. Wilson was appointed secretary of the 
Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, which position he still holds, along 

G. II. Ferguson, M.E.I.C. 


R. S. Eadie, M.E.I.C. P. E. Poitras, M.E.I.C. 


with that of assistant dean. He is at present officer 
commanding the 2nd Battalion of the University of 
Toronto C.O.T.C. contingent, with the rank of lieuten- 

He joined the Institute as a Student in 1921 trans- 
ferring to Associate Member in 1926 and to Member 
in 1935. He was chairman of the Toronto Branch in 

Alexander Love, m.e.i.c, mechanical engineer in the 
structural division of Hamilton Bridge Company, 
Hamilton, Ont., is the newly elected councillor of the 
Hamilton Branch. Born at Saltcoats, Ayrshire, Scot- 
land, he was educated at Ardrossan Academy and Glas- 
gow University where he graduated in engineering in 
1912. In the same year he came to Canada and joined 
the Hamilton Bridge Company where he worked from 
May to September when he went with the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. He was employed in the division en- 

Rock Iron Mines Limited, the Shipshaw hydro-electric 
development, the steam plant and facilities for the syn- 
thetic rubber plant of the Polymer Corporation . at 

Mr. McQueen joined the Institute as a Student in 
1920. He was transferred to Junior in 1927 and to 
Associate Member in 1929. He became a Member in 
1939. He is the author of several papers that have been 
published in the Journal. In 1932 he was awarded the 
Past-Presidents' Prize for a paper on "Engineering 
Education." In 1938 he was the joint author of the 
paper 'The 18-Foot Diameter Steel Pipe Line at 
Outardes Falls," which was awarded the Gzowski 
Medal. He was chairman of the Niagara Peninsula 
Branch of the Institute in 1939. 

H. R. Sills, m.e.i.c, has been re-elected councillor rep- 
resenting the Peterborough Branch. He was born at 
Kingston, Ont., and was educated at Queen's Univer- 

P. A. Lovett, M.E.I.C. 

E. B. Martin, M.E.I.C. 

P. E. Gagnon, M.E.I.C. 

gineer's office at Toronto until 1914 when he enlisted 
for military service. He served overseas with the 19th 
Canadian Infantry Battalion until 1916 when he was 
commissioned with the Royal Canadian Engineers and 
served until 1919. 

Upon returning to Canada he went with the Hamilton 
Bridge Company where he was employed as detailer. 
He successively rose to designer, plant engineer and 
mechanical engineer of the structural division, the posi- 
tion which he now holds. 

Mr. Love joined the Institute as an Associate Member 
in 1920, transferring to Member in 1934. He was sec- 
retary of the Hamilton Branch from 1933 to 1937 and 
chairman in 1940. 

A. W. F. McQueen, m.e.i.c, has been re-elected coun- 
cillor representing the Niagara Peninsula Branch of 
the Institute. Born at Lowestoft, England, he gradu- 
ated from the University of Toronto in 1923 and en- 
tered the service of the Hydro-Electric Power Commis- 
sion of Ontario. For three years he was assistant engi- 
neer of tests and for another three years he remained 
with the Commission in charge of various hydrological 
and hydraulic investigations. In 1927 he became assis- 
tant engineer with H. G. Acres and Company, Limited, 
consulting engineers, Niagara Falls, Ont., and in 1934 
hydraulic engineer, which position he holds at the pres- 
ent time. Mr. McQueen has been intimately connected 
with all the important work carried out by his firm 
since the beginning of the war, including the Grand 
Valley dam, the diversion of the Seine river for Steep 

sity. Upon his graduation in 1921 he joined the Cana- 
dian General Electric Company and has remained with 
the firm ever since. In 1922 he became engaged in the 
design of synchronous motor and A.C. generators and 
has now specialized in the design of such machinery. 
He has been closely associated with the design of all 
recent generating equipment manufactured by his firm 
including that of the LaTuque and Shipshaw power 

Mr. Sills joined the Institute as a Student in 1921 
transferring to Associate Member in 1936. He became 
a Member in 1940. He was first elected councillor of 
the Institute in 1940. 

G. H. Ferguson, m.e.i.c, the newly elected councillor 
for the Ottawa Branch is chief of the Public Health 
Engineering Division in the Department of Pensions 
and National Health in Ottawa. Born at Toronto, Ont., 
he graduated in engineering from the University of 
Toronto in 1906. Following graduation he was engaged 
on various work in the service of several consulting 
engineers, and later joined the staff of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario as assistant 
hydraulic engineer, becoming hydraulic engineer of the 
Commission of Conservation of Canada in 1911. 

He served overseas with the Royal Canadian Engi- 
neers during the war 1914-18, returning to duty at 
Ottawa in January, 1919. 

He then joined the staff of the Grand Trunk Arbi- 
tration Board in March, 1920, and at the conclusion of 
that arbitration, served as special engineer to the gen- 



eral manager, Toronto Transportation Commission 
during the rehabilitation of the Toronto street railway, 
returning to Ottawa in March, 1923, to develop the 
Public Health Engineering Division of the newly formed 
Department of National Health, of which division he 
is now chief. 

Mr. Ferguson joined the Institute as a Student in 
1906 transferring to Associate Member in 1919. He 
was chairman of the Ottawa Branch in 1943. 

R. S. Eadie, m.e.i.c, is one of the newly elected coun- 
cillors of the Institute for the Montreal Branch. Born 
at Hintonburgh, Ont., he was educated at McGill Uni- 
versity where he obtained the degree of B.A.Sc. in civil 
engineering in 1920 and the degree of M.Sc. in 1922. 
His course was interrupted in 1916 when he joined 
the Royal Canadian Engineers as a lieutenant and 
served in Canada and overseas until the end of the war. 

After graduation he accepted a position as lecturer 
in the Department of Applied Mechanics at McGill 
and remained in that position until 1924. In that year 
he severed his connection with McGill and joined the 
staff of the Dominion Bridge Company, at Montreal. 
He has been associated with the company since that 
time. In 1935 he was appointed designing engineer and 
in October, 1937, was made assistant chief engineer, 
which position he holds at present. 

He has been intimately associated with the design 
and construction of many of the important structures 
built by the company during the past few years. 

Mr. Eadie joined the Institute as a Student in 1914, 
transferring to Junior in 1920, to Associate Member in 
1926 and to Member in 1936. He was member of the 
executive committee of the Montreal Branch in 1939-40, 
vice-chairman in 1942 and chairman in 1943. 

Paul-Emile Poitras, m.e.i.c, one of the newly elected 
councillors of the Institute for the Montreal Branch, 
was born at Mascouche, Que., and received his engi- 
neering education at the Ecole Polytechnique de Mont- 
réal where he graduated in 1915. Upon graduation he 
went with the Inspection Board and was employed on 
the inspection of war material until he joined the 
Dominion Bridge Company in Montreal, the following 
year, as a structural draughtsman, later transferring in 
the mechanical department. In 1919 he was employed 
with the Canada Cement Company, Montreal, on con- 
struction of a plant extension and machinery layout. 
The following year he worked on the construction of 
a cold storage warehouse in the Montreal harbour. 

In 1920 he joined the staff of the Steel Company of 
Canada Limited, Montreal, as an engineer later becom- 
ing mechanical engineer in charge of the engineering 
department, a position which he still holds. 

Mr. Poitras joined the Institute as a Member in 1937 
and for the past few years has been active in the affairs 
of the Montreal Branch, serving on the executive com- 

Paul-E. Gagnon, m.e.i.c, director of the department 
of chemical engineering and president of the Graduate 
School at Laval University, is the newly elected coun- 
cillor of the Institute for the Quebec Branch. Born at 
Kingsey, Que., be was educated at Laval University 
and did post-graduate work during three years in Paris 
and obtained a D.Sc. degree with high honours, at the 
Sorbonne. In 1930 he was engaged in research work in 
chemistry at the Imperial College of Science and Tech- 
nology, London, Eng., where he obtained the Diploma 
of Membership. The same year he was appointed lec- 
turer in chemistry at Laval University, Quebec, and 

the following year he became assistant professor, be- 
coming professor in 1935. In 1938 he was appointed 
director of the department of chemistry in 1938 and in 
1941 was made director of the department of chemical 
engineering. Dr. Gagnon is a governor of Laval Univer- 
sity and a past-president of the Canadian Chemical 

He joined the Institute in 1942. 

E. B. Martin, m.e.i.c, city engineer of Moncton, N.B., 
is the newly elected councillor of the Institute for the 
Moncton Branch. Born at Moncton, N.B., he was edu- 
cated at the University of New Brunswick where he 
graduated in civil engineering in 1912, joining the engi- 
neering staff of the city of Moncton the same year. He 
served overseas with the Royal Canadian Engineers 
until 1919 when he returned to Canada and became 
Street Commissioner of the City of Moncton. He served 
in that capacity until 1932 when he became city 

Mr. Martin joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1920, becoming a Member in 1940. 

P. A. Lovett, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected councillor 
of the Institute for the Halifax Branch. Born at Liver- 
pool, N.S., he graduated in electrical engineering from 
the Nova Scotia Technical College, Halifax, in 1938 
and during the two years following he took the appren- 
ticeship course at Canadian Westinghouse Company, 
in Hamilton, Ont. From 1930 to 1933 he was employed 
as an assistant to the equipment engineer of the Mari- 
time Telegraph and Telephone Company Limited, Hali- 
fax, and from 1934 to 
date, he has been 
of Engineering Serv- 
ice Co., Halifax, a 
firm doing consult- 
ing, operation, de- 
signing and public 
utility work. 

Mr. Lovett joined 
the Institute as a 
Student in 1928, 
transferring to 
Junior in 1931 and 
to Associate Member 
in 1935. He became 
Member in 1940. He 
was chairman of the 
Halifax Branch in 

J. A. Russell, M.E.I.C. 1942. 

J. A. Russell, m.e.i.c, the newly elected councillor of 
the Institute for the Cape Breton Branch is the chief 
mechanical engineer for the coal division of the Domin- 
ion Steel and Coal Corporation Limited, Sydney, N.S. 
Born at Birmingham, Eng., he was educated at the 
Bridge Trust School and Birmingham Technical School. 
He served his apprenticeship with M. B. Wild and 
Company, mining machinery manufacturers in Bir- 
mingham. From 1925 to 1929 he was employed as a 
designer on mining machinery. He came to Canada in 
1929 and joined the Dominion Coal Company at 
Sydney, N.S., as a draughtsman. The following year 
he was appointed to the position which he now holds 
with the Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation. 

Mr. Russell joined the Institute as a Junior in 1930 
and transferred to Associate Member in 1937. He be- 
came a Member in 1940. 




Relatives and friends of members in the active forces are 
invited to inform the Institute of news items, such as 
locations, promotions, transfers, etc., which would be of 
interest to other members of the Institute and which 
should be entered on the member's personal record kept 
at Headquarters. These would form a basis of personal 
items in the Journal. 


It will be a matter of interest to all members of the Institute 
to see the complete list of their fellow members who share in 
the recent King's Honour List. There are in all seven persons in- 
cluded in the lists printed in the newspapers which we have 
every reason to believe are complete. 

The honours are divided with five going to persons in military 
posts and two to those in civilian occupations. 

The Institute joins with the other citizens of Canada in con- 
gratulating the following members for the honours which they 
have so well deserved. 


Robert Charles Wallace, m.a., ph.d. 
Queen's University. 

ll.d., Kingston, Principal, 


de Gaspé Beaubien, Montreal, consulting engineer. 
Major-General Howard Kennedy, m.c, Quebec and Ottawa, 
quartermaster-general, National Defence Headquarters. 
Major-General Harry Farnham Germaine Letson, M.c, 
e.d., Vancouver and Ottawa, adjutant-general, Department of 
National Defence. 


Commander Arthur Francis Peers, R.C.N., Halifax and 
Quesnel, B.C., H.M.C.S. Cornwallis. 

Lieut. -Colonel Gordon Park Stirrett, e.d., r.c.e., Van- 
couver, 3rd Divisional Engineers. 


Lieutenant Alastair Duncan Cameron, r.c.a., Fredericton, 
N.B., Regimental Survey Officer, 21st Field Regiment. 

Dr. Thomas H. Hogg, m.e.i.c, chairman and chief 
engineer of The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario, and past president of the Institute, has been 
named to represent Canada on the Public Utilities Com- 
mittee set up by the Combined Production and Re- 
sources Board to survey the utility needs of allied 
nations and plan procurement of equipment for liber- 
ated countries. 

Formation of this committee is a sequel to recom- 
mendations made at a meeting of the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration at Atlantic 
City where it was decided that the requirements of 
liberated areas should be referred to the Combined 
Boards. The latter body was -asked to consider these 
requirements in relation to military and civilian de- 
mands and to make recommendations on meeting the 
needs presented by the UNRRA. The Public Utilities 
Committee has been set up to make the necessary 
recommendations involving the requirements in its 
particular field. 

J. B. Dowler, m.e.i.c, of the Ford Motor Company, 
Windsor, Ont., has been elected chairman of the Border 
Cities Branch of the Institute. Born at Gait, Ont., he 
is a mechanical engineering graduate from the Univer- 
sity of Toronto, in the class of 1931. He joined the 
Ford Motor Company of Canada upon graduation and 
has remained with the company ever since. 

News of the Personal Activities of mem- 
bers of the Institute, and visitors to 

Carswell, M.E.I.C. 

J. B. Carswell, m.e.i.c, has been appointed president 
of the War Assets Corporation, the crown company re- 
cently formed to deal with surpluses of war equipment 
without impairing the economy of the country. Mr. 
Carswell had been representative of the Department 
of Munitions and Supply of Canada, at Washington, 
for the past few years. Before the war he was president 
of the Burlington Steel Company, Limited, Hamilton, 

C. B. Brown, M.E.I.C. 

C. B. Brown, m.e.i.c, consulting engineer of the Ca- 
nadian National Railways, Montreal, retired at the end 
of 1943. He graduated in civil engineering from Cornell 
University, in 1911, and after a number of years of 
experience in railway operation and construction work 
and in bridge and elevator building in various parts of 
Canada, he joined the Canadian Government Railways, 
in 1913, as chief engineer. Later he became assistant 
general manager with headquarters at Moncton. With 
the organization and development of the Canadian 
National Railways he was appointed chief engineer of 
the system with headquarters at Montreal. In October, 



1939, he relinquished the duties of chief engineer to 
become consulting engineer and devote his entire time 
to the completion of the Montreal Terminal. 

Lt.-Col. J. P. Carrière, r.c.e., m.e.i.c, has been pro- 
moted from the rank of major and is now stationed at 
Canadian Army Headquarters overseas. 

G. J. Currie, m.e.i.c, is the newly elected chairman 
of the Halifax Branch of the Institute. Born at Halifax, 
he was educated at Dalhousie University and Nova 
Scotia Technical College where he graduated in 1931. 
Upon graduation he joined the Nova Scotia Light and 
Power Company at Halifax and is still with the same 
company as an engineer. 

the east for his work in connection with the Welland 

Shortly after the end of the last war, Mr. Scott oper- 
ated a construction and paving business of his own in 
Toronto but when the present war broke out he imme- 
diately offered his services to the Government and be- 
came director of ammunition filling with Allied War 
Supplies Corporation, Montreal. I 

Gerald N. Martin, m.e.i.c, has been appointed com- 
bustion sales engineer of the Dominion Bridge Com- 
pany, Montreal. He has been with the company since 
his graduation from the Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 
in 1934. In 1938, he was granted leave of absence to 

H. L. Sherwood, M.E.I.C. 

George J. Currie, M.E.I.C. 

G. N. Martin, M.E.I.C. 

L. P. Cousineau, m.e.i.c, of Dufresne Engineering- 
Company Limited, Montreal, is at present on loan to 
Quebec Shipyards Limited, Quebec. 

R. L. Morrison, m.e.i.c, returned last June with his 
employers, Messrs. Airspeed (1934) Limited, Ports- 
mouth, Eng., after having been on loan for a year to 
the Royal Air Force as technical adviser on the main- 
tenance and operation of aircraft. 

Lt.-Col. H. L. Sherwood, m.e.i.c, formerly district 
engineer officer, M.D. 11, Victoria, B.C., is the newly 
elected chairman of the Victoria Branch of the Institute. 
Graduating from the Royal Military College, in 1903, 
he was employed with the construction department of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway until 1914 when he went 
overseas with the Canadian Railway Construction 
Corps. He was promoted to major in 1917. From 1919 
to 1923 he was on the staff of the Department of 
National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, as a perma- 
nent force officer of the Royal Canadian Engineers. He 
was district engineer officer, M.D. 3, Kingston, Ont., 
from 1923 to 1929 and he occupied the same position 
in M.D. 10 at Winnipeg, Man., from 1929 to 1936. At 
that time he was transferred to the same position with 
M.D. 11, Victoria, a position he occupied until his re- 
tirement in 1941. He was promoted to lieutenant-colonel 
in September, 1939. 

Hew M. Scott, m.e.i.c, has been appointed general 
manager of the War Assets Corporation, Montreal. 
Born in Scotland, Mr. Scott started his engineering 
career in Montreal with the Peter Lyall & Sons Con- 
struction Company in 1908 and headed their munitions 
division during the last war. He is well known in British 
Columbia for his work on the Esquimalt dock and in 

obtain added experience and to study modern combus- 
tion engineering under the Central Electricity Board, 
London, England. While in England, he worked on the 
design and operation of the highest pressure boilers in 
use and was stationed for a time at the Brimsdown sta- 
tion of the North Metropolitan Power Supply Com- 
pany. He returned to Canada in 1940 to resume his 
position in the boiler department of Dominion Bridge 

A. A. Scarlett, m.e.i.c, has recently been promoted 
by the International Harvester Company of Canada 
Limited, to the position of vice-president in charge of 
engineering, having supervision over engineering work 
carried on at all Canadian plants. Mr. Scarlett, who is 
a graduate of the University of Toronto, S.P.S., '13, 
has had long service in engineering work in Canadian 
and American plants of the company. Previous to his 
recent promotion he was chief engineer of the company's 
large Hamilton Works. 

C. L. Dewar, m.e.i.c, has been appointed president 
of Wartime Shipbuilding Limited, a government- 
owned company. Mr. Dewar whose services have been 
loaned by Bell Telephone Company, has been with 
Wartime Merchant Snipping since its inception in 1941, 
first as comptroller and later as assistant to the presi- 
dent. Mr. Dewar's position with Bell Telephone Com- 
pany was that of chief engineer of Eastern Area. 

Norman A. Eager, m.e.i.c, has been promoted sales 
manager of Burlington Steel Company, Hamilton, Ont., 
after having been assistant sales manager since 1940. 

G. L. Dickson, m.e.i.c, electrical and signal engineer, 
Canadian National Railways, Atlantic Region, retired 



at the end of 1943, after having occupied that position 
for 20 years. Mr. Dickson is the newly elected vice- 
president of the Institute for the Maritimes. 

Reginald Mudge, m.e.i.c, who has been assistant en- 
gineer of track for the Canadian Pacific Railway Com- 
pany, Montreal, since January, 1939, retired from the 
company at the end of 1943, completing 36 years service. 
He joined the Canadian Pacific at Smiths Falls, Ont., 
at the age of 22. In 1911, he became resident engineer 
at Silver Creek, B.C. In February, 1912, Mr. Mudge 
came to Montreal to be assistant engineer, and from 
December, 1914, until May, 1919, was enlisted as cap- 
tain in His Majesty's Canadian Forces. In March, 1921, 
he became transitman in the office of the chief engineer 
at Montreal, and he later worked as assistant engineer 
of construction until his appointment in January, 1939, 
as assistant engineer of track, the position he held when 
he retired. 

Captain S. N. Tremblay, m.e.i.c, is the officer com- 
manding, No. 2, Canadian University Course, at Laval 
University, Quebec. 

E. P. Muntz, m.e.i.c, has established a consulting 
office in the Royal Bank building, at Montreal. 

Mr. Muntz graduated, in civil engineering at the 
University of Toronto in 1914, becoming an assistant 
engineer on the construction of the Welland Ship Canal. 
He served overseas from 1916 to 1919, in France and 
Palestine on railway and bridge construction. From 
1923-1940 he was engaged on industrial buildings, 
bridges and other engineering work, chiefly as president 
and chief engineer of his own engineering and contract- 
ing companies, at the same time doing considerable 
consulting work both in the United States and Canada. 
From 1940 to 1943 he has been engaged on special 
engineering work with the Foundation Company of 
Canada, Limited, and the Preload Company of Canada, 

Jean Paul Lecavalier, m.e.i.c, who was previously 
assistant district engineer with the Department of High- 
ways of Quebec, at Quebec, has joined the engineering 
staff of the Drainage Bureau, Department of Agricul- 
ture of the Province of Quebec, at Montreal. 

Maurice Ostiguy, Jr. e. i.e., previously assistant divi- 
sional engineer of the Department of Roads at Waterloo, 
Que., has been promoted to the position of assistant 
district engineer, at Quebec. 

A. C. Smith, s.e.i.c, has left the staff of Aluminum 
Company of Canada Limited at Beauharnois, Que., to 
join Commonwealth Plywood Company, at Ste. 
Thérèse, Que. 


J. D. Lacombe, m.e.i.c, Quebec North Shore Paper 
Company, Baie Comeau, Que., on December 29. 

A. Babin, m.e.i.c, Quebec North Shore Paper Com- 
pany, Baie Comeau, Que., on December 30. 

K. R. Chestnut, m.e.i.c, Gander, Nfld., on Decem- 
ber 30. 

C. O. P. Klotz, m.e.i.c, Aluminum Company of Can- 
ada, Limited, Arvida, Que., on January 5. 

L. P. Cousineau, m.e.i.c, Quebec Shipyards Limited, 
Quebec, on January 6. 

R. Boisclair, jr.E.i.c, St. Hugues-de-Bagot, on Jan- 
uary 7. 


The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the relatives 
of those whose passing is recorded here. 

Charles Robert Coutlee, m.e.i.c, died in Toronto on 
January 1st, 1944. Born near Aylmer, Que., on January 
29, 1867, he was educated at the Royal Military Col- 
lege, Kingston, Ont., where he graduated in 1886. 

During his long and varied career he was connected 
with the engineering staffs of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company, the Dominion Department of Rail- 
ways and Canals, the Provincial Department of High- 
ways of Nova Scotia and, from October, 1904, until his 
retirement on July 1st, 1932, he was in the Chief Engi- 
neer's Branch of the Department of Public Works of 

While with the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, 
he was engaged on the construction of the "short line" 
through the state of Maine, and also on the Crow's Nest 
Pass tunnel at Fernie, B.C. On May 8, 1888, he entered 
the Department of Railways and Canals of Canada, 
where he was one of its principal engineers on the de- 
sign and construction of the Souianges canal. Later, he 
entered the service of the Department of Highways of 
the Province of Nova Scotia where he was very active 
in the starting of the provincial highway system. 

C. R. Coutlee, M.E.I.C. 

Early in the present century he was associated with 
the late Mr. Arthur St. Laurent and Mr. S. J. Chapleau 
in the survey and preparation of the report on the pro- 
posed Georgian Bay canal. Previous to his retirement 
he was in charge of all work in connection with the 
Upper Ottawa River storage and was one of the original 
members of the Board of Engineers of the Department 
of Public Works of Canada. While with this depart- 
ment, he was consulted on many of the water supply 
and regulating works, harbour and river improvements. 

He joined the Institute as a Student in 1888, trans- 
ferring to Associate Member in 1894. He transferred to 
Member in 1901 and he was made a Life Member in 
1935. Mr. Coutlee was the first chairman of the Ottawa 
Branch and during the years of 1909, 1910, 1911 and 
1912 he was a councillor of the Institute. 

George R. Dalkin, m.e.i.c, died in Montreal on 
December 24, 1943, after a long illness. Born in the 
county of Durham, England, on December 4, 1889, he 
was educated at Darlington Technical College and 
served an apprenticeship as mechanical engineer from 



1905 to 1910 with Teasdale Bros., at Darlington. He 
came to Canada in 1912 and was employed on the engi- 
neering staff of the city of Edmonton, Alta., until 1916. 
After serving a few months with the Royal Canadian 
Engineers, in 1916, he went with the Imperial Munitions 
Board on gauge inspection and later on ship inspection. 
In 1918 he joined the staff of Jardine and Company, 
consulting engineers, Montreal, and was engaged for 
several years on the design and layout of ship machin- 
ery. Later he joined the Harbour Commissioners in 
Montreal as a mechanical engineer and, in 1930, he 
became assistant chief engineer at the Montreal Har- 
bour, a position he held at the time of his death. 

Mr. Dalkin joined the Institute as an Associate Mem- 
ber in 1920 and he became a Member in 1940. 

staff of Ryther and Prmgie Company as machine shop 
foreman; he became superintendent in 1919 and engi- 
neer in 1922. In 1926 he was appointed plant manager. 
He later worked as a sales engineer with Bagley and 
Sewall Company, at Watertown, N.Y. 

In 1930 he went with the Kalamazoo Vegetable 
Parchment Company at Kalamazoo, Mich., later be- 
coming chief engineer of the company a' position which 
he occupied at the time of his death. 

Mr. Gibbs joined the Institute as a Student in 1914 
and transferred to Associate Member in 1927. He be- 
came a Member in 1940. 

Major-General C. S. L. Hertzberg, C.B., m.c, v.d., 
m.e.i.c, died while serving with the British Army in 

George R. Dalkin, M.E 

E. G. Evans, M.E.I.C. 

Major-General C. S. L. Hertzberg, M.E.I.C. 

Edwin George Evans, m.e.i.c, retired right-of-way 
engineer, Canadian National Railways, Atlantic Region, 
died at his home in Sussex, N.B., on December 7, 1943. 
Born at Margate, P.E.I., on June 23, 1865, he received 
his engineering education at Mount Allison University, 
afterwards going to Boston to complete his studies. In 
1884, Mr. Evans joined the engineering staff on the 
construction of the Canada Eastern Railway, and in 
1886 was assistant engineer on the survey of the Wash- 
ington Counties Railway, in Maine. He was next ap- 
pointed engineer on the rehabilitation of the St. Martins 
Railway and the completion of the construction of the 
Central Railway, Norton to Chipman. When that work 
was completed in 1890, he was appointed superintendent 
and assistant treasurer of the Buctouche and Moncton 
Railway. When the latter line was reorganized in 1894 
Mr. Evans was appointed receiver. 

He later engaged in metallurgical research work in 
New York for four years, and acted as consulting engi- 
neer in the supervision of contract work deepening and 
widening the upper Canadian channel of the St. Law- 
rence river through the Thousand Islands, for three 
years. In 1918, he joined the Canadian National Rail- 
ways as district engineer at Moncton, N.B., and in 1925 
was appointed engineer of right-of-way, Atlantic 
Region. He retired in 1932. 

Mr. Evans joined the Institute as a Member in 1908. 
He was made a Life Member in 1934. 

Charles R. Gibbs, m.e.i.c, died at Kalamazoo, Mich., 
on October 2, 1943, after a few months illness. Born at 
Carthage, N.Y., on January 27, 1883, he studied engi- 
neering at McGill University, Montreal, where he ob- 
tained his degree in 1916. Upon graduation he returned 
to his native town of Carthage where he joined the 

India according to word received last month. Before 
retiring from the Canadian Army overseas, last June, 
he was chief engineer of the 1st Canadian Army. 

Born at Toronto, Ont., on June 12, 1886, he studied 
engineering at the University of Toronto where he grad- 
uated in 1905 and did some post-graduate work in the 
following year. During the early years of his career, he 
was employed with the Trussed Concrete Steel Com- 
pany becoming branch manager in Toronto, in 1909. 
The following year and until 1912 he was in charge of 
engineering for the company. In 1912 and 1913 he was 
branch manager of the Bishop Construction Company 
in Toronto. He entered private practice at the end of 
1913 as a member of the firm James, Loudon and Hertz- 
berg, consulting engineers, Toronto. 

In the fall of 1915 he enlisted for overseas serving 
as a lieutenant in the 7th Field Company, R.C.E. He 
was wounded in January of 1917, a month after win- 
ning the Military Cross at the Somme, and invalided to 
Canada. In October, 1918, he joined the Canadian Expe- 
ditionary Force to Siberia, serving there until June, 1919, 
and winning the Czecho-Slovakian war medal for valour. 

In 1918 he was placed in command of the 2nd Field 
Company, Royal Canadian Engineers, with the rank 
of major, and in 1926 he was made lieutenant-colonel, 
commanding the non-permanent engineers. At the end 
of his tenure of command he was transferred to the 
reserve of officers in 1930. 

At the outbreak of this war he went overseas as 
officer commanding 1st Divisional Engineers and was 
promoted to the rank of brigadier and made chief engi- 
neering officer at Corps Headquarters. Upon formation 
of the 1st Canadian Army overseas, General Hertzberg 
was its first chief engineer. 



In the interval between the two wars he carried out 
a successful consulting practice in the field of structural 
engineering and at the time he was recalled on active 
service in the army he was a member of the firm Hark- 
ness and Hertzberg. 

Mr. Hertzberg joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1911 and he transferred to Member in 1917. 
He was chairman of the Toronto Branch of the Insti- 
tute in 1931-32 and he was a councillor of the Institute 
in 1933-34-35. 

James H. Hunter, m.e.i.c, died at the hospital in 
Montreal, on January 8, 1944. He was born at Sorel, 
Que., on April 29, 1865. He began his engineering career 
in 1881 with the Canadian Pacific Railway and the fol- 
lowing year joined the engineering staff of the Montreal 
Harbour Commissioners. 

From 1885 to 1887 he was with Wood Saxon and 
Company, hydraulic and electrical engineers, in New 
York, following which he was engaged on railway con- 
struction in connection with electric block signal in- 
stallation with the Baltimore and Ohio and Staten 
Island Rapid Transit Railway. In 1893 he was employed 
with the Danbury Electric Light and Power Company. 

James H. Hunter, M.E.I.C. 

Returning to Montreal in 1894, Mr. Hunter entered 
private practice as a consulting engineer and in 1912 
became . associated in this capacity with the Canada 
Starch Company Limited. Seven years later he gave up 
most of his private practice to devote his full time to 
the position of chief engineer and general superintendent 
for Canada Starch. 

During his years as a consulting engineer, Mr. Hunter 
was responsible for the design and construction of a 
large number of projects, many in the province of 
Quebec, and among which are the Boston Rubber Com- 
pany plant at St. Jerome; St. Jérôme Electric Light 
Company; North River Power Company; Wiarton 
Binder Twine Company ; Waterville Electric and Power 
Company; plans for the Sault St. Louis Light and 
Power Company ; the unloading plant and coal pockets 
for the Dominion Coal Company; Cardinal, Ont.; 
Electric Light and Power Company. 

For the Canada Starch Company Limited, he built 
the Fort William plant and the concrete dock and grain 

elevator, and directed rebuilding of the plant at Car- 
dinal, Ont. He became vice-president of the Canada 
Starch Company in the fall of 1942. 

Mr. Hunter joined the Institute as an Associate 
Member in 1908 and transferred to Member in 1923. 
He was a councillor of the Institute in 1925-26 and 
vice-president for the province of Quebec in 1927-28. 
In 1926 he was chairman of the Finance Committee 
of the Institute. 

Charles E. MacKenzie, m.e.i.c, died in the hospital 
in Springhill, N.S., on December 22, 1943. Born 
at Port Hawkesbury, N.S., on September 14, 1886, he 
was educated at Dalhousie University, Halifax, and 
Nova Scotia Technical College where he received his 
engineering degree in 1912. Upon graduation he joined 
the staff of the Dominion Coal Company at Springhill, 
N.S., and remained with the same firm throughout his 
career. At the time of his death he was chief engineer 
of the Cumberland Railway and Coal Company, a sub- 
sidiary of the Dominion Coal Company. 

Mr. MacKenzie joined the Institute in 1940. 

Fred Newell, m.e.i.c, chief engineer of the Dominion 
Bridge Company, Montreal, died in the Western Divi- 
sion of the Montreal General Hospital on January 19th, 

Mr. Newell was born at Portsmouth, England, on 
March 12th, 1878. At the age of fifteen he became an 
apprentice at the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich where he 
worked until 1899. He received his technical education 
at Woolwich Polytechnic and Birkbeck Institute, 
London, from 1900 to 1905. In 1903 he became a 
"Whitworth Exhibitioner," an award which was a re- 
markable testimony to his ability. The Polytechnic 
bronze medal was also awarded to him. In 1900 he was 
in charge of the erection of field gun mountings at 
Vickers, Sons and Maxim. From 1901 to 1905 he worked 
in the erecting department at the Royal Arsenal, Wool- 
wich, and from 1905 to 1907 as an inspector on heavy 
gun sights. He lectured in applied mechanics and mathe- 
matics at Woolwich Polytechnic in 1905 and 1906 and 
in steam and steam engines at Erith Technical School 
from 1905 to 1907. 

Mr. Newell came to Canada in 1907 and after being 
employed for seven months as a draughtsman by John 
McDougall Caledonian Iron Works, Montreal, joined 
the Dominion Bridge Company, Montreal, in February, 
1908, becoming a designing draughtsman and checker 
in the mechanical and structural departments. He be- 
came chief mechanical draughtsman in 1913 and assis- 
tant mechanical engineer in 1915. In 1918 he was ap- 
pointed mechanical engineer and in 1931 became assis- 
tant chief engineer and in 1937 chief engineer of his 
company. During the year between the spring of 1941 
and that of 1942 in addition to his duties as chief en- 
gineer he was acting manager of the Eastern Division 
of the Dominion Bridge Company. 

In the mechanical field, Mr. Newell was responsible 
for the design of a large number of important engineer- 
ing projects. In conjunction with C. D. Howe & Com- 
pany of Port Arthur, Ont., he designed the unloaders 
for handling cars of grain with which a number of large 
elevators in the west are equipped. A great number of 
cranes were designed under his direction and he pion- 
eered in the use of modern welded construction both 
for cranes and for other mechanical equipment. 

He also handled the design of the machinery for 
many swing, lift, and bascule bridges but perhaps his 
most notable work as a mechanical engineer was in the 
development of hydraulic control gates and similar 
equipment. A large number of the hydro-electric power 



Fred Newell, M.E.I.C. 

plants throughout Canada are equipped with gates of 
his design. In this connection he did much pioneering 
work on the fixed roller type of gate which is now in 
general use in this country. He also contributed largely 
to the design of heating equipment to permit of the 
operation of gates in freezing temperatures. 

The pre-stressing plant used for pre-stressing the 
cable strands in the Island of Orléans Bridge, Quebec, 
the Lion's Gate bridge, Vancouver, and other suspen- 
sion bridges was built under his direction. He also took 
considerable interest in the design features of the Ca- 
nadian National Railways lift bridge built over the 
Lachine canal. 

When war broke out Mr. Newell was just recovering 
from a heart attack and, while he had to be careful, he 
quickly became engaged in the war work which his 
company undertook. Probably because of his early ex- 
perience at Woolwich Arsenal, he took particular in- 
terest in the Ordnance Plant which his company estab- 
lished at Vancouver. No effort was spared by him while 
working on the layout, equipping and placing in opera- 
tion of this plant. He made periodical visits to it and 
spent several months there in an endeavour to develop 
more economical methods in the manufacture of gun 
parts. Another interest, partly arising from the war 
and to which he gave considerable time, was in the use 
and heat treatment of alloy steels for heavy forgings. 

In connection with the Canadian Engineering Stand- 
ards Association, Mr. Newell did a great deal of valu- 
able work as a member of specification making commit- 
tees. In particular, he had much to do with the speci- 
fications for structural welding and for movable bridges. 

Mr. Newell joined the Institute as an Associate Mem- 
ber in 1916 and transferred to Member in 1923. He 
served on the executive committee of the Montreal 
Branch in 1929 and 1930. In 1932 he was elected to 
represent the Montreal Branch on Council and served 
thereon for three years and was re-elected in 1936 for 
a further term of three years. He was vice-president 
representing the Province of Quebec in 1939 and 1940. 
In 1938 and 1939 he was chairman of the Committee 
on Professional Interests and took a large share in the 
negotiations with the Associations of Professional Engi- 
neers in various provinces. During this period, agree- 
ments were signed with the associations in Saskatche- 

wan and Nova Scotia. He was also a member of the 
Finance Committee from 1938 to 1942 and chairman 
in 1939 and 1940. 

Mr. Newell took a deep interest in the affairs of the 
Institute and did a great deal of work on the committees 
on which he sat and on Council. He attended many of 
the annual and professional meetings and made several 
journeys across the country in the interests of the 

Amongst his own associates and also by the wide 
circle of friends he had in the engineering profession 
throughout Canada, Mr. Newell was held in the highest 
esteem. His friendly disposition and kindly acts created 
a warm appreciation of him. Moreover, the helpful con- 
sideration which he gave to the problems presented to 
him by others was so much valued that his loss will be 
very deeply felt. R.H.F. 

Charles Lester Stevenson, M.E.I.C. 

Charles L. Stevenson, m.e.i.c, died accidentally on 
November 29, 1943, at Debert Military Camp, N.S., 
while serving as a lieutenant with the Royal Canadian 
Ordnance Corps. Born at Waltham, Mass., U.S.A., on 
June 5, 1911, he was educated at the University of New 
Brunswick where he graduated in civil engineering in 
1934. Upon graduation he was employed with the 
Department of Public Works of New Brunswick, at 
Fredericton, on highway construction. In 1936 he was 
employed for several months on construction of Ontario 
Paper Mill at Baie Comeau, Que., and in 1937 he worked 
on construction of an extension to Howard Smith Paper 
Mill at Cornwall, Ont. Later, in 1937, he was engineer 
in charge of the Abrasive Company of Canada plant 
at Arvida, Que., and upon completion of the work he 
joined the staff of the Abrasive Company as engineer 
in charge of installation of equipment. In 1939, he 
joined the engineering department of the city of West- 
mount, Que., and in 1942 enlisted for active service 
with the R.C.O.C. He worked with the Army Engi- 
neering Design Branch of the Department of Munitions 
and Supply at Ottawa until February, 1943, when he 
resumed his military training in preparation for over- 
seas duty. 

Mr. Stevenson joined the Institute as a Student in 
1934, transferred to Associate Member in 1938. He 
became a Member in 1940. 



News of the Branches 


W. R. Stickney, m.e.i.c. i- Secretary-Treasurer 

The Annual Meeting and Election of Officers of the 
Border Cities Branch was held at the Prince Edward 
Hotel on Friday, December 19th. Twenty-one members 
and guests were present for dinner and six other mem- 
bers were present for the meeting. 

After the dinner, Mr. S. E. McGorman introduced 
Mr. C. M. Goodrich, consulting engineer for the Ca- 
nadian Bridge Company Limited, who related some 
rather amusing experiences and incidents which he en- 
countered in his term of service with the armed forces 
during the last war. A vote of thanks to Mr. Goodrich 
was moved by Mr. T. H. Jenkins after which the sec- 
retary-treasurer's report and financial statement was 
given by W. R. Stickney. The chairmen of the various 
committees then gave their reports, and after the ap- 
pointment of scrutineers, the officers listed on page 71 
were elected for the coming year. 


S. W. Gray, m.e.i.c. - 
D. C. V. Duff, m.e.i.c. 

Secretary- Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 

The annual business and dinner meeting of the Hali- 
fax Branch of the Institute was held Dec. 16th, at the 
Nova Scotian Hotel, when officers were elected for 1944. 

During the meeting there was consideration of pro- 
fessional problems after a summary had been given of 
the Institute's activities of the year 

Professor Flynn presented the Institute's congratu- 
lations to Dr. F. H. Sexton who has received award of 
the Julian C. Smith medal for achievement in the devel- 
opment of Canada. The award is made by the Institute. 

Professor Flynn introduced the new chairman, G. J. 
Currie, who said that when he received notification he 
sought the advice of an older and more experienced 
engineer and had been told that appointment as chair- 
man of the Halifax Branch of the Institute was a high 

C. S. Bennett, chief engineer, National Harbours 
Board, Halifax, presented a vote of thanks to the out- 
going chairman and executive for their excellent work 
of the year. 

Professor Flynn said in his address that the goodwill 
shown him as chairman was an example of the spirit 
to be found throughout the profession. 

A sound picture "Inside Fighting Russia" was shown 
during the evening. In lighter vein a comedy talking 
picture was also shown. 


W. E. Brown, m.e.i.c. 
L. C. Sentance, m.e.i.c. 

Secretary- Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 

The Annual Meeting and Dinner of the Hamilton 
Branch took place on Friday, January 7th, at the Scot- 
tish Rite Club, with one hundred members and guests 
in attendance; the chairman of the outgoing executive, 
T. S. Glover, presided. 

At the conclusion of the dinner, Mr. F. W. Paulin 
introduced the distinguished guest speaker, Wing Com- 
mander T. R. Loudon, m.e.i.c, professor of Civil Engi- 
neering and Aeronautics at the University of Toronto. 
Wing Commander Loudon, who, since 1940, has been 
engaged in special research work with the R.C.A.F., 
spoke on Aviation — Past, Present and Future. 

It is expected that Wing-Commander Loudon's 
address will be published in an early issue of the Journal. 

Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of 
the Institute and abstracts of papers 

At the Hamilton Branch annual dinner. Left to right: W. 
W. Chadwick, Incoming Chairman H. A. Cooch, Chairman 
T. S. Glover and the speaker, Wing Commander T. R. 

W. E. Brown, secretary-treasurer of the branch, pre- 
sented the report of the nominating committee, and 
gave a resume of the activities of the branch throughout 
the year. 

On the motion of H. A. Lumsden, a vote of thanks 
was tendered the retiring chairman, T. S. Glover. With 
due ceremony, the reins of office were handed to H. A. 
Cooch, incoming chairman. 


W. C. Byers, Jr. e. i.e. 

Secretary- Treasurer 

At a dinner meeting held in Port Arthur on Tuesday, 
December 14th, some 45 members and guests of the 
Branch heard Mr. Kalman Segalowitz, engineer on the 
staff of the Canadian Car & Foundry Co., Fort William, 
describe the construction of the Shipshaw Power 
Development on the Saguenay River, Que. 

R. B. Chandler, chairman of the Branch, presided. 

Mr. Segalowitz was employed as engineer on the staff 
of the Foundation Company, Montreal, General Con- 
tractors for the project and his address which was illus- 
trated with diagrams and photo slides depicted the 
work at various stages. 

H. G. O'Leary, in moving a vote of thanks to the 
speaker, recalled that he had spent his early days as 
an engineer in the country described by Mr. Segalowitz. 
The cold weather of that section of Quebec was not 
exaggerated, he said. 

A series of papers describing the various features of 
this project will appear in the April issue. 


V. C. Blackett, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The Portland to Montreal oil pipe line was the sub- 
ject of one of a series of films, dealing with the oil in- 



dustry, shown at a meeting of the branch on December 
16th. Instituted as a war measure, this 236 mile pipe 
line was completed late in 1941 and carries crude oil 
from Portland to the Montreal refineries that formerly 
had to be transported by tanker up the St. Lawrence 
river, a round trip sea voyage of some two thousand 
miles. Oil is pumped through the line at the rate of 
50,000 barrels per day. , 

Another film depicted the latter part of the life of 
the great German scientist, Dr. Rudolph Diesel, in- 
ventor of the engine which bears his name. In 1913, 
Dr. Diesel was invited to confer with the British Armir- 
alty, but he mysteriously disappeared on the steamer 
taking him from Germany to England. It is suspected 
that he was murdered and thrown overboard by agents 
of his own government. 

A third film dealt with the technical development of 
lubricating oils. 

J. A. Godfrey, the branch chairman, presided at the 




R. C. Purser, m.e.i.c. 

Secretary- Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 

L. A. Duchastel, m.e.i.c. 
H. H. Schwartz, jr. e. i.e. 

Branch News Editor 

On December 9th, Dr. W. G. Theisinger delivered an 
address on The World's Largest Plate Mill. This 
mill is 206 in. wide. It was built during the last war, 
and was subsequently only partly utilized. However, 
with to-day's demand for large steel plate, this mill has 
been used to full capacity. It has permitted considerable 
savings in cost and welding time since the larger sheets 
require less welding. 

Another place where the large sheets are used to ad- 
vantage is in the construction of heads for marine boil- 
ers. These heads are now cut from a single sheet, rather 
than from smaller sheets welded together. 

At the conclusion of the meeting, a film was shown 
illustrating the highlights of the lecture. 

R. C. Flitton was chairman of the meeting. 

On December 16th D. J. McDonald of Bell Telephone 
Company of Canada, delivered an address on Induc- 
tive Coordination Aspects of Mercury Arc Rectifier 
Installations to the Montreal Branch. The speaker 
stressed the importance of considering all aspects of 
interference. Several methods of eliminating the difficul- 
ties encountered in operating rectifier units were men- 
tioned. The presence of harmonics causes a distortion 
of the wave shape. These harmonics are fed back into 
the power line and, unless prevented, into the communi- 
cation lines. Two preventative measures are the use of 
multiphase rectifiers and filters. However, multi-phase 
rectifiers must be properly balanced or the benefits to 
be expected from a greater number of phases will not 
materialize. Filters are expensive and should only be 
installed where absolutely necessary. 

F. King was chairman of the meeting. 

On January 13th, F. L. Lawton spoke on The 
Manouan and Passe Dangereuse Water Storage 
Developments. The paper covered the design and 
construction of the recent large water storage develop- 
ments on the upper tributaries of the Saguenay River 
which were built to increase the power output of the 
Saguenay River. This paper will appear in the April 
issue of the Journal. 

J. B. D'Aeth was chairman of the meeting. 

A noon luncheon address before the Ottawa Branch 
at the Chateau Laurier on December 16 was given by 
Major F. Alport, m.c, consulting engineer to the Naval 
Service Branch of the Dominion Department of National 
Defence. A very important aspect of the general subject 
of sanitation was dealt with, namely, the purity of 
water and milk supply in relation to sewage disposal. 

Diseases transmissible by polluted water either 
directly by drinking it or indirectly through the agency 
of the milking cow, or both, are many and varied ac- 
cording to Major Alport. He listed an imposing number, 
including typhoid, paratyphoid, cholera, dysentery, 
anthrax, undulent fever, scarlet fever, tuberculosis and 
also pointed the finger of suspicion at such diseases as 
poliomyelitis, pneumonia and pneumonic plague. Even 
the common cold came in for some attention. With re- 
gard to these and other diseases he said there was still 
much investigation to be undertaken before one could 
speak with certainty. 

The purity of water and milk supply in relation to 
sewage disposal forms a most vital feature of the general 
subject of sanitation. The pollution of streams and its 
effect upon water supply, if allowed to continue una- 
bated, Major Alport prophesized, is going to affect ad- 
versely the national economy of Canada. In the United 
States already, action is under way toward the cleaning 
up of affected streams, and such action is considered a 
matter of major importance. In regard to tourist traffic 
alone, he said, which brought in nearly 300 million 
dollars a year before the war — 60 to 70 per cent of it 
by automobile — adverse effects are liable to be felt un- 
less the drinking water and milk for such tourists can 
be kept pure. 

Investigations, together with modern research, have 
tended to disprove the theory generally held a genera- 
tion or so ago that flowing streams purify themselves. 
Actually there is reason to believe that stagnant water 
has a greater chance of purifying itself than has flowing 
water. In the earlier investigations dependence was 
placed upon chemical analysis and dilution was con- 
fused with purification. Bacteriological analysis reveals 
a different story, however, and therefore the only safe 
assumption is that "by and large flowing streams do 
not purify themselves." 

For the diseases listed, recognized safeguards to-day 
are an assured pure water supply and the pasteurization 
of milk. Filtration plants embodying sedimentation 
through sand and then the application of chlorine afford 
the greatest protection where large water supplies are 
required. Chlorine is really a modern development, its 
protective qualities having been discovered in 1897 and 
its universal use dating from 1910 and afterward. 
"Without this protection the cities of this continent 
would have been cesspools of contamination," declared 
the speaker. Chlorination, however, has its limitations 
for after a certain amount of chlorine has been used 
the water becomes unattractive for drinking purposes. 
It is also known that it is not proof against everything 
but in this connection investigation is still going on all 
over the world. 

Even the pasteurization of milk should be performed 
with meticulous care. In one large city not long ago 
the milk supply, although having undergone pasteur- 
ization treatment, was found to contain germs of epi- 
demic sore throat. On checking up, however, it was 
repealed that the pasteurization had not been properly 



carried on, a temperature of 130 deg. F. only having 
been reached in many cases. 

Regarding the use of rivers as a direct source of 
drinking water without treatment the speaker main- 
tained that no river should be considered fit for such 
purpose unless it flows from an "absolutely uninhabited 
watershed." With the prevalent practice in this country 
of dumping untreated sewage into flowing streams such 
a course would be decidedly dangerous in settled areas. 
The time has come, the speaker said, to give careful 
consideration to this filthy practice from one coast to 
the other. It is economically sound to treat sewage, he 

Annual Meeting 

The branch annual meeting was held at the audi- 
torium of the National Research Building on Thursday 
evening, January 13. Reports presented revealed that 
six luncheon meetings were held during the year and 
two evening meetings, including the annual meeting. 
In accordance with its usual practice, the branch do- 
nated two sets of draughting instruments to the Ottawa 
Technical School for presentation as prizes for profi- 
ciency in draughting, as well as a copy of "Technical 
Methods of Analysis" by Griffin to the Hull Technical 
School for a similar purpose. 

On November 14, 1943, the chairman and the secre- 
tary-treasurer of the branch, at the invitation of the 
Peterborough branch, attended the annual meeting of 
the latter. Several members were present from Hamil- 
ton, Toronto and Montreal as well as some members 
of Council and the president, K. M. Cameron. 

The evening's programme also included a number of 
moving pictures showing scenes on the Banff- Jasper 
highway, and logging operations in the Canadian West. 
A short address was also given by the national presi- 
dent, K. M. Cameron, on institute activities. 

At the close of the meeting refreshments were served 
to the 90 members present. 


S. H. de Jong, m.e.i.c. 

G. L. White, affiliate e.i.c. 

Branch News Editor 

Dean C. R. Young and Dr. G. B. Langford addressed 
a joint meeting of the Toronto Branch and the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers of Ontario on Decem- 
ber 3rd. 

Dean Young, speaking on the Engineers' Council 
for Professional Development, sketched the evolution 
of engineering societies in Great Britain and on this 
continent. He stated that E.C.P.D. represents a pooling 
of the resources of eight engineering organizations in 
the United States and Canada. The objective of the 
Council is the enhancement of the professional status 
of the engineer. To that end, attempts are being made 
to develop some method of certification for engineers. 

The speaker outlined the various committees which 
have been functioning within the E.C.P.D. The Com- 
mittee on Student Selection and Guidance attempts to 
see that young men who enter engineering schools are 
adapted to the profession. The Committee on Engineer- 
ing Schools is concerned with accrediting colleges, 
schools and their curricula. The Committee on Profes- 
sional Training is designed to take hold of the young 
man who needs some guidance after leaving college, by 
preparing a list of books for reading purposes, and the 
preparation of a manual for the junior engineer. 

The Committee on Professional Recognition has been 
attempting to define the profession, thus far without 

success. It is now concentrating on developing in the 
minds of young men a strong professional consciousness 
— to emphasize the importance of engineering in society. 
The Committee on Engineering Ethics has been work- 
ing on a code and has drawn up one which is under 
consideration by the eight member organizations of 

Dr. G. B. Langford, professor of mining geology, 
University of Toronto, discussed Engineering Edu- 
cation and told his audience that while there had been 
a 32 per cent increase in university graduates through- 
out Canada during the past ten years, graduations in 
engineering had increased 72 per cent. The reason for 
this latter fact is that many young men are taking engi- 
neering who do not intend to become engineers, but 
merely want a broadened education and find it in the 
engineering courses. Dr. Langford stated that these 
students should be segregated from those who intend 
to become professional engineers by having two courses : 
(1) a general educational course with an engineering 
background; (2) a course leading to an engineering 

The speaker deplored the lack of scholarships, re- 
search work and post-graduate study in engineering, 
stating that the lack of interest in post-graduate work 
has been responsible for the small amount of engineering 
research in Canada. The engineering schools in Canada 
are not looked upon as research centres. He said that 
staffs of schools must be built up as the members are 
now overworked between teaching and consulting en- 
gineering; greater financial aid must be given to post- 
graduate students; and schools of engineering research 
should be created in this country. Insufficient finances 
were responsible for these obvious deficiencies in engi- 
neering education, Dr. Langford stated. 

Dr. G. R. Lord, assistant professor of mechanical 
engineering, University of Toronto, was chairman of 

the meeting. 

* * * 

Engineering Features of Steep Rock Develop- 
ment were described at the meeting of Toronto Branch 
of the Institute, on November 26th, by Watkin Samuel, 
chief engineer, Steep Rock Iron Mines, Ltd. This was 
a joint meeting with the local section of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

Mr. Samuel reviewed the highly diversified and en- 
gineering problems associated with the development of 
the deposits. Engineering interest has undoubtedly cen- 
tered in the extensive plans for the diversion of the 
Seine river and the pumping of water from Steep Rock 
lake in order to lower the water level so that the ore 
body may be uncovered for mining operations. 

However, this is only the most spectacular part of 
the programme and Mr. Samuel covered many other 
phases including exploration of the ore body, determin- 
ation of quantities and grades of ore, treatment of the 
ore, transportation, and supply of electrical power. 

The Ganaraska Survey was the subject of an ad- 
dress by A. H. Richardson, Department of Lands and 
Forests, Toronto, before a meeting of the Toronto 
Branch on Friday, November 19th. The chairman of 
the meeting was Prof. R. F. Leggett, University of 

Mr. Richardson reviewed the work that has been 
done on conservation, including reference to the report 
of Professor Coventry on the Peel plain and to the 
King Township survey of four or five years ago. These 
reports indicated a serious lowering of the water table, 



increasingly rapid erosion, and other undesirable con- 

Following the Guelph Conference report of 1941, the 
Ganaraska area was selected for a typical resources 
survey in consultation with the James Committee. The 
investigation included soil, soil erosion, agricultural 
economics, land use, botanical, entomological, and tree 
disease surveys. These surveys were carried out by 
various provincial and federal departments. 

The speaker discussed the character of the Ganaraska 
area, the history of the valley and its present condition, 
commenting on the disappearance of wild life, the clear- 
ing of forests, erosion, and the increase of floods. 

The chief recommendatons of the report were as 
follows : 

1. Development of 2,000 acres of forest to be drawn 
for the most part from agricultural lands. 

2. Waste land on farms to be improved and its use 

3. Four dams to be built on the watershed to impound 
18,000 ft. of water. 

4. The forest fringe along the river to be protected, 
contour plowing and strip farming to be introduced 
on farms sloping to the river and the steep slopes 
to be put back into forest. 

5. All gooseberries and black currants to be eradi- 
cated, these being hosts to the rust on oats. 

6. Tree planting to be done on highways. 

7. Most of the work to be improving existing wood- 
lands and not new planting. 

8. Establishment of parks and recreational centres. 

It was estimated that the project would provide work 
for 600 men for two years, except for a period of two 
or three months in the winter. 

The speaker emphasized that the survey should be 
followed by others of the same kind throughout the 
southern part of the province. 

The appreciation of the audience was expressed by 
S. R. Frost. 

A motion was passed asking that Institute headquar- 
ters be requested to set up a national committee to deal 
with conservation of renewable natural resources, the 
national committee to be so constituted that it may 
work through regional groups which will be able to 
meet for discussion of local aspects of conservation. 

Pertinent literature on this subject was suggested as 

1. Report of the Guelph Conference, 1941. 

2. The King Township Survey — Proceedings, Royal 
Canadian Institute. 

3. Dessication of the Peel Plain — Proceedings, Royal 
Society of Canada, 1931. 

4. Vanishing Lands — White and Jacks. 

5. Conservation and Sanitation by R. F. Legget — 
Engineering and Contract Record. 

Junior Section 

The December meeting of the Junior Section of the 
Toronto Branch took the form of a dinner at Diana 
Sweets, on December 6th. The speaker was Dean C. R. 
Young, who discussed the Humanistic Aspects of 
Engineering and emphasized the value of a broad 
intellectual training for engineers and warned of the 
danger of any engineer concentrating solely on technical 
matters in the period to come. Following a question 
period, an interesting booklet describing the results of 
the November Salary Survey, was discussed. 

Library Notes 



Applied Mechanics: 

Arthur Morley. Toronto, Longmans Green and Co., 1943. 5 x 7% 
in. $2.25. 

Chemical Process Principles: 

Pt. 1; Material and Energy Balances. Olaf A. Hougen and 
Kenneth M. Watson. N.Y., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1943. 
5 l A x 8Y 2 in. $4.50. 

Structural Aluminium Handbook: 

Aluminium Company of America, Pittsburgh, 1940. 5Y 2 x 8% 
in. $1.25. 

Industrial Chemistry: 

3rd erf. William Thornton Read. N.Y., John Wiley and Sons, 
Inc., (c. 1943). 5 l / 2 x 8Yi in. $5.00. 

An Introduction to Concrete Work: 

H. L. Childe. London, Concrete Publications Ltd., (1943). 4}4 % 
7 in. 132 pp., Mus. Is. 6d. 

Synthetic Resins and Rubbers: 

Paul 0. Powers. N.Y., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1943. 5Yi x 
8Y 2 in. $3.00. 

Science in Britain: 

A series of pamphlets published for the British Council by Long- 
mans Green and Co., 1942. 4% x 7\i in. 35c. each. We have in 
the library; 

The Royal Institution — 46 PP- 

Science lifts the veil; a series of broadcast talks on the conquest of 
the sub-visible universe. 61 pp. 

Book notes, Additions to the Library of 
The Engineering Institute, Reviews of 
New Books and Publications 

British Agricultural Research; Rothamsted by Sir E. J. Russell. 
32 pp. 

The Steam Turbine and other inventions of Sir Charles Parsons 
by R. H. Parsons. 35 pp. 

Diesel Locomotives — Mechanical Equipment: 

John Draney. Chicago, American Technical Society, 1943. 5Yi 
x 8Yi in., Mus., $4-00. (Canadian representative, General Pub- 
lishing Co., Toronto.) 

Diesel Locomotives — Electrical Equipment: 

John Draney. Chicago, American Technical Society, 1943. 5Yi 
x 8Yi in., Mus., $3.75. (Canadian representative, General Pub- 
lishing Co., Toronto.) 

American Standards Association: 

Z10.1 — 1941 ; Abbreviations for scientific and engineering terms. 
Z10.2 — 1942; Letter symbols for hydraulics. 
Z10.3 — 1942; Letter symbols for mechanics of solid bodies. 
Z10.4 — 1943: Letter symbols for heat and thermodynamics includ- 
ing heat flow. 

Z32.2 — 1941 ; Graphical symbols for use on drawings in mechani- 
cal engineering. 

The following books have been presented to the Institute 
Library by Mr. John E. Armstrong, M.E.I.C., and are here 
gratefully acknowledged. 
Proceedings of the World Engineering Congress, Tokio, 


20 volumes. 





Carnegie Corporation of New York: 

Annual re-port for the year ended September 30, 1943. 

Connecticut Society of Civil Engineers: 

Fifty-ninth annual report for the year ended March 24, 1943. 
Canada — Dominion Bureau of Statistics: 

Manual of instructions. Balance sheets, revenues and expenditures 
and other accounting statements of municipal corporations. 
Ottawa, 1942. 

Ontario — Department of Mines: 

Fiftieth annual report being Vol. L, Part viii, 1941 — Geology of 
Gauthier Township, East Kirkland Lake area. 

Harvard University — Graduate School of Engineering — 
Bulletins : 

No. 374; Anaerobic digestion. — No. 376; Exploration of soil con- 
ditions and sampling operations. — No. 377; A note on the mutual 
impedance of antennas — and — The radiation field of long wires 
with application to vee antennas. — No. 378; Superheterodyne con- 
verter terminology. 

Electrochemical Society — Preprints : 

No. 84-27; Strip steel electroplating urith a sodium stannate bath. 
No. 85-1; Current efficiency in a series of electrolytic cells. — 
No. 85-2; Laboratory evaluation of corrosion resistance of bearing 

U.S. — Bureau of Mines — Technical Paper: 

No. 655; Carbonizing properties and pétrographie composition of 
thick freeport-bed coal from Harmar mine, Harmarville, Allegheny 
County, Pa., and the effect of blending this coal with pocahontas 
No. 3 and No. 4 bed coals. 

U.S. — Geological Survey — Water Supply Paper: 

No. 917 ; Summary of records of surface waters of Missouri and 
St. Mary river basins in Montana 1881-1938. — No. 935; Surface 
water supply of Hawaii July 1, 1940, to June 30, 1941. — No. 
941 ; Water levels and artesian pressure in observation wells in the 
United States in 1941. — Pt. 6; Southwestern states and territory 
of Hawaii. — No. 942; Quality of surface waters of the United 
States, 1941- — No. 957 ; Surface water supply of the United States, 
1942. — Pt. 7; Lower Mississippi river basin. — No. 959; Surface 
water supply of the United States, 1942. — Pt. 9; Colorado river 
basin. — No. 960; Surface water supply of the United States, 1942. 
—Pt. 10; The Great Basin. 

U.S. — Geological Survey — Bulletin: 

No. 928-C; Adsorbent clays their distribution properties produc- 
tion and uses. — No. 928-D; Manganiferous and ferruginous chert 
in Perry and Lewis counties, Tennessee. — No. 931; Strategic 
minerals investigations, 1941. — No. 939-D; Geophysical abstracts 
111, October to December, 1942. — No. 940-B; Manganese deposits 
of the Elkton area, Virginia. — No. 940-C; Geophysical surveys 
in the Ochoco quicksilver district, Oregon. 

U.S. — Geological Survey — Professional Paper: 

No. 196; Geology and biology of North Atlantic deep-sea cores be- 
tween Newfoundland and Ireland. — No. 215- A; Relative abund- 
ance of nickel in the earth's crust. 

The Institute of Metals: 

The equilibrium diagram of the system aluminium-zinc by G. V. 
Raynor. (Annotated equilibrium diagram series No. 1.) IIY2 x 
8% in., 4 pp., 1 fig. London, The Institute of Metals, 1943. 

Quebec — Department of Mines — Division of Laboratories: 

Special report on utilization of the titaniferous magnetites of 
St. Charles, Bourget township, by Louis Bourgoin. (Presented by 
the author.) 


The following literature has been added to the Institute library 
since the last published list in the June journal. 

Ministry of Home Security — Research and Experiments 
Department : 

Bulletin No. C28; Structural protection of buildings against small 
incendiary bo?nbs and spread of fire. March 11, 1943. — No. C29; 
Structural protection of buildings against small incendiary bombs 
and spread of fire: Pt. 2; Lateral protection (supersedes part of 
the appendix to Bulletin No. C28). — No. C30; Structural protec- 
tion of buildings against small incendiary bombs and spread of 
fire: Pt. 3; Internal compartments. — No. C31; Reinforced con- 
crete for maximum energy absorption under impact. The use of 
various forms of steel as reinforcement. November 23, 1943. 

The following notes on new books appear here through 
the courtesy of the Engineering Societies Library of New 
York. As yet the books are not in the Institute Library, 
but inquiries will be welcomed at headquarters, or may 
be sent direct to the publishers. 


Prepared by A.S.T.M. Committee D-6 on Paper and Paper 
Products; Methods of Testing, Specifications. November, 1943. 
American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia 2, Pa. 
138 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., paper, $1.35. (SI. 00 
to A.S.T.M. members.) 


Sponsored by A.S.T.M. Committee D-20 on Plastics. 
Specifications, Methods of Testing, Nomenclature, Definitions. 
October, 1943. 431 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
paper, $2.00. ($1.50 to A.S.T.M. members.) 

Related Information) 

Prepared by A.S.T.M. Committee D-1S on Textile Materials; 
Specifications, Tolerances, Methods of Testing, Definitions and 
Terms. October, 1943. 457 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 
in., paper, $2.25. ($1.50 to A.S.T.M. members.) 

These three publications are intended primarily to present in 
convenient form the A.S.T.M. standard and tentative standard 
methods of test and specifications pertaining to their respective 
subjects. Glossaries and descriptive nomenclature are included 
for the plastics and textile materials, and in the textile materials 
volume abstracts are printed of three papers presented at a recent 


By C. D. Williams. International Textbook Co., Scranton, Pa., 
1945. 265 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 8Y2 x 5 in.,fabrikoid, $3.50. 

Intended primarily as a text for the undergraduate engineering 
student, this book presents only fundamental methods for general 
application. The separate chapters deal with beams, trusses, 
single-span frames and arches, columns and, in considerable detail, 
with the slope deflection and moment distribution methods of 
analysis. The problems are designed to impress on the student 
the most important factors involved. 

THE CERAMIC ARTS (Industrial Arts Education Series) 

By W. H. Johnson and L. V. Newkirk. The Macmillan Co., New 
York, 1942. 158 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 11 x 8 in., 
paper, $1.20 ($2.50 bound). 

Intended as a text for the industrial arts department of high 
schools, this book presents the basic principles of the five great 
divisions of ceramics: pottery, plastics, glass, alabaster, and 
cement and concrete. The use of the tools is explained, and de- 
tailed directions are provided for the processes necessary to pro- 
duce a large number of specific articles. 

versity of California Publications in Engineering, Vol. 4, 
No. 3, pp. 27-36) 

By A. Tilles. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los 
Angeles, 1943, diagrs., charts, 11 x 8Y2 in., paper, 25c. 

A method is presented of operating a machine as a synchronous 
machine at twice its ordinary synchronous speed. The basic oper- 
ating characteristics are given, and the behavior of the machine 
as a part of a system and in commercial application is indicated 
in a general way. 


By S. Glasstone. American Electro platers' Society, New York, 
1943. 90 pp., tables, 8\i x 5 in., fabrikoid, $2.00. 

The twenty chapters composing this small book are a reprinting 
of a series of articles which appeared in the Monthly Review of 
the American Electroplaters' Society. They describe in fairly 
simple language the fundamentals of electrochemistry as applic- 
able to electroplating. Thr last chapter deals briefly with the 
causes and prevention of corrosion. 


By V. J. Altieri. American Gas Association, 420 Lexington Ave., 
New York, 1943. 352 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9}4 x 6 
in., fabrikoid, $5.00 to non-members; $3.50 to A.G.A. members. 



This volume constitutes an expansion and revision of the light 
oil chapter of the Gas Chemists' Handbook. It presents the funda- 
mentals concerning specifications, definitions, tests and other 
standards, and includes a complete account of recent develop- 
ments in practical fractional distillation analyses. The object of 
the book is to furnish information that will help to speed up 
production, avoid unnecessary changes in equipment, facilitate 
standardization, etc. 


Design and Edit Statistical Tables, a Style Manual and 
Case Book 

By R. 0. Hall. Ronald Press Co., New York, 1943. 112 pp., 
charts, tables, ll l A x 8 l A in., cloth, $3.50. 

The designing and editing of statistical tables are discussed on 
the basis of broad practical experience in this book which will 
be found useful by all who have to present matter in tabular form. 
The principles presented are illustrated by a collection of tables, 
which are discussed critically. 

HYDRAULICS, Parts 1-4 

By H. P. Hammond. International Textbook Co., Scranton, Pa., 
1942, each part paged separately, Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
7%x5 in., fabrikoid, $3.00. 

Part I of this elementary textbook deals with hydrostatics. 
Part II discusses the discharge of orifices, tubes and weirs, and 
covers the subject of nozzles. Flow through pipes, including 
the determination of power delivered by or to water flowing 
in a pipe, occupies part III. Part IV takes up flow in open chan- 
nels and covers stream gaging. Numerical examples for practice 
accompany the various subdivisions of the parts. 


By T. 0. Armstrong, R. P. Blake, J. J. Bloomfield, C. B. Boulet, 
M. A. Gimbel, S. W. H omen, W. D. Keefer and R. T. Page, 
edited by R. P. Blake, foreword by H. T. Heald. Prentice-Hall, 
Inc., New York, 1943. 435 pp.. Mus., diagrs., tables, 9)^x6 in., 
cloth, $5.00. 

A series of chapters by authorities in the field provides a 
handbook useful to all industries. Subjects discussed include the 
history of industrial safety, causes of industrial accidents, acci- 
dent prevention, inspection, safeguarding machinery, safety train- 
ing and education, accident hazards, reports and records. Fire 
prevention, first aid and personal protective equipment are also 
covered in separate chapters. The book has been written from 
the viewpoint of the industrial worker on the job. 

MACHINERY'S HANDBOOK for Machine Shop and Draft- 

By E. Oberg and F. D. Jones. 12th ed. Industrial Press, New 
York; sole distributors for the British Empire; Machinery Pub- 
lishing Co., Ltd., war-time address; 17 Marine Parade, Brighton, 
England, 1943. 1,815 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 7x5 in., 
fabrikoid, $6.00. 

In the thirty years since this work first appeared, it has become 
established as an almost indispensable work of reference in draft- 
ing rooms and machine shops. This new edition contains the 
same number of pages as the preceding one, but numerous changes 
have been made in charts and tables which bring them up to date. 


By T. S. hovering. Prentice- H all, New York, 1943. 394 PP-, Mus., 
diagrs., charts, maps, tables, 9Yi x 6 in., cloth, $5.35. 
This book provides a general account of the part that minerals 
have played in world affairs. Their influence on social and econ- 
omic conditions that breed wars and affect decisions in these wars 
is discussed broadly for the non-specialists. The reader gets a 
usable overall picture of the place of minerals in an industrial 


By J. H. DuBois. American Technical Society, Chicago, III., 1943. 

435 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 8 x /i x 5 x /i in., cloth, $3.75. 

A simplified presentation of the manufacture and use of the 
important plastics materials and products, with tables of their 
properties and the basic information required by engineers and 
designers. This revised edition contains two new chapters, on 
synthetic rubber and low-pressure laminates. The book is designed 
to be used both as a text and as a practical reference handbook. 

Ultra-Short Waves 

By A. W. Ladner and C. R. Stoner. 4th ed. rev. and enl. John 
Wiley & Sons, New York; Chapman & Hall, London, 1943. 
573 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 8% x 5 l A in., cloth, $6.00. 

Although this book deals especially with short wave communi- 
cation, the principles common to both long and short waves are 
introduced where necessary in order to achieve a self-contained 
treatise. The principles and equipment for short and ultra-short 
wave operation are thoroughly discussed concurrently, instead 
of having a separate chapter for ultra-short waves as in previous 
editions. A chapter on high frequency therapeutic apparatus is 


By W. J. Kearton. 4th ed. Pitman Publishing Corp., New York; 
Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., London, 1943. 375 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9 x 5 A in., cloth, $5.00. 

A practical text on the installation, running, maintenance and 
testing of steam turbines, the popularity of which is shown by 
four editions in twelve years. In addition to instructions, the 
author has included descriptive matter which will enable the 
engineer to understand the construction of the plant and will 
explain the thermal and mechanical considerations that affect 
its operation. The chapters on glands and governing have been 
rewritten for this edition, and a chapter on thrust bearings has 
been added. 


By J. L. Keenan with the collaboration of L. Sorsby, introduction 
by L. Bromfield. Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York, 1943. 224 
pp., 8Y 2 x 5Yi in., cloth, $2.50. 

This autobiographical narrative covers the experience of an 
American steel man during twenty-five years with the largest 
steel-producing unit in India. Technical details, humorous remin- 
iscence, and social and political discussion are intermixed through- 
out the book, giving an overall picture of the development of the 
industrial age in India. 


By N. Moseley. Cornell Maritime Press, New York, 1943. 208 
pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 7 x /i x 5 in., cloth, $2.00. 

Part I of this manual considers the primary requirements of 
the instructor and the trainee. It discusses various methods of 
teaching — lecture, demonstration, recitation, discussion — in the 
light of actual conditions in the shop, laboratory or field. Part II 
expands on the practical aspects. Study procedures and the tech- 
nique of handling students are dealt with. Special problems in 
industrial training programmes are considered, and there is a 
final chapter on teaching foreign languages. 

Secrets of Handling People 

By D.A. Laird and E. C. Laird. McGraw-Hill Book Co. (Whit- 
tlesey House Div.), New York, 1948. 138 pp., Mus., 8% x ^Yi 
in., cloth, $1.75. 

Eleven simple rules are given as the fundamental approach to 
more pleasant and advantageous relations with other people. 
Each one is discussed separately, with practical illustrations of 
its value taken from current conditions and the careers of leading 
men of the present time. 


By E. H. Uhler. International Textbook Co., Scranton, Pa., 
1943, no pagination, diagrs., tables, 9x12 in., paper, $1.75. 
Part I of this text deals with fundamental principles, covering 
projections, constructions, surfaces, intersections, methods of 
revolution and the method of traces. Part II describes the appli- 
cation of these principles to engineering problems: civil, mechan- 
ical, chemical, mining and structural geology. The text is supple- 
mented by a separate book of plates in which are problems to be 
solved by both graphical and mathematical methods. Plates are 
numbered to refer to chapter and article of the explanatory text. 


Originally edited by L. H. Morrison, revised by C. F. Fooll . 

Diesel Publications, 192 Lexington Ave., New York. 966 pp., 

Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9 l A x 6 in., cloth $7.00 in U.S.A.; 

$8.00 foreign. 

Practical, up-to-date information is provided upon the opera- 
tion and maintenance of Diesel engines, valuable both to the 
owner and operator. The treatment is exhaustive, and the book 
is profusely illustrated from actual practice. Two chapters of 
engineering fundamentals are devoted to brief description of 
useful general engineering terms and equipment. 




of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 

January 26th, 1944. 

The By-laws provide that the Council of the Institute shall 
approve, classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer 
from one grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate 
members a list of the new applicants for admission and for 
transfer, containing a concise statement of the record of each 
applicant and the names of his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility 
of each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the 
list submitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary 
any facts which may affect the classification and selection of any 
of the candidates. In cases where the professional career of an 
applicant is known to any member, such member is specially 
invited to make a definite recommendation as to the proper 
classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the 
personal reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly 

Communications relating to applicants are considered 
by the Council as strictly confidential. 

The Council will consider the applications herein described at 
the March meeting. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 

•The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have been 
engaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period 
may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a 
term of instruction in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In 
every case a candidate for election shall have held a position of professional 
responsibility, in charge of work as principal or assistant, for at least two years. 
The occupancy of a chair as an assistant professor or associate professor in a 
faculty of applied science or engineering, after the candidate has attained the 
age of twenty -seven years, shall be considered as professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recog- 
nized by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board 
of examiners appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on 
the theory and practice of engineering, with special reference to the branch of 
engineering in which he has been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the 
Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Sections 9 and 10, if not already passed, or 
else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an 
equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may be waived at the 
discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of professional 
responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been 
engaged in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period 
may be reduced to one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate 
for election has graduated from a school of engineering recognized by the 
Council. He shall not remain in the claBS of Junior after he has attained the 
age of thirty -three years, unless in the opinion of Council special circumstances 
warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recog- 
nized by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in 
such a course, shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science 
as set forth in Schedule B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations 
for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if 
not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners that 
he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a 
certificate of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination 
of a high school or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school 
of engineering recognized by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of 
student for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving 
a practical training in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination 
in such of the subjects set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations 
relating to Examinations for Admission as were not included in the high school 
or matriculation examination which he has already passed; he shall not remain 
in the class of Student after he has attained the age of twenty-seven years, 
unless in the opinion of Council special circumstances warrant the extension 
of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose 
pursuits, scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate 
with engineers in the advancement of professional knowledge. 

The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as refer- 
ence does not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by 
such members. 


AINLAY— ARTHUR, of 740 Woodland Ave., Verdun, Que. Born at 
Lomond, Alta., Sept. 18th, 1918; 1937-40, radio technician, Radiocrafts Co. 
Ltd., Calgary, Alta.; 1940-41, radio and electrical technician, Can. Westing- 
house Co. Ltd., Calgary, Alta.; 1941-43, chief wireless instructor, Provincial 
Institute of Technology and Art, Calgary, Alta.; at present, tech. asst. engr., 
Inspection Board of U.K. and Canada, c/o Northern Electric Co., Montreal, 

References: W. S. Fraser, A. Higgins, F. N. Rhodes, J. H. Ross, K. W. 
Mitchell, H. J. McEwen. 

BRIDEN— LEONARD DUTTON, of Tors Cove, Newfoundland. Born at 
Haileybury, Ont., June 17th, 1915; Educ: B.Sc. (Mining Eng.), Michigan 
College of Mining and Technology, 1940; 1934-36, gen. mining and engrg. asst., 
Barry-Hollinger Mines, Ltd.; 1940-41, instru'man., H. F. McLean Const. Co., 
Nitro, Que.; 1941-42, asst. engr., Carter-Halls-Aldinger Co., Moncton, N.B.; 
with the Newfoundland Light and Power Co. Ltd., as follows: 1942-43, asst. 
engr., and at present engr. i/c winter operation and the study of winter operating 
conditions of water supply canals for hydro-electric power developments. 

References: J. W. Morris, A. C. D. Blanchard, J. H. McLaren, J. K. Sexton, 
H. J. McLean, H. Forbes-Roberts. 

CHADWICK— WALTER WYBURN, of 368 Wilson St., Hamilton, Ont. 
Born at Hamilton, Ont., April 13th, 1891; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 
1911; 1908-09, chemist, Steel Co. of Canada; 1909-11, Can. Westinghouse Co. 
Ltd.; 1912-14, Chadwick Brass, Ltd.; 1914-15, W. W. Chadwick Co.; 1915-18, 
Chadwick Metal Co.; 1918-21, Canadian Nathan Mfg. Co.; 1921-33, Chad- 
wick -Carroll Brass Co. Ltd.; 1933-43, près, and gen. mgr., Chadwick-Carroll 
Brass & Fixtures Ltd. 

References: H. A. Cooch, W. L. McFaul, A. R. Hannaford, N. A. Eager, 
C. H. Hutton, J. C. Nash, H. J. A. Chambers. 

CHERNICK— ALEXANDER, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Winnipeg, Man., 
Oct. 25th, 1910; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of Manitoba, 1931; 1931-32, 
Dominion Electric Co., Winnipeg; 1932-33, Good Roads Board of Manitoba; 
with the Municipal Corp'n. of Tel Avir, Palestine, as follows: 1933-35, road 
inspr. on constrn., 1935-38, town planning engr., 1938-40, resident engr., on 
seashore improvement project; 1941-43, Toronto Iron Works, Toronto, on 
constrn. of equipm't. for the British American Oil Refinery at Clarkson, Ont.; 
at present, chief expediting engr., British American Oil Co., Toronto, Ont. 

References: S. H. deJong, R. O. Paulsen, A. E. MacDonald, G. H. Herriot, 
J. N. Finlayson. 

CHISHOLM— KENNETH GORDON, of Winnipeg, Man. Born at Chelsea, 
Que., Aug. 6th, 1902; Educ: B.Eng. (Elec), McGill Univ., 1929; 1929-31. 
R. C. C. Signals, radio range install'n, Northern Electric Co., Montreal; 1931, 
planning and install'n of communication system for forest fire protection 
(radio), Sask. Govt.; 1932-37 (summers), planning and installing forestry com- 
munication system, Laurentian Forest Protective Assoc; 1932-37 (winters), 
various technical work as follows: 1933-34, transmitter operator and studio 
operator, CFCF, Montreal; 1935, specialist radio receiver repairs, R.C.A. 
Victor Co. Ltd., Montreal; 1936, with the Canadian Marconi Co.; 1937, broad- 
cast station consltg. work; 1938-41, engrg. and install'n. of radio equipment 
in planes and in ground stations, Trans Canada Air Lines; 1941 to date, sales 
engr., engrg. products div'n., Western Canada, R.C.A. Victor Co. Ltd., 
Winnipeg, Man. 

References: J. Dyment, C. H. Brereton, J. D. Peart, G. R. Pritchard, A. T. 

CRAM— JAMES DONALD, of 120 Victoria Ave., Belleville, Ont. Born at 
Harris, Sask., April 28th, 1918; Educ: B.Sc. (Agricultural Engrg.), Univ. of 
Sask. 1943; 1942 (May)— 1943 (April), equipm't. engr., D.I.L., Winnipeg, 
Man.; 1943 (April-July), technical supervisor, D.I.L., Nobel, Ont.; 1943 (July 
to date), mech. engr., Stewart-Warner-Alemite Corp'n. of Canada, Ltd., 
Belleville, Ont. 

References: G. W. Parkinson, I. M. Fraser, R. A. Spencer. 

DALTON— WILLIAM REGINALD, of 30 St. Andrews Terrace, Sault 
Ste. Marie, Ont. Born at Nelson, Ont., Nov. 23rd, 1898; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's 
Univ., 1929; 1926-28 (summers), dfting., English Electric Co., St. Catharines, 
Ont.; 1929 (summer), dfting., Steel Co. of Canada; 1929-31, tool engrg. and 
design of jigs and fixtures, Can. Westinghouse Co.; 1936-37, i/c inter- 
works inspec'n., International Harvester Co.; 1938-39, teaching, Dominion 
Provincial Youth Training group, Gait, Ont.; 1939-40, teaching dfting., Dan- 
forth Technical School, Toronto; 1940, design of attachments for shell lathes 
for John T. Hepburn; 1941-44, teaching dfting., Sault Ste. Marie Technical 
School and, at present, head of dfting. dept., and maths, instructor at night 

References: A. M. Wilson, R. S. McCormick, Geo. G. W. MacLeod, J. L. 
Lang, G. W. Holder. 

FINNIE— NORMAN WILLIAM, of 302 Hunter St., Peterborough, Ont. 
Born at Montreal, Dec. 20th, 1913; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1939; 1930-36, 
motor repairs — ampere electric switchgear costs and sales office, English Elec- 
tric Co.; with the Canadian General Electric Co., Peterborough, as follows: 
1936-40, transformer and meter sales office, Packard Electric Test course', 
1940-41, switchgear engrg.; 1941, industrial control, 1942 to date, junior engr., 
designing induction motors. 

References: V. S. Foster, A. R. Jones, D. V. Canning, B. E. Burgess, A.L. 
Malby, D. J. Emery. 

HESLER— RONALD JOHN HAROLD, of Sackville, N.B. Born at Mont- 
real, Que., Feb. 26, 1921; Educ: Ordnance Mech. Engr. (Wireless) 1943; 
1937-39, amateur radio operation (VEIKS); 1942-43, technical staff officer 
(Tele-communication Group) Directorate of Mech. Mtce., Ottawa, Ont.; 1943 
to date, officer in charge of army wireless mtce., Atlantic Command, "W" 
and "G" Forces. (Asks for admission as an Affiliate.) 

References: H. W. McKiel, C. A. D. Fowler, I. P. Macnab, LeS. Brodie, 
H. W. Read. 

KENNEDY— TAYLOR JAMES, of 4130 Dorchester St. West, Westmount, 
Que. Born at Westmount, Que., March 15th, 1916; Educ: B.Eng. (Mining) 
1938, M.Eng. (Mining) 1939, McGill Univ.; 1935-38 (summers), underground 
mining general, O'Brien Gold Mines, Que., Dome Mines Ltd., South Porcupine, 
Ont., and Frood Mine, International Nickel Co., Sudbury, Ont.; 1938 (summer), 
prospecting and diamond drilling work, Mining Products of Canada; 1939^40, 
mine engr. and night foreman, Morris Kirkland Gold Mines, Ltd., Ont.; with 
the Canada Cement Co. Ltd., as follows: 1940-43, plant engr., No. 1 plant, 
and at present, asst. supt., No. 1 Plant, Montreal East, Que. 

References: F. B. Kilbourn, W. G. H. Cam, H. C. Kennedy. 



KLEMPNER— HAROLD, of 345 College Ave., Winnipeg, Man. Born at 
Winnipeg, Man., March 11th, 1909; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), University of Man., 
1930; 1928 (summer), junior dftsmn., Dominion Water Power & Reclamation 
Service; 1929 (summer) dftsmn. on constrn., C.P.R.; 1930-31, transitman, 
C.P.R., Kenora, Ont.; 1931, engr., Northern Public Service Corp'n, Ltd., 
Winnipeg; 1932-33, under instruction, R.C.A.F., Camp Borden; 1933-39, as 
engr. for Smelter Gold Mines, Ltd., Golden Key Mining Syndicate, Wingold 
Mines Ltd., Barry Hollinger Mines, Coniaurum Mines, and Delnite Mines; 
1940, design and dfting., Malartic Goldfields, Ltd.; 1940-41, senior shift boss, 
Powell-Rouyn Gold Mines, Ltd.; 1941-42, technical engr. officer, R.C.A.F., 
1942, asst. inspecting engr., Dept. of Munitions & Supply, Winnipeg; 1942-43; 
field engr. and constrn. supt., Carter-Halls-Aldinger Co. Ltd.; at present engr., 
National Research Council, Winnipeg, Man. (temporary appointment). 

References: A. W. Fosness, G. H. Herriot, C. H. Attwood, A. E. MacDonald, 
E. P. Fetherstonhaugh. 

LONGWORTHY— WILLIAM HAROLD, of Esquimalt, B.C. Born at 
Regina, Sask., Jan. 3rd, 1921; Educ: B.Sc. (Mech.), Univ. of Sask. 1942; 1942 
to date, Sub-Lieut. (E) R.C.N.V.R., c/o F.M.O., Esquimalt, B.C. 

References: W. S. E. Morrison, I. M. Fraser, N. B. Hutcheon, R. A. Spencer, 
G. W. Parkinson. 

LOUDEN— JOHN CECIL, of 78 St. Albans St., Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Birkenhead, England, April 30th, 1896; Educ: Holt Technical School, Birken- 
head, 1912-14; Univ. of Toronto (evening classes) celestial navigation and 
practical maths., 1939-41; with the Dept. of Highways (Ontario) as follows: 
1934-38, rodman and instru'mn. on winter topographical surveys and inspr. on 
road constrn., 1938-41, office engr. and dftsmn. i/c divn. 6, engrg. office, 1942, 
traffic engr., main draughting room, Parliament Bldgs., Toronto; 1942-43, 
works and operations engr., R. Melville Smith Co. Ltd., management contrac- 
tors, Alaska Highway, on constrn. of headquarters bldgs., at Fort St. John, B.C., 
and camp, headquarters and hospital at Fort Nelson, B.C., including water 
and sewage install'ns, mtee. of supply, etc. At present, dftsman., Cloverleaf 
Design and traffic problems, Ontario Dept. of Highways, Toronto. 

References: R. M. Smith, T. F. Francis, R. A. Campbell, H. Rindal, A. Hay. 

MCCARTHY— DOUGLAS FINDLAY, of 4 Avalon Blvd., Toronto 13, 
Ont. Born at North Bay, Ont., Aug. 5th, 1907; Educ: B.A.Sc, University of 
Toronto, 1929; R.P.E. Ont.; 1925-29 (summers) chainman on rly. location, 
topographer on storage dam survey, instru'mn on rly. constrn., Temiskaming and 
Northern Ont. Rly.; 1928, res. engr., rly. constrn., Algoma Central and Hudson 
Bay Rly.; with Spruce Falls Power and Paper Co. Ltd., Kapuskasing, Ont., as 
follows: 1929-31, mtce. and layout dfting. and 1931-32, estimator and field 
engr.; with the Hollinger Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd., as follows: 1933-39, 
instru'mn. on underground surveying, responsible for contract tonnage measure- 
ments, 1939-42, ore reserve engr., preparation of monthly and annual ore re- 
serve estimates; at present, asst. struct'l. engr. i/c bldg. mtce. and constrn., 
the General Engineering Co. (Canada) Ltd., Allied War Supply- Corp'n. 
Project 24. 

References: C. R. Young, C. T. Anderson, R. S. Segsworth, I. S. Widdifield, 
K. H. Anderson. 

McLAREN— LEO GERARD, of Rimouski, Que. Born at Chicoutimi, Que., 
Sept. 12th, 1898; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), McGill Univ., 1-924, R.P.E. Que.; 
1918-23 (summers), asst. to field engr. ; 1924-31, field engr., Shawinigan Engi- 
neering Co.; with the Dept. of Public Works (Canada) at Rimouski, Que., as 
follows; 1933-42, asst. engr.; 1942 to date, senior asst. engr. to District Engineer. 

References: K. M. Cameron, C. R. Lindsay, R. Biais, B. Grandmont, A. R. 
Decary, J. A. McCrory, R. F. Legget, C. Luscombe. 

NEWTON— LESLIE JAMES, of Pont Rouge, Que. Born at Dalkeith, Ont., 
Sept. 5th, 1914; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1936; with Phillips Electrical 
Works, Ltd., as follows: 1936-38, Brockville plant, Ont., 1938-39, Montreal 
plant; 1939 to date, plant engr., Building Products, Ltd., Pont Rouge, Que. 

References: D. S. Ellis, L. T. Rutledge, H. W. Lea, W. D. MacKinnon. 

ORR— LESLIE GALLAHER, of 219 Mooregate St., St. James, Man. Born 
at Franklin, Man., May 7th, 1910; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of Manitoba, 
1943; 1931-35 (summers), rodman, hydrographie survey, Dept. of Marine and 
Fisheries; 1939 (summer), instru'mn., Dominion Dept. of Agric, P.F.R.A. 1940 
(summer), explorer and instru'mn., surveys branch, Manitoba Dept. Mines and 
Natural Resources; with the Dominion Dept. of Agric, P.F.R.Â. as follows: 
1941-43, instru'mn., 1943 to date, junior engr. (acting dist. engr.) i/c all 
surveys and designs for dams, and other water development projects. 

References: C. H. Attwood, A. E. MacDonald, B. B. Hogarth, E. Gauer, 
J. I. Mutchler, D. M. Stephens. 

SANKOFF— ABBEY, of 2515 Maplewood Ave., Montreal. Born at Mont- 
real, March 15, 1909; Educ: B.S. .University of Pittsburgh, 1934; 1934-42, 
motion and time study, plant layout, engrg. investigations, production prob- 
lems, industrial accounting, Canadian Westinghouse Co. Ltd.; 1942 to date, 
industrial engr., engrg. and plate shops, Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal. 

References: R. C. Flitton, G. Agar.R. M. Calvin, P. F. Stokes.T. R. McLagan. 

STUPPEL— ISAAC, of 541 Rideau St., Ottawa, Ont. Born at Riga, Latvia, 
Nov. 23rd, 1902; Educ: Mech. Engr., PolytechnischeB Institut, Arnstdat, 
Germany, 1926; with Hull Iron & Steel Foundries, Hull, Que., as follows: 
1928-32, dftsman., 1932-36, chem. lab. on steel analysis, 1936 to date, asst. 

References: W. H. G. Flay, D. M. Loomis, R. M. Prendergast, G. M. Pitts. 


BENJAFIELD— JOHN FORDYCE, of 4603 Hampton Ave., Montreal. 
Born at London, Ont., July 20, 1908. Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1933; R.P.E. 
Ontario; 1928-32 (summers), rodman, C.N.R.; 1933-35, dftsmn., Dept. of High- 
ways, Ontario; 1935-36, instr'mn., City of St. Thomas; 1936, instr'mn., C.N.R.; 

with Foundation Co. of Canada as follows: 1937-39, field engr., layout of bldgs., 
lines and levels, estimating, 1939-41, supt., supervision of bldg. of plant con- 
strn., 1941 to date, travelling supt., supervision of a number of jobs as to costs 
and methods of work. (St. 1933; Jr. 1938.) 

References: R. E. Chadwick, W. Griesbach, W. C. Miller, J. Ferguson, 
F. Bell. 

BERGER— BERNARD AVROM, of 5415 Randall Ave., Cote St. Luc, Que. 
Born at Montreal Dec 28, 1908. Educ: B.Sc, (Mech.) McGill Univ., 1930; 
R.P.E. Quebec; 1930-36, with Ford Motor Co. of Can. Ltd., as follows: 1930-31, 
tool room app'ntce, 1931-32, asst. production foreman, 1932-36 tool and machine 
design; 1936-37, tool and machine design, General Motors of Canada, Oshawa; 
1937-41, tool and machine design and 1941-43, chief dftsmn., Northern Electric 
Co., Fire Control; 1943, tool engr. and asst. prodn. mgr. for Electric Tamper 
and Equipment Co., Montreal; at present, in private practice as consltg. mech. 
engr., Montreal. (St. 1928; Jr. 1936.) 

References: H. Miller, J. J. H. Miller, H. C. Spencer, S. Sillitoe, W. A. 

CAMPBELL— GERALD ARTHUR, of Petawawa, Ont. Born at Montreal, 
Que., Aug. 25, 1915; Educ: B.Sc, (Civil), Univ. of N.B., 1938; Summers, 
1936, asst. supt., Bridge Dept., N.B., 1937, surveyer, Fraser Co. Ltd., 1938, 
inspr. on paving, Milton Hersey Co.; 1937-38, asst. instr. in surveying, Univ. 
of N.B.; 1938-39, dftsmn., Dept. of Lands and Mines, N.B.; 1939-41, field engr., 
United British Oilfields of Trinidad, Ltd., i/c earthworks, road constrn., mtce., 
drainage and industrial rly. ; 1941-42, field engr., Walsh and Driscoll Constrn. Co., 
Edinborough Air Base, Trinidad, i/c engrg. on constrn. of runways, etc.; 
1942-43, field engr., with E. G. M. Cape and Co., Dartmouth, N.S., on constrn. 
of civil wharf.; at present, cadet in Royal Canadian Engineers at A5, C.E.T.C., 
Petawawa, Ont. (St. 1937; Jr. 1942.) 

References: J. Stephens, E. O. Turner, J. R. Seanlan, C. L. Cate. 

HOWE— HAROLD BERTRAM, of 4801 Lacombe Ave., Montreal. Born 
at Inverness, P.Q., Mar. 29th, 1915; Educ: B.Sc, (Mech.) Queen's Univ., 
1936; 1936-39, asst. mech. engr., Canadian Johns-Manville Co. Ltd., Asbestos, 
Que., design and dftng. of factory, mine, mill and rly. machinery; with Canada 
Cement Co. Ltd. as follows: 1939-40, plant engr., Plant No. 1, Montreal East, 
i/c constrn. of bldgs. and machinery, 1940-42, misc. design and dftng., head 
office, field work supervising all major mtce. jobs throughout company; 1942-43, 
i/c operation and mtce. of company's ships and precision field machinery con- 
strn.; 1943 to date, Supt., i/c of operation in all phases of the company's plant 
No. 1, Montreal East. (St. 1935; Jr. 1941) 

References: F. B. Kilbourn, W. G. H. Cam, L. Trudel, L. M. Arkley, D. S. 

MARTIN— ARHUR L., of 2015 University St., Montreal, Que. Born at 
Winnipeg, Man., Nov. 12, 1909; Educ: B.Sc, (Civil) Univ. of Man., 1934; 
1935 (Oct. -Nov.) junior doing office work, Manitoba Good Roads Dept.; 
1936-37, inspr. with C. D. Howe Co., Manitoba Good Roads Dept., Greater 
Winnipeg Sanitary Dist.; 1937-40, detailing dftBmn., estimator and concrete 
designer, Truscon Steel Co. of Canada, Ltd., Toronto; 1940 to date, dftsmn on 
concrete and timber design, General Engrg. Dept., Aluminum Co. of Canada, 
Montreal. (Jr. 1941.) 

References: C. D. Norton, V. Andersen, D. G. Elliott, S. R. Banks, W. B. 

PORTEOUS— JOHN WARDLAW, of Edmonton, Alta. Born at Gait, Ont., 
Jan. 12, 1907; Educ: B.Sc, 1928, M.Sc, 1932, (Elec), Univ. of Alta.; R.P.E. 
Alta.; 1928-29, student course Canadian Westinghouse Co., 1929-30, demon- 
strator, Syracuse Univ.; 1930, lecturer, 1943, asst. prof., and at present assoc. 
professor, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton; 1940, constrn. of C.K.U.A. 1,000 watt 
transmitter layout. (St. 1929; Jr. 1934.) 

References: R. S. L. Wilson, H. J. MacLeod, E. Stansfield, F. R. Burfield, 
A. M. Allen. 

THOMAN— RUSSELL K., of 4382 Vanhorne Ave., Montreal. Born at 
Hamilton, Ont., July 31, 1910; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1936; 1926-31, 
steel erection, Hamilton Bridge Co.; 1936-39, industrial engr. and prodn. mgr., 
Remington Rand Ltd., Hamilton, Ont.; 1939 to date, supt. engrg. divn., 
Canadian Vickers, Ltd., Montreal. (St. 1936; Jr. 1938.) 

References: G. Agar, R. C.Flitton, R. M. Calvin, P. F. Stokes, H. S. Van- 
patter, G. O. Vogan, G. H. Midgley. 


HART— ERWIN EDWARD, of Toronto. Born at Toronto, July 18, 1915. 
Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1940; 1940-41, scheduling at machine shop 
work, and 1941-43, scheduling of all mtce. dept. work, Dunlop Tire and Rubber 
Goods Co. Ltd.; 1943 to date, supervisor of material standards, Ordnance 
Divn., John Inglis Co. Ltd., Toronto. (St. 1940) 

References: C. R.Young, C. ; F. Morrison, R. F. Legget, F. Noakes, R. Graydon. 

STAPLETON— DAVID OUTRAM, of 139 Brock Ave. S., Montreal WeBt, 
Que. Born at Exmouth, Devonshire, England, Mar. 24, 1916; Educ: B.Eng. 
(Mech.) McGill Univ., 1938; 1935-36 (summers), gen'l. mtce., Noranda Mines 
Ltd., Noranda; 1937-40, gen'l. mtce. and operating, Dominion Oxygen Co., 
Montreal; 1940-43, with the British Air Commission as follows: 1940-42, asst. 
to inspr. in charge at Canadian Car and Foundry Turcot Aircraft, Montreal, 
Canadian Associated Aircraft Ltd., St. Hubert Airport, Que., Northorp Air- 
craft, Inc., Hawthorne, Calif.: 1940-42, asst., to resident British inspr. Lock- 
heed Aircraft Corp., Burbank, Calif., 1943, resident British inspr., No. 9 
Modification Centre, Standiford Field, Louisville, Ky.; at present, lab. tech- 
nician in Test and Experimental Lab., Canadian Car and Foundry Co. Ltd., 
propellor divn., Montreal, Que. Development engrg. and tests on propellers, 
governors and pumps, field service on same. Prodn. expediter and coordinator 
between chief engr. and the shop. (St. 1938.) 

References: W. S. Attwood, E. I. Wigdor, G. J. Dodds, W. A. Wood, 
E. Brown, R. deL. French, A. R. Roberts. 



Employment Service Bureau 


Technical personnel should not reply to any of the adver- 
tisements for situations vacant unless^ 

1. They are registered with the Wartime Bureau of Technical 

2. Their services are available. 

A person's services are considered available only if he is— 

(a) unemployed; 

(b) engaged in work other than of an engineering or 
scientific nature; 

(c) has given notice as of a definite date; or 

(d) has permission from his present employer to negotiate 
for work elsewhere while still in the service of that 

Applicants will help to expedite negotiations by stating in 
their application whether or not they have complied with the 
above regulations. 


MECHANICAL ENGINEER, graduate of about one year'8 standing required 
by stable industry essential to war work, for draughting, design and study 
work on mechanical and other maintenance problems. Location south- 
western Ontario. Apply to Box No. 2682-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER for a large pulp and paper company in the 
province of Quebec. Mill located near Ottawa. Applicant should have good 
knowledge of paper mill desigi and layout. Do not apply if a technical 
person within the meaning of PC. 246, Part III (Jan. 19-43) unless your 
services are available under the regulations administered by the Wartime 
Bureau of Technical Personnel. Reply stating age, experience, and salary 
expected to Box No. 2687-V. 

fixtures and light manufacturing machinery. Location — Eastern Ontario. 
Good opportunity. Apply to Box No. 2690-V. 

YOUNG MECHANICAL ENGINEER, able draughtsman, required by 
76-year old firm in Quebec district, operating cast iron foundry and metal 
working departments. Firm "designated" by Selective Service but this 
position not dependent on war work. Good opportunity for advancement 
to right party. Applicant must be bilingual. State experience and salary 
expected in writing to Box No. 2695-V. 

CHEMIST OR CHEMICAL ENGINEER qualified to formulate and prepare 
liquid resin and other glues for use in plywood manufacture. Permanent 
position. State experience and salary expected. Apply to Box No. 2713-V. 

SALESMEN, large life insurance company has opening for men, about 35 years 
of age. Married. Average salary of $2000 a year paid for servicing business 
plus commissions on all new business. Average yearly earnings $3200. Excel- 
lent prospects of advancement in sales executive work for capable men. Pro- 
fessional men have a high record of success in this business. Apply to Box 

WANTED — We have an opening in our filtration department for a mechanical, 
metallurgical or chemical engineer or a man with equivalent technical 
training or qualifications. This job requires the services of a man to handle 
test work, sales and servicing of Oliver paper mill filters, deckers, bleach 
washers, savealls, etc. Knowledge of and experience in the pulp and paper 
industry along with an engineering background enabling applicants to solve 
filtration problems is required. This is a permanent position. Do not apply 
unless your services are available under regulations P.C. 246 Part III 
(Jan. 19-43) administered by the Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel. 
Apply to E. LONG LIMITED, OriUia, Canada. 


CIVIL ENGINEER, age 38, experience in charge of light and heavy construc- 
tion, all types surveying, airfield work, machinery installation, light steel- 
work. Apply to Box 741-W. 

The Service is operated for the benefit of members of 
The Engineering Institute of Canada, and for industrial 
and other organizations employing technically trained 
men — without charge to either party. Notices appearing 
in the Situations Wanted column will be discontinued 
after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon request 
after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be 
Mansfield Street, Montreal. 

GRADUATE CIVIL ENGINEER, age 44, married, bilingual, over twenty 
years' experience; eight years as laboratory technician in pulp and paper 
and twelve years as inspecting engineer on various construction jobs includ- 
ing two years in charge of concrete laboratory on large hydroelectric project 
recently completed. Presently unemployed, desires permanent position. 
Apply to Box No. 1485-W. 

GRADUATE MECHANICAL ENGINEER, age 31, eight years' experience 
which includes successful work as plant engineer and plant superintendent in 
small plant; organization and administrative work in production, process 
control and design in large war industry. Familiar with latest practice in 
industrial management on job methods, personnel training, quality control, 
job evaluation, efficient labour relations programme, etc. Specialized field 
is methods engineering. Principally interested in organization and adminis- 
trative work with small or medium -sized industry with post-war possibilities. 
Apply to Box No. 1500-W. 

Manitoba. Experience in design, layout, installation, supervision of industrial 
electrical power, distribution systems; high tension overhead and under- 
ground transmission systems; outdoor and indoor substations. Design and 
layout of commercial and industrial lighting systems, covering incandescent, 
fluorescent and cold cathode installations. Available on short notice. Apply 
to Box 2099-W. 

GRADUATE B.Sc, Jr.E.I.C, age 27, executive and administrative ability, 
keenly interested in fields of industrial engineering and chemistry. Engineer- 
ing office and laboratory experience, all around technical training. Bilingual. 
Presently employed, but war conditions necessitate change. Apply to Box 
No. 2445-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, 45 years old, married, experienced in all types of indus- 
trial and heavy construction, railways bridges, water supply, etc., desires 
permanent position. Available December first. Apply to Box No. 2458-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, M.E.I.C, age 28, married. Experienced in highway and 
airdrome construction, sewer and waterwork, construction of buildings, 
steam and hot air heating. Desires position with consulting engineer, muni- 
cipal engineer or general contractor in prairie provinces or western Ontario. 
Available January 1st, 1944. Apply to Box No. 2459-W. 


TRANSITS, levels and accessories. Apply to Ralph KendaU, CE., P.L.S. 
13 Queen's Building, Halifax, N.S. 

Mechanical Engineer 

Large pulp and paper mill requires services of graduate civil 
or mechanical engineer with three or more years' experience 
in mechanical engineering. When applying state age, edu- 
cation, experience, salary, marital status and when available. 
Do not apply unless your services are available under regu- 
lation P.C. 246, Part III, administered by Wartime Bureau 
of Technical Personnel. Apply to Box No. 2706- V. 


M. J. Aykroyd, Outside Plant Engineer, Bell Telephone Co., 
Toronto, has been elected president of the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Ontario for the year 1944. He succeeds 
R. A. Elliott, B.Sc, general manager of the Deloro Smelting 
& Refining Co. Ltd., Deloro. J. L. Lang, M.E.I.C, Lang & 
Ross, Sault Ste. Marie has been elected vice-president. Other 
members elected to the Council of the Association are as 
follows : 

Civil Branch— D. S. Ellis, M.E.I.C, Dean, Faculty of Applied 
Science, Queen's University, Kingston. M. W. Huggins, 
M.E.i.c, Asst. Professor of Civil Engineering, University of 
Toronto, Toronto. 

Chemical & Metallurgical Branch— W. J. Cook, Asst. Supt., In- 

ternational Nickel Co. Ltd., Port Colborne. G. L. Macpherson, 
M.E.i.c, Chief Engineer, Imperial Oil Ltd., Sarnia. 

Electrical Branch — E. V. Buchanan, m.e.i.c, General Manager, 
Public Utilities Commission & London Railway Commission, 
London. J. H. Smith, Engineer, Electrical Construction Sales, 
Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., Toronto. 

Mechanical Branch — G. Ross Lord, m.e.i.c, Asst. Professor of 
Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto. R. 
M. Robertson, Chief Engineer, Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie- 
McCulloch Ltd., Gait. 

Mining Branch — J. Beattie, Manager, Delnite Mines Ltd., 
Timmins. G. B. Langford, Professor of Mining Geology, 
University of Toronto, Toronto. 



Industrial News 


B. J. Richards has been appointed sales 
manager, mechanical and sundries rubber 
products by Dominion Rubber Co. Ltd., for 
western Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatch- 
ewan, with headquarters in Winnipeg. 

He represented the company in the 
Maritime provinces and Ontario in the 
field for thirteen years, and was formerly 
manager of general products sales, head 
office, Montreal. 

Mr. Richards replaces A. C. McGiverin, 
who has been appointed sales manager, 
mechanical and sundries goods, Quebec 
division, with headquarters in Montreal. 

The International Nickel Co. of Canada 
Ltd., Toronto, Ont., have issued an 18- 
page catalogue containing reviews of forty- 
five publications being offered by this com- 
pany dealing with nickel and its alloys. 
They are classified under the following 
headings; industrial applications, mechani- 
cal properties, physical properties, working 
instructions, guides and monographs. 

Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont., has announced the appoint- 
ment of D. M. Alcock to the position of 
arc welding specialist in its head office 
apparatus sales department. 

Mr. Alcock brings to his new position a 
very extensive and varied experience in 
the welding field. Between 1917 and 1937 
he was employed as a welder by the 
Thompson Welding Co., Toronto; General 
Motors Corp., Detroit; Canadian General 
Electric Co., Toronto, and John Inglis Co., 
Toronto. During this period he also held 
the position of foreman welder at Domin- 
ion Welding Engineering Co., Toronto and 
Montreal; Toronto Iron Works, Toronto, 
and Horton Steel Works, Fort Erie. 

Between 1937 and the time he assumed 
his present position with C.G.E., Mr. 
Alcock worked on inspection and qualifi- 
cations of welding procedures and quali- 
fying of welding operators for Chas. War- 
nock Co., Montreal; Aluminum Co. of 
Canada Ltd., Arvida; Ontario Paper Co., 
Outardes Falls; H. G. Acres Co., Niagara 
Falls, Toronto, Montreal, Fort Erie; 
Toronto Shipbuilding Co., Toronto, and 
the Shipshaw project of the Aluminum 
Company in Quebec. 

Industrial development 
personnel- — special 


— new products — changes 
events — trade literature 



Fully alive to the mining industry's 
vital importance to the war effort, 
the Nova Scotia Department of 
Mines is continuing its activity in 
investigating the occurrences of the 
strategic minerals of manganese, 
tungsten and oil. It is also conduct- 
ing field investigations with diamond 
drilling on certain occurrences of 
fluorite, iron-manganese, salt, molyb- 
denum, dolomite and limestone to 
aid in their increased development. 



Minister Deputy Minister 

D. M. Alcock 

R. M. Robinson 


R. M. Robinson, formerly of Canadian 
General Electric Co. Ltd., lighting divi- 
sion, has been appointed general manager 
of the Wheeler Reflector Co. of Canada 

Mr. Robinson graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Toronto in 1935, with honors in 
electrical engineering, where he had special- 
ized in illumination. 

In 1935 he entered the lighting service 
department of C.G.E., where he trained 
in the application and design of lighting 
equipment. The following year he trans- 
ferred to the lighting division of the com- 
pany's supply department, specializing in 
commercial and industrial lighting, street 
and highway lighting, airport lighting, 
searchlights and floodlights. 

An associate member of the Toronto 
Section of the Illuminating Engineering 
Society, Mr. Robinson has served that 
body in many important capacities. He is 
also a member of the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers and is on the executive 
of the committee of Affiliated Engineering 
and Allied Societies in Ontario. 


Vulcan Iron Works Limited, Winnipeg, 
Man., have recently issued a 4-page bul- 
letin, Nos. 3 and 4, featuring the com- 
pany's facilities for the production of im- 
mense quantities of basic steel alloys and 
of heavy castings produced from same, 
including parts for railroad rolling stock, 
mines, ships and army mechanized equip- 
ment. Illustrations show a number of the 
finished products and the company's 
laboratory, established to provide control 
of all phases of manufacture. 

In another bulletin, designated as No. 6, 
samples of the products of this Company's 
structural steel and ornamental division 
are illustrated. Included are such varied 
items as watertight bulkhead doors, mine 
cars, blasting shields, fire escapes and steel 
and iron stairs. The bulletin also lists the 
company's wartime and peacetime pro- 
ducts and indicates its readiness to resume 
production of the latter class of mer- 

Timber Engineering Co., represented in 
Canada by V. H. Mclntyre Ltd., Toronto, 
Ont., have issued a 40-page manual which 
gives complete design information covering 
the use of "Teco" connectors, including 
data on load values, spacings, etc. The 
material is presented in chart form for 
ready use of architect and engineers and 
includes such additional information as 
recommended cambers for standard 
trusses, approximate weights of various 
timber connectored roof trusses and a table 
of dimensional properties of American 
standard-sized lumber and timbers. 


W. D. Moffatt has been appointed gen- 
eral manager for Canada of Alexander 
Murray & Co. Ltd., Montreal, roofing, 
insulation and allied building materials 
division of the Dominion Tar & Chemical 
Co. Ltd. Prior to joining the Murray or- 
ganization in 1939 as sales manager, Mr. 
Moffatt was connected with the McCon- 
nell, Ferguson and McConnell, Eastman 
advertising agencies at London and Toron- 
to, Ont., London, England, and Montreal. 

W. D. Moffatt 











!.. AUSTIN WRIGHT, m.e i.e. 

LOUIS TRUDEL. m.e.i.c 
A teintant Editor 

Advertising Manager 


R. S. EADIE, M.E.I.C, Chairman 

R. De L. FRENCH, m.e.i.c, Vice-Chairman 

R. C. FLITTON, m.e.i.c. 

J. A. OUIMET, m.e.i.c 

C. A. PEACHEY, m.e.i.c. 

Price SO cents a copy, $3.00 a year: in Canada, 
British Possessions, United States and Mexico. 
14.50 a year in Foreign Countries. To members 
and Affiliates, 25 cents a copy, 92.00 a year. 
—Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, as 
Second Class Matter. 

THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
•fther for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 

"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional 
knowledge among its members, to promote their profes- 
sional interests, to encourage original research, to develop and 
maintain high standards in the engineering profession and 
to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 

• * • 


One of the Horton spheres at Polymer Corporation, near Sarnia, 

Ont. (National Film Board Photo) ..... Cover 


C. ./. Mackenzie, C.M.G., M.E.I.C. 

William L. Batt, Hon.M.E.I.C. 

/. F. Morrison, M.E.I.C. 


WORLD 146 

Discussion ........... 148 



C. R. Young, M.E.I.C. 





Obituaries ........... 175 








*C. J. MACKENZIE, Ottawa, Ont. 

*W. P. BRERETON, Winnipeg, Man. 
tG. L. DICKSON, Moncton, N.B. 

*J. E. ARMSTRONG, Montreal, Que. 

*H. E. BRANDON, Toronto, Ont. 

fH. L. BRIGGS, Winnipeg, Man. 

JR. S. EADIE, Montreal, Que. 

tG. H. FERGUSON, Ottawa, Ont. 

tE. V. GAGE, Montreal, Que. 

tP. E. GAGNON, Quebec, Que. 

*R. E. HEARTZ, Montreal, Que. 

*A. JACKSON, Kingston, Ont. 

tJ. A. LALONDE, Montreal, Que. 

tALEX. LOVE, Hamilton, Ont. 

*for 1944. fFor 1944-45. JFor 1944-45-46. 


R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 


deGASPÉ BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 

ÎK. M. CAMERON, Ottawa, Ont. 


tJ. M. FLEMING, Port Arthur, Ont. 
*L. F. GRANT, Kingston, Ont. 


tP. A. LOVETT, Halifax, N.S. 

*A. M. MacGILLIVRAY, Saskatoon, Sask. 

*N. B. MacROSTIE, Ottawa, Ont. 

tJ. McMILLAN, Calgary, Alta. 

*A. W. F. McQUEEN, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

tE. B. MARTIN, Moncton, N.B. 

*G. E. MEDLAR, Windsor, Ont. 

tW. MELDRUM, Lethbridge, Alta. 

*J. P. MOONEY, Saint John, N.B. 

tA. S. G. MUSGRAVE, Oak Bay, B.C. 

*E. NELSON, Edmonton, Alta. 


F. C. MECHIN, Montreal, Que. 


L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 

tC. R. YOUNG, Toronto, Ont. 

*C. K. McLEOD, Montreal, Que. 
tE. B. WARDLE, Grand'Mère, Que. 

*H. G. O'LEARY, Fort William, Ont. 

ÎP. E. POITRAS, Montreal, Que. 

tJ. A. RUSSELL, Sydney, N.S. 

*C. SCRYMGEOUR, Dartmouth, N.S. 

tH. R. SILLS, Peterborough, Ont. 

tC. STENBOL, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

*J. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 

*H. J. WARD, Shawinigan Falls, Que. 

*J. W. WARD, Arvida, Que. 

*C. E. WEBB, Vancouver, B.C. 

tW. S. WILSON, Toronto, Ont. 


LOUIS TRUDEL, Montreal, Que. 



C. K. McLEOD, Chairman 


P. E. POITRAS, Chairman 


L. F. GRANT, Chairman 


E. V. GAGE, Chairman 


R. S. EADIE, Chairman 

R. DeL. FRENCH, Vice-Chairman 





J. G. HALL, Chairman 


J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

O. O. LEFEBVRE, Vice-Chairman 







M. J. McHENRY, Chairman 












H.F. BENNETT. Chairman R. DeL. FRENCH 




G. A. GAHERTY. Chairman 















G. l. Mackenzie 



R. B. YOUNG. Chairman 
E. VIENS, Vice-chairman 









Sir John Kennedy Medal 

Julian C. Smith Medal. 
Duggan Medal and Prize 

Gzowski Medal. . 
Plummer Medal. 

For outstanding merit or 

noteworthy contribution 
to science of engineering, 
or to benefit of the Insti- 

For achievement in the de- 
velopment of Canada. 

Medal and cash For paper on constructional 
to value of engineering involving the 
$100. use of metals for struc- 

tural or mechanical pur- 

Gold medal For a paper contributing to 

the literature of the pro- 
fession of civil engineer- 

Gold medal For a paper on chemical and 

metallurgical subjects. 

Leonard Medal . 

Gold medal . 

Students and Juniors.. 

University Students. 

Books to the 
value of $25 
(5 prizes). 

$25 in cash (11 
prizes) . . . 

. For a paper on a mining 
subject, open to members 
of the Canadian Institute 
of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy as well as The En- 
gineering Institute. 

For papers on any subject 
presented by Student or 
Junior members. 

For the third year student 
in each college, making 
the best showing in col- 
lege work and activities 
in student or local branch 
of engineering society. 






Chairman, J. B. DOWLER 

Vice-Chair., A. H. MacQUARRIE 

Executive, G. W. LUSBY J. M. WYLLIE 

(Ex-Officio),G. E. MEDLAR 

Sec-Treat., W. R. STICKNEY, 

1614 Ontario Street, 
Walkerville, Ont. 







(Ex-ogicio), j. McMillan 


Sêc.-Treas., K. W. MITCHELL, 

803-17th Ave. N.W., 
Calgary, Alta. 


Chairman. J. A. MacLEOD 

Executive, J. A. RUSSELL M. F. COSSITT 

Sec.-Trea»., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Av»., Sydney, N.S. 


Chairman, C. W. CARRY 
Vice-Chair., B. W. PITFIELD 
Executive, J. A. ALLAN 
H. W. TYE 
(Ex-Officio), D. HUTCHISON 

Sec.-Treas., F. R. BURFIELD, 

Water Resources Office, 

Provincial Government, 
Edmonton, Alta. 




Chairman, R. S. CHARLES 
Vice-Chair., H. G. STEAD 
Executive, E. B. ALLEN 



(Ex-Officio), T. L. McMANAMNA 

Sec.-Treas, A. L. FURANNA, 

732 Wellington Street, 
London, Ont. 







Chairman , 




(Ex-Officio), A. E. FLYNN 


Sec.-Treas., S. W. GRAY, 

Wartime Bureau of Technical, 
Personnel, 84 Hollis Street, 
Halifax, N.S. 

Chairman, H. A. COOCH 
Vice-Chair., NORMAN EAGER 
Executive, C. H. HUTTON 

(Ex-Officio), ALEX. LOVE 

Sec.-Treas., W. E. BROWN, 

91 Barnsdale Blvd., 
Hamilton, Ont. 

Chairman, S. D. LASH 
Vice-Chair., H. W. HARKNESS 
Executive, R. J. CARTER 


(Ex-Officio). L. F. GRANT 

Sec.-Treas., R. A. LOW, 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
Queen's University, 
Kingston, Ont. 

Chairman, R. B. CHANDLER 
Vice-Chair., S. T. McCAVOUR 
Executive, S. E. FLOOK 


(Ex-Officio), E. M. G. MacGILL J. M. FLEMING 
(Mrs. E. J. Soulsby) 

Sec.-Treas., W. C. BYERS, 

c/o C. D. Howe Co. Ltd., 
Port Arthur, Or.t. 

Chairman, A. L. H. SOMERVILLE 
Executive. J. M. CAMPBELL 
(Ex-Officio), W. MELDRUM 
Sec.-Treas., T. O. NEUMANN 

Dept. of Transport, 

Post Office Building, 
Lethbridge, Alta. 










Engrg. Dept., C.N.R. 
Moncton, N.B. 


(Ex-Officio), deGASPÉ BEAUBIEN 


Sec.-Treas., L. A. DUCHASTEL, 
40 Kelvin Avenue, 
Outremont, Que. 


Chairman, G. E. GRIFFITHS 
Vice-Chair., W. D. BRACKEN 
Executive, A. G. HERR 



(Ex-Officio), C. G. CLINE 

Sec.-Treas., J. H. INGS, 

2135 Culp Street, 

Niagara Falls, Ont. 


Chairman, W. L. SAUNDERS 
Executive, W. H. B. BEVAN 




(Ex-Officio), K. M. CAMERON 


Sec.-Treas., A. A. SWINNERTON, 

Dept. of Mines & Resources, 
Ottawa, Ont. 


Chairman, A. R. JONES 
Executive, R. L. DOBBIN 


(Ex-Officio), D. J. EMERY 

Sec.-Treas., A. J. GIRDWOOD, 

308 Monaghan Road, 
Peterborough, Ont. 


Life Hon.- 










Chairman, A. O. WOLFF 
Vice-Chair., C. D. McALLISTER 
Executive, G. M. BROWN 

(Ex-Officio), J. P. MOONEY 


Sec.-Treas., F. A. PATRIQUEN, 
P. O. Box 1417 

Saint John, N.B. 


Chairman, J. H. FREGEAU 
Vice-Chair., R. DORION 
Executive, G. B. BAXTER 



(Ex-Officio), VIGGO JEPSEN 
Sec.-Treas., DAVID E. ELLIS, 

Shawinigan Water & Power 

P.O. Box 190, 

Three Rivers, Que. 












Colonization Department, 
Room 333-A, Parliament Bldgs., 
Quebec, Que. 






8-C Brittany Row, 
Arvida, Que. 





(Ex-Officio), A. P. LINTON 

Sec. Treas., STEWART YOUNG, 

P.O. Box 101, Regina, Sask. 


Chairman, A. M. WILSON 
Vice-Chair., G. W. McLEOD 
Executive, G. W. HOLDER 


(Ex-Officio), N. C. COW IE 

Sce.-Treas., A. H. MELDRUM, 
P.O. Box 251, 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 


Chairman, W. H. M. LAUGHLIN 
Vice-Chair., S. R. FROST 
Executive, F. J. BLAIR 


(Ex-Officio), H. E. BRANDON 
Sec.-Treas., S. H. deJONG, 

Dept. of Civil Engineering, 
University of Toronto, 

Toronto, Ont. 




Chairman, T. V. BERRY 
Vice-Chair., A. PEEBLES 
Executive, J. P. FRASER 


(Ex-Officio), C. E. WEBB 

Sec.-Treas., P. B. STROYAN, 

2099 Beach Avenue, 

Vancouver, B.C. 


Chairman, H. L. SHERWOOD 
Vice-Chair., A. L. FORD 
Executive, P. B. HUGHES 



(Ex-Officio), A. S. G. MUSGRAVE 

Sec.-Treas., R. BOWERING, 

41 Gorge Road West^ 
Victoria, B.C. 


Chairman, T. H KIRBY 

Vice-Chair., C. P. HALTALIN 

Executive, B. B. HOGARTH N. M. HALL 


(Mx-Officio),yi. P. BRERETON 


Sec.-Treas., T. E. STOREY, 

55 Princess Street, 
Winnipeg, Man. 




C. J. MACKENZIE, m.e.i.c. 
Acting President, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa; Dean of Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. 

A paper presented at the Fifty-Eighth Annual Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Quebec, on February 11th, 1944. 

"The application of research is a certain means of 
increasing employment by the improvement of existing 
and the creation of new industries; conversely, the 
lack of it spells stagnation and ultimate bankruptcy." 
That statement is not the opinion of a cloistered 
research scientist but is one of the considered con- 
clusions reached by a Committee of The Federation 
of British Industries © which, under the chairmanship 
of Sir William Larke, has been studying intensively for 
the past year the future of British industry. It is a 
statement to which all good Canadians should give 
serious thought. 

Later, other conclusions of this Committee will be 
referred to but I propose at the outset to state briefly 
the general ideas and suggestions which I shall endeav- 
our to develop for your consideration. 

First, using the above quotation as a text, I shall 
attempt to show that no country will be able to keep 
in the forefront even qualitatively from the standpoint 
of industrial or military efficiency unless scientific and 
industrial research is supported as a major activity. 
I shall next submit figures to show how relatively small 
was Canada's pre-war expenditure on industrial re- 
search and how little private industry contributed 
even to that small expenditure, and that, apart from 
the contributions of universities and government 
laboratories, Canadian industry, with a few notable 
exceptions, was existing on technological blood trans- 
fusions from Great Britain and the United States. 
I shall conclude by presenting in general terms a plan 
for the developing of industrial research in Canada 
which is both practicable and adequate. 

Wartime Development of Research 

While it is not proposed to discuss research as 
applied to war, I would like to suggest that, in a 
mechanized world, experience in war can be our greatest 
teacher for peace, as the technological factors involved 
are the same. In war, processes are compressed on a 
time basis; the tempo is increased, and one can see the 
overall picture clearly. On one end of the line we have 
invention, on the other, use. The user in war is the 
soldier in action, in peace he is a civilian. Each must be 
supplied with food, shelter, clothing and tools or 
weapons for the performance of his activities. All these 
supplies must be provided by what we call industrial 
processes. Leaving out as irrelevant to our discussion 
the purpose to which the user puts his equipment and 
how he is organized or directed in that regard, whether 
the product is a bomber for dropping block busters on 
Berlin or a transport plane to take pleasure seekers to 
Bermuda, the efficiency and effectiveness from the 
competitive aspect are the same. We have the identical 
technological steps — research, fundamental and ap- 
plied, development engineering, industrial production 
and efficient use. There are of course superficial dif- 
ferences — the "seven years from test tube to tank car" 
or the "six years from scientific research to retail 
sales" may have to be cut by half in time of war, but 
an accordion is still an accordion extended or com- 
pressed, the sounds differ in pitch and volume, but the 
theory is the same; technologically speaking, the factors 

which make for potential success in war and in peace 
are the same. 

Later, figures will be presented which show that, in 
the present conflict, the effectiveness of the warring 
nations is closely related to their former peace-time 
activities in scientific and industrial research. It is not 
therefore an unwarranted conclusion to draw that, in 
the peace to come, the relative success and effectiveness 
of the industrial countries will be co-related significantly 
with their activities in research, and if Canada is to 
play an important role as a well integrated industrial 
nation her scientific structure must be materially 

While it is probably true that the importance of 
industrial research and development in the national 
economy now receives almost universal assent in all 
enlightened countries, it is also true that many indus- 
tries do not see in research anything of importance 
or value to them as individual units in the national 
economy. In discussing this aspect the Larke Com- 
mittee, while admitting that in England different 
industries have different needs, states, "it is neverthe- 
less our considered view that no industry can maintain 
progress without research. . . . Lip service to research 
is often paid by firms or industries which believe that 
they have no problem requiring scientific investigation. 
This attitude is not necessarily one of apathy but 
rather of lack of experience in the application of 
science to their production processes." 

Practical Value of Scientific Research 

The awareness and appreciation of the practical 
value of science is nowhere more evident than where 
competition has really become a matter of life and 
death. For instance in England, when the need became 
imperious, the armed forces, which had not previously 
been overly aware of the help which might be available 
from scientific investigations, quickly lost any apathy 
in that regard and to-day there is no place where 
scientific advice and research are more respected and 
used. Air Chief Marshal Sir Philip Joubert, Commander- 
in-Chief, Coastal Command, in an address in January, 
1943 © talking of the Battle of Britain said, "It was 
the harmonious co-operation of science and the military 
art which achieved this outstanding success. While 
there is no doubt that the Fighter Command . . . was 
a highly trained and very efficient body, it could not 
have achieved success without the aid of scientists. 
Radiolocation was the reinforcement which they 
brought to the out-numbered squadrons of the R.A.F." 
In a modern war, the strains of competition are felt 
fully as much in the industrial as in the military 
field, and in dealing with the intricacies and ramifi- 
cations of the supply problem, England, in her days 
of peril, was quick to enlist the aid of the scientist; 
Sir Stafford Cripps, Minister of Aircraft Production, in 
a recent speech © pointed out that to-day in Britain 
there are five members of the War Cabinet and several 
other Ministers as well who are concerned with and 
have responsibilities for scientific matters and that all 
of these have eminent scientists on their personal 
staffs whose duty it is to keep their respective Ministers 
well advised on all scientific and technical matters 



affecting their departments. In Germany, in Russia, 
and in the United States, scientists are also being used 
on the highest levels, not merely as doctors to be called 
in when trouble has developed, but as advisers and 
experts whose advice is taken in the pre-policy stages. 
While we can find little to admire in Germany, no one 
with any knowledge would suggest that the great 
German dye trust, the I. G. Farbenindustrie was 
inefficient from the standpoint of technical resourceful- 
ness, political and business ability, and it is interesting 
to note that its Board of Directors is composed largely 
of Ph. D's in chemistry, physics, engineering and 
economics, who have come up through the research 
departments to positions of power and responsibility. 
In an industrial age which is growing more scientific 
every day, it is questionable if a country can attain 
and maintain a commanding place unless science is 
taken in as a full partner not only to be responsible 
for carrying out research programmes but to advise 
where and how science can help and to recommend 
suitable programmes in the planning stages. 

Neglect Hinders Industrial Success 

In Canada there probably are many who pay lip 
service to research but feel that, on the whole, indus- 
tries have done fairly well in this country even though 
they have not undertaken research on their own and 
that there is less need in Canada for such work as we 
can easily get our scientific ideas and leadership from 
the United States and Great Britain. This view is a 
dangerous delusion, for the neglect of initiative and 
research in business is like malnutrition in youth, 
frequently detected only when it is too late to repair 
the damage. Industrial success must be measured in 
long periods of time and the long term picture cannot 
be properly appraised if too short a view is taken. 

It is of course true that many companies have done 
well for a time without research and the stimulation of 
new ideas, but a glance back over the past will show ;i 
still larger number of industries which have passed 
quietly away amidst the futile protesting of their 
proprietors against the march of progress which they 
mistook for hard times. Mr. H. S. Richardson © has 
recently presented some striking figures to show that 
the natural trend of industrial enterprises is down, not 
up, that a strong present position is no guarantee of 
future security but that only by the application of new 
ideas, the development of new and better products 
can this downward trend be prevented. He points out 
that, in 1901, there were listed on the New York 
Stock Exchange 170 dividend-paying stocks and that 
35 years later only 41.1 per cent of these stocks were 
paying any dividend at all. In another study a table 
shows that of the 20 most popular dividend-paying 
stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange for 
each of the years 1901, 1910, 1917 and 1926, as of 
December 31, 1936, only 5 of the 59 had maintained 
the annual rate of dividend each year and only 31 were 
paying any dividends at all. There are many localities 
in Canada where once a thriving wooden shipbuilding- 
industry maintained prosperous communities; there was 
no need for research, they knew their business — they 
were reasonably prosperous and satisfied, but where the 
consequences of new developments in steel went 
unappreciated there now exist ghost towns or the 
genteel remains of former virile communities. 

On the other hand, if in the early twenties the farmers 
of western Canada had not called in science to take up 
the long struggle to find a counter measure to the 
deadly rust disease which was just discernible in the 
south-east corner of Manitoba, and which many said 

would never spread northwards, little wheat would be 
grown in the Prairie Provinces to-day. 

The history of technological development in America 
over the past one hundred and seventy years gives not 
only an interesting picture of the past but a good 
indication of what industry must face in the future. 
The War of Independence was fought nominally for 
political independence, but after armed hostilities 
ceased a greater struggle took place in the fight for 
industrial independence. In the seventeen seventies 
there was little applied science, the problem was 
essentially one of learning how to manufacture existing 
things in factories. The industrial revolution reached 
England first; America was still an agricultural colony 
when war broke out and when the importation of 
manufactured products was cut off a serious situation 
was created, but a more serious situation arose after 
the war when her industrial independence was threat- 
ened by a flood of manufactured goods from abroad. 
To meet this situation, societies to improve the me- 
chanic arts were founded and there followed a period of 
prolific mechanical invention, but it was an age of 
artisans not scientists. During the Civil War, the 
United States were again cut off partially at least from 
outside contacts and, as is always the case in time of 
war, weaknesses in the national economy became 
apparent to all. It was suddenly realized that the great 
strides which had been taken in Europe in technical 
education and the application of science had been 
overlooked in America. The answer was the Morrill Act 
with the result that, in ten years, sixty-six engineering 
colleges were brought into being and from 1870-1914 
there occurred a great period of construction, engineer- 
ing, and industrial activity where daring and enterprise 
were at a premium but scientific refinements were not 
valued highly as resources were apparently unlimited; 
energy, initiative, and salesmanship paid higher divi- 
dends than refined scientific procedures. 

Chemists and Physicists in Modern War 

The First World War brought severe industrial 
shocks to America. It became known as a "Chemists' 
War" because research chemists had to be called in by 
a frantic country which had just realized that Germany 
had developed a new industry based on fundamental 
research in chemistry, the details of which neither 
Britain nor America knew much about and the products 
of which were vitally necessary to war. Again there was 
shown the characteristic energy of the great republic 
once it appreciates a situation. An intense interest 
developed in applied scientific research of a more 
fundamental nature, many large research laboratories 
grew up and American industry became more scientific. 
The result has been that while chemical industry is 
playing as great or even a greater part in the second 
world war, a well equipped chemical industry with 
adequate scientific staff and facilities has been able to 
meet the situation without abnormal difficulties and 
the public now hears little of chemical problems of war. 

To-day, on the other hand, we hear much of this 
"Physicists' War"; everyone knows that physicists 
have shown great resource and ingenuity in developing 
and using weapons of war but there is a deeper signi- 
ficance for it means that, as has been the case in all 
past wars, we are now acknowledging a fundamental 
weakness in our former system; we have been unaware 
of the extent to which fundamental research in physics 
and mathematics can assist industry and of the many 
different fields where applications can prove valuable. 

From our experience then we know that there has 
always been a lag between scientific discovery and 



industrial application. We also know that contacts 
between scientists, engineers and industrialists have not 
been intimate in the past. Wars however have always 
proved to be accelerators and, after every conflict, 
industry has become more scientific and science has 
been brought into closer contact with practical affairs. 
To me it seems to require little vision to realize what 
lies before industry in the post-war period; the easy 
expansive days of the past are gone forever, competition 
will become keener and keener and special training and 
ability will become relatively more and more important. 
The many scientists who have been responsible for the 
development of equipment and tactics which have 
played such a vital part in this war for survival will 
not all go back to their laboratories. Either they or 
their scientific offspring will enter permanently the 
industrial life of their different countries, and to 
paraphrase my opening quotation, the nation which 
does not build its industrial life on science and research 
will slowly but inevitably tread the path to "stagnation 
and ultimate bankruptcy." 

Pre- War Expenditure on Research 

I propose next to present a few figures to indicate the 
scale of support which was given to research by different 
countries in pre-war days, but I would like to stress 
the fact that it is impossible to obtain anything more 
than approximate figures as there are few official 
statistics available, and further, the word research is 
often used loosely to cover routine testing, plant control 
and similar activities. Notwithstanding this, it is 
believed that the following figures, taken as they were 
from reliable sources, represent at least the proper 
order of magnitude of the expenditures on what can 
properly be called scientific and industrial research in 
the countries listed. 

that France and Italy were expending relatively little 
even in comparison with Britain, and that Canada on 
any proportional basis either of population or of 
national income was spending not more than one-eighth 
to one-tenth of what Russia and the United States 
were allotting to research and probably not more than 
one-third of Great Britain's expenditure; although 
Canada's population is one-tenth that of the United 
States, its research expenditures were only one- 
hundredth; Great Britain's total expenditure was over 
ten times Canada's although its population is only 
four fold. 

From an examination of the above facts and from 
an appraisal of the strengths and effectiveness of the 
various countries in this conflict, it seems to the writer 
at least that the relative strength of a country, either 
in peace or in war, is significantly co-related to the 
quality of its scientific and industrial research and the 
quantitative support given to it. 

While Canadian industry has an excellent record in 
war production and has shown skill and competence 
of a high order in manufacture, I think few would 
deny that if Canada had been cut off from the complete 
exchange of scientific and technical knowledge Avhich 
was available from Great Britain and the United 
States, our contributions to this war would have been 
much as they were in the last one — superb front line 
fighting soldiers and the supply of simpler munitions 
such as shells and explosives, and our effectiveness as a 
self-contained, independent fighting nation would have 
co-related fairly well with our peacetime expenditure on 

While the scientific developments of our allies even 
in the initial stages have been available to us in war, 
who can be sure that in the highly competitive days of 
peace such an arrangement will be possible. It should 

Table of Estimated Expenditures on Research 

( 'ountrv 


Annual Exp. on 

Research in 


Exp. Per Capita 

Exp. as Per cent of 
National Income 

Russia ® & ©> 

U.S. © 

G. Britain 0. 
Canada © . . . . 


.1300 - 
$ 30 

$2.4 - 



$1.80 -$3.00 



$0.22 - $0.29 

0.8% -1%® 
0.5% -0.6% 
0.06% - 0.08% 

Even approximate figures for Germany, Japan, France 
and Italy are difficult to get for the corresponding- 
periods but it is safe to assume the expenditures in 
Germany approximated those of the United States and 
that she was still leading in organized research. Of 
Japan, Bernai says: "Industrial and Government 
laboratories and institutes in Japan are probably 
larger, better financed and organized in relation to the 
wealth of the community than in any other part of the 
world." Up until 1934 at least the expenditure on 
research in France was small, probably less than one- 
half of Britain's. In Italy under fascism science has 
remained on a level relatively much lower than that of 
Britain. While it must be recognized that the above 
figures cannot be used for drawing close comparisons, 
and while it should also be remembered that the 
ultimate value of research will be measured in terms 
of effectiveness and efficiency as well as total expendi- 
ture, nevertheless it is a sound deduction that Russia, 
Germany, the United States and Japan were all devoting 
relatively large amounts of their pre-war income to 
research, that Great Britain was far behind quantita- 
tively, although it is known the quality was very high, 

not be necessary to remind a technical audience of the 
difficulties of entering a highly scientific industrial 
field in competition with rivals who have years of 
research and development experience behind them; 
Germany by her initial headstart in the field of synthetic 
chemical industry based on fundamental scientific 
research almost defeated Great Britain and the United 
States in 1914-18 because they had never been able to 
recover the ground lost by early neglect of a scientific 
discovery made, as is so ironically the case, in England 
by an Englishman. 

Turning again to the figures quoted a breakdown of 
the expenditure brings out another fact interesting to 
Canadians. In Russia, of course, all research establish- 
ments are government supported and controlled. In 
Japan, of the sixty-nine research institutes which were 
in operation in 1926, twenty-four were supported by 
private industry. In Great Britain, in 1934, industry 
was responsible for about 33 per cent of the total 
expenditures, while in Canada only from 5 to 7 per 
cent of the relatively meagre total expenditure on 
research was made by private industry. I suggest that 
from all these figures, approximate as they admittedly 



are, it is impossible to escape the conclusions that 
Canada as a whole must increase greatly her support of 
scientific research if she wishes to maintain her position 
in the future as a strong independent industrial country, 
and further that Canadian industry if it wishes to 
maintain the system of free, private enterprise which 
it advocates must not neglect its opportunity to engage 
in research where individual initiative and enterprise 
find their greatest rewards. 

Suggested Post- War Policy for Canada 

A word now as to the scale of research expenditures 
which might be regarded as reasonable in the post-war 
period. I will quote once more from the Committee 
report of the Federation of British Industry ®. 

"We are of the opinion that if one per cent of the 
total value of our industrial production were expended 
on research and development involving the provision 
of personnel and facilities, the resulting increased 
efficiency and employment capacity would yield an 
annual return of many times such expenditure." 
Another responsible British body, the Parliamentary 
and Scientific Committee of the Houses of Parliament, 
in a report just printed 0, in discussing the future of 
research in Britain says, "We should certainly look 
forward to spending at least ten times as much annually 
after the war if we are to provide the basis without 
which neither our agriculture nor industry can effec- 
tively meet the needs of the future." 

Translated into Canadian terms this would mean 
the annual expenditure of perhaps $50,000,000 to 
$65,000,000 per year or from fifteen to twenty times 
our pre-war rate. Naturally, these figures now appear 
large but how would our national budget of 1943-44 
have appeared to the Finance minister of 1938, to say 
nothing of his predecessor of 1914 ? No one with a 
knowledge of the facts would suggest that the above 
scale of expenditures should or could be made within 
the immediate future in Canada as, even if the money 
were readily available, we could not find sufficient 
scientifically trained personnel in Canada to undertake 
the necessary work. At the present moment, speaking 
generally, it can be said that practically all available 
research personnel are now so engaged and the annual 
expenditure on research in Canada is certainly not 
greater than $10,000,000 or about one-fifth to one-sixth 
of the above mentioned totals. 

I do suggest however, as a practical and feasible 
proposal, that Canada should maintain in the imme- 
diate post-war years her present overall scale of ex- 
penditure on research and look forward to increasing 
this year by year to the above figures as trained per- 
sonnel become available. Nothing less should be con- 
sidered. To those who suggest we cannot afford to 
make such expenditures, my answer is that on the 
contrary we cannot afford not to do so. As an example 
of the value of research, the British Parliamentary and 
Scientific Committee © shows that from the £440,000 
spent by the Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research in direct support of industrial research 
projects in the pre-war years an estimated annual 
saving direct and indirect to industry of £3,250,000 
was obtained or a return of eight hundred per cent per 
annum on the capital spent and Canada cannot afford 
to overlook investments of that order. 

A Comprehensive Plan Needed 

Finally I wish to outline in general terms how I think 
industrial research in Canada should be developed, 
what immediate steps should be taken and the type of 
broad chart which should be followed. 

As a basic axiom it must be recognized that applied 
research is founded on fundamental or pure research. 
The national research structure must be strongly 
linked vertically from the originating of new ideas to 
the practical application through industry for the 
benefit of humanity at large. Pure research is the 
capital, and application, the return. No country or 
person can progress or live long on its capital alone or, 
even worse, on borrowed capital. The first step, there- 
fore, is to see to it that scientific research in our univer- 
sities is strengthened and extended, as it is from our 
universities that was derived what scientific strength 
Canada has; and the future of industrial research in 
Canada, and indeed industry itself, will depend 
ultimately on the output of our universities in scientific 
research and personnel. 

A second axiom is that the national research structure 
in Canada must be built from the co-related contri- 
butions of universities, governments, and private 
industry, linked together informally, it is true, but 
nevertheless firmly and effectively by vertical ties of 
goodwill, understanding and mutual benefit. The next 
step, therefore, which I suggest can be taken almost 
immediately is to make sure that the substantial corps 
of scientific and technical workers, brought together 
by government agencies for important war research, 
is not disbanded at the end of hostilities, but retained 
by the Dominion Government who should also enlarge 
the present facilities and construct other needed 
laboratories so that the second unit of our national 
structure will be strong and adequate in the immediate 
post-war period. 

The government laboratories should be applied in 
outlook but operated on a high scientific plane, and 
problems should be attacked from a broad fundamental 
point of view. In this group should be found labor- 
atories specializing in all the sciences such as chemistry, 
physics, biology, aeronautics, metallurgy, forestry, 
agricultural sciences, fisheries, and the many fields of 
engineering; such laboratories as we have at present at 
the National Research Council and the Departments of 
Agriculture, Mines and Resources, and Fisheries. All 
such units should be tied closely together horizontally 
as nearly every major research project involves the 
close co-operation of several sciences and the day has 
passed when progress can be made by the isolated 
efforts of detached sciences or laboratories. In addition, 
there is need for special institutes or groups dealing 
with special activities such as building research, road 
research, cold weather problems, industrial utilization 
of agricultural crops, and a host of others. 

The third unit in the research structure should 
consist of the numerous laboratories, small and large, 
which are needed to deal with the immediate problems 
of individual industries. The need for this block in 
Canada is very great and apart from several outstand- 
ing exceptions there is, as has already been indicated, an 
appalling lack of real research work supported directly 
either by individual companies or associations of allied 

Building up this part of the structure will take time 
and I do not suggest that every industry or even a 
majority should immediately lay down plans for large 
research establishments. I do suggest however that 
"every industry should take stock of its position to 
ensure that it is devoting to research and development 
the maximum effort and funds commensurate with the 
nature of its problems" ®, and I also seriously suggest 
that at least every major industry should have com- 
petent scientists in its employ who would carry no 
{Continued on page 149) 




WILLIAM L. BATT, hon.m.e.i.c. 

Vice-chairman of the War Production Board and United States member on the Combined Raw Materials Board and Combined Production 

and Resources Board, Washington, D.C.; President, SKF Industries Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. 

A luncheon address delivered at the Fifty-Eighth Annual General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of 

Canada, at Quebec, on February 11th, 1944. 

In a letter which I received only a few days ago from 
a young American soldier serving in the United States 
Army abroad, there was this paragraph which so 
impressed me as to suggest a subject for my talk to you 
to-day. I shall give it to you just as it was in his letter: 

"One has such hopes that after the war one can 
settle down to a brave new world, replete with oppor- 
tunities for useful work in an atmosphere of unity 
and reconstruction. But this bitterness and strife 
back home is not a harbinger of an era of good 
feeling, such as I'd hoped we might come to as a 
heritage from the internal unity engendered by the 
war abroad." 

A brave new world, replete with opportunities for 
useful work, coming as a heritage from unity brought 
about by the war, what a challenge that is from the 
young men of the generation whose lives must now be 
risked to repair a world which we older ones have had 
in our care; young men who are fighting for their lives 
in the hope that the world in which they will live 
shall be a better world, and troubled because we seem 
to have failed somehow in finding a formula for the 
same unity in peacetime life which is so conspicuously 
marking our joint operations in producing wartime 


As I, an American, have the honor of addressing a 
distinguished Canadian audience, the thought of unity 
between the two countries particularly impresses itself 
on my mind. And speaking as an American, with a little 
experience in international wartime affairs, I can 
assess the unity between us with some authority and 
with a good deal of satisfaction. 

Our national engineering organizations have found 
themselves so much at home with their Canadian 
members and in Canada that there has never been a 
feeling of a separateness on either side. Meetings have 
been held interchangeably on each side of the 'border ; 
papers and written records have flowed as freely as 
they have flowed between the members in the different 
States of our Union. Your gracious act in conferring 
honorary membership on me, was, I am well aware, 
not alone a personal thing, but more truly a recognition 
of the group with which I have long been associated, 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. I feel 
sure that this was your way of saying that there was a 
fellowship and intimacy between these national groups 
of engineers which made you feel toward us as if we 
were your own. I have gratefully accepted the high 
honor which you have conferred on me with that 
broader understanding, and at the same time, with a 
tremendous personal pride. 

There has been real unity between your country and 
mine in the conduct of the war. The savage onslaught 
against which we so vigorously defended ourselves 
bound us much more firmly together than ever before. 
First to the defense and, now, on the aggressive, both 
of us are giving sons and husbands and brothers and 
daughters to a common cause to march side by side 
against a common enemy. Both of us have geared our 
industrial machines to total war. Both of us have 

been forced to scramble desperately for the critical 
raw materials of war. How well we have succeeded in 
our joint effort is just now thoroughly clear to the 
world! It is taking effective and dramatic form with 
planes and shells and bombs and tanks in large supply, 
at the right place, at the right time. 

It is beginning to become clear to the world that the 
United Nations have — and may I use a hockey term 
particularly familiar to you here in Canada — that we 
have stopped back-checking, that we are over the blue 
line with the puck firmly in our grasp, it is being passed 
back and forth between wing and center as we head 
toward the Axis net and the winning score. 


It hasn't been easy. It never is easy to change over- 
night a democracy used to doing things on the basis of 
individual enterprise into an industrial machine geared 
for total war, but it has been pretty well done. Our job 
on the home front isn't finished by a good deal, let me 
emphasize that. Desperate battles lie ahead of us. 
Sad and cruel losses are likely yet to face us. Heavy 
demands for munitions of all kinds will come and many 
of them unexpectedly. This is no time for the American 
or Canadian people to let down in their efforts or to 
permit their satisfaction with the job they have done, 
to blind them to the size of the job yet to be done. 
We on the home front should not dare to go to sleep 
in the midst of battle any more than a soldier in uniform 
in the front line. The man in uniform has been turned 
from a civilian into a soldier with a respect not only 
for his own life, but for that of his teammates; Canada 
and the United States have found that same respect, 
and fight together and for each other. 

I mentioned a moment ago the close co-operation 
which had welded Canada and the United States into 
one strong fighting instrument. The story has been 
frequently told, but let me touch on some phases of it 


You all know well the foundation stone of our joint 
endeavors in this war; the meeting at Ogdensburg in 
August, 1940, between your prime minister and our 
president which led to the establishment of the per- 
manent Joint Board on Defense. But let me draw your 
attention especially to that Sunday a few months 
later, on April 20, 1941, when they sat down together 
at Hyde Park. The war clouds were darkening over 
our country and it was clear that we needed more 
intimate machinery for co-operation with you, our 
neighbor already in the war, if our defenses were to be 
organized to the best advantage. Out of those conver- 
sations came a formal statement of agreement in general 
terms, under which the productive facilities of the 
United States and Canada would be used for both local 
hemisphere defense and for assisting the democracies 
at war. It is known now as the Hyde Park Declaration. 
Here is the meat of that Declaration : 

"It was agreed that as a general principle in 
mobilizing the resources of this Continent, each 
country should provide the other with defense 



articles which it is best able to produce and above all, 
to produce quickly . . . and the production pro- 
grams should be co-ordinated to that end." 

Certainly this was a comprehensive statement'. It 
covered the ground in broad terms, yet was precise 
enough in meaning. But it was only a statement. 
That declaration had to be followed up in action, and 
it was. 

One of the first organized bodies to be created was 
the Joint Economic Committee through which our 
common economic problems were immediately sub- 
jected to review. 

Sometime before that, the Joint Materials Co- 
ordinating Committee, with two Canadian and two 
United States representatives, had been set up to 
provide a table around which the men in charge of the 
materials of the two Nations could meet and discuss 
and solve their common problems. I believe you 
Canadians will agree that this has been a most gratifying 
operation. History may well make out of it a fascin- 
ating story of how two nations working toward a 
common goal can accomplish great things. 

A little later the Joint War Production Committee 
was created with the task of surveying and co-ordin- 
ating our joint munitions capacity, figuring out ways 
to specialize the war economies of the two countries 
in such a way that each country could concentrate on 
the things it could make best for the common good. 

One of the first significant accomplishments of this 
group was the elimination of tariff barriers to permit 
the free flow of munitions and materials of war back 
and forth across the border. Still later on, you joined 
the Combined Production and Resources Board so that 
the production efforts of the three countries, Great 
Britain, Canada, and the United States, might be 
effectively harnessed together. That, too, has been a 
significant operation in developing international unity. 


There have been numerous other steps which we 
have taken in concert which I shall not take the time 
to talk about. I mention these more conspicuous part- 
nership experiences in the feeling that they are what 
you are more particular^ interested in and because 
they are typical of the steadily growing intimacy 
between the Canadian and the American people. Here, 
as nowhere else, perhaps, the world is seeing the good 
neighbor policy function in as nearly an ideal form as it 
is practicable to expect anywhere. It is, in some part, 
an answer to the demand of the young soldier with 
which I prefaced this address, for it is a useful demon- 
stration for the whole world. Between us, every form 
of international problem is involved. There are long 
boundary lines — longer I think than those between 
any other two countries in the world, except perhaps 
between China and Russia — boundary lines full of 
provoking possibilities. There is competitive industry 
and competitive agriculture. There are constantly 
present all those factors which could readily create an 
atmosphere of friction and disagreement and distrust. 

It is to the everlasting credit of your people and 
ours that both have so positively indicated to the world 
their determination to be friendly neighbors. Not alone 
by formal treaties or by declarations of high-sounding 
phrase has this been brought about, but rather is it 
the obvious outcome of a steadily growing recognition 
by both of us that the things we have in common are 
so infinitely more important than the few and insigni- 
ficant things about which we might occasionally differ. 
There has been a great satisfaction to both of us, I 
think, in the fact that we have been able to live separate 

and independent lives alongside each other, and yet to 
associate intimately when we chose. Like neighbors 
who drop in on each other without knocking — lend an 
egg, or a cup of sugar, or the family lawn mower — who 
come over when illness and death are present and do 
those friendly things which need to be done with no 
other thought than to help. These homely measures of 
the good neighbor, you and I know. They never exist 
through law or statute; they grow only in the soil of 
friendly understanding. 

You may properly begin to wonder when I shall make 
some reference to the text of my talk to you today — 
"Management's Need of Broader Vision." This partic- 
ular title, as you may have surmised, was prompted 
again by that letter with which I opened my remarks — 
"One has such hopes that after the war one can settle 
down to a brave new world replete with opportunities 
for useful work in an atmosphere of unity and recon- 
struction." I have tried to lay the foundation for 
approach to this challenging responsibility by devel- 
oping a bird's eye picture of the unity which already 
exists between those of us occupying a good part of the 
territory of North America. And I ventured to imply 
that the atmosphere of confidence and joint approach 
which so surely exists here is one which we would hope 
might steadily grow over the rest of the world. 

The statesmanship of post-war management is likely 
to be challenged as never before. The problems which 
were encountered as we moved into war were difficult 
to be sure, but their solution was easier because all of 
us were bound together by great emotions, by fear, by 
patriotism, and by intelligence. The problems to be met 
when the war has been won, are so infinitely more 
difficult because at least the emotion of fear, which 
ties people together with bonds of unselfish sacrifice 
is not there. That more dangerous enemy, selfishness, 
again begins to rear its ugly head. Narrow group 
interest, labor conflicts, fear of government, fear of 
business, all of these unhappy and defeatist emotions, 
threaten to swing into action, and undo the very victory 
for which such a heavy price will have been paid. 


Much is being written day by day as to the relations 
between labor and management. Whatever disappoint- 
ment may be felt when disagreement between them' 
delays needed production, there can be no denying the 
fact that they have come much closer together in the 
last ten years than in any similar period. I am now 
speaking, of course, of the conditions on this continent. 
There are many who have been disappointed that this 
movement hasn't proceeded at a faster pace; I am one 
of those. But perhaps it is just as well not to be too 
impatient. Sound labor leadership can only grow about 
so fast, and without sound leadership there cannot be 
any wide-spread acceptance by management of the 
principle of unionization. Perhaps the greater fault lies 
with management, in that it has not given fully of 
itself to lighten the growing pains of labor. Advice- 
given years ago — such as a wise father might give to a 
wilful, but intelligent, son — might have made for a 
far better and understanding relationship between 
management and labor. 

Looking at the problem broadly, I should think that 
management must assume a good deal of responsibility 
for the quality of union leadership. Good management, 
while not guaranteeing good leadership, will certainly 
tend to insure a better quality. Poor management or 
antagonistic management is almost sure to result in 
poor union leadership. Put another way, statesmanship 
in management has some reasonable assurance of 



producing statesmanship in the field of labor. I look to 
this friendlier understanding for valuable by-products 
of national safety. When leaders from these two great 
groups of the economy know each other better, call 
each other by their first names, even if they don't 
agree on specific matters, as frequently they won't, 
there is nevertheless provided a certain safety-valve of 
great significance to the social security of the country. 

Sooner or later, labor leaders and management 
leaders must come to recognize that their interests are 
common. Labor learns that the bosses are human beings 
and not so bad after all; with a more informed point of 
view, they can see that their demands have to lie inside 
a safe limit if they are not to kill the goose that lays 
the golden egg. 

Management, too, when it approaches the conference 
table with an open mind, finds that there are some fine 
labor leaders and is frequently surprised at their 
reasonableness when they have all the facts. This sort 
of approach, while bound to be disappointing at times 
to both sides, is the only approach that will pay 

One of the great problems of the post-war period is 
to find some formula for enabling those who want to 
work as continuously and profitably in producing things 
for peace as they did in producing things for war. 
An opportunity to work, an opportunity to earn more 
in return for effort and initiative, some reasonable 
security — these are the things which labor wants. It is 
important to note that they are likewise the things 
which capital wants. How to find them for both is the 
challenge which is put before management, and labor 
and government. No one of these can solve it alone. 

One day very recently I rode all day through my 
home State of Pennsylvania from East to West. It was 
a familiar picture, one of great inspiration. Here is a 
record of a century and a half of aggressive enterprise; 
enterprise which has steadily produced better and 
cheaper goods in ever larger volume. It was this sort 
of enterprise which built the United States. It pro- 
duced good returns for capital; it made jobs in great 
number, and it contributed substantially to the steady 
enlargement of the standard of living of our people. 
As . one looks at some of our industrial centers one 
cannot but feel that in some way or other, this period 
should have produced a better standard of living for 
many of our people. The living conditions around 
many of our large industrial centers leave too much to 
be desired, the things that in peacetime men may be 
justified, and I emphasize in peacetime, may be justified 
in striking for. 


But just as I am convinced that the challenge of the 
future for maximum employment can't be met without 
freedom for labor, so I am convinced that there must 
be encouragement for capital. It will almost surely 
.be an impossibility to put to peaceful work and to 
keep at work these millions now engaged in the con- 
duct of the war without a much more favorable atmos- 
phere for business. In an atmosphere of restriction, 
scarcity and disagreement, capital cannot be expected 
to take risks; but nevertheless, if the future of America 
is again to be one of expansion, as I think it must, 
capital must be encouraged to take risks and, what is 
fundamental, be compensated accordingly for its suc- 
cess. It is vital that once again we see new enter- 
prise springing up to make new things, to buy ma- 
terials, to spend money, and thus provide new labor 

One of the obstacles that has harassed us in the last 
few years, on our side of the line, is the too frequent 
and mutual suspicion between some business leadership 
and- some government. Neither has had adequate 
confidence in the other and the result has been an 
atmosphere of criticism and distrust. Many of our 
influential business heads are honestly convinced that 
the country can't be prosperous, and men and capital 
profitably employed, unless government retires to the 
side-lines. On the other side, too many people in impor- 
tant places in government have been unfairly suspicious 
of the motives and practices of business management. 
To attempt to discuss these controversial questions, so 
full of emotional difference, would take more time than 
I have to-day; I must merely observe the vital neces- 
sity for reasonable agreement between these influential 
forces, business and government. No more can they be 
fighting each other like Kilkenny cats, than can business 
and labor or labor and agriculture. 



Out of a more general national unity, where the 
interest of all the people as well as those of the few, may 
be fairly considered, should come a larger acceptance 
of the need for encouraging the maximum of trade 
abroad as well as at home. It has long been my con- 
viction that the United States could not do its part in 
guaranteeing the peace of the world merely by paying 
its share of the cost of maintaining an Army and a 
Navy — however strong that military force might be. 
A surer contribution to long-range peace is to be found 
through sound international economic relationships. 
We, and of course I am now speaking for the United 
States, must seek every possibility of enlarging our 
foreign import trade rather than merely strengthening 
our gold reserve; we must buy more and more goods as 
well as sell more and more goods. 

The last, of course, is easy. We can take it for granted 
that a substantial part of Europe's factories, her 
machine tools, her power plants, her transportation 
equipment, and so on at much length, will have to be 
replaced because they have been destroyed. All of those 
things we shall be able to manufacture, and indeed of 
many of them, we shall have a considerable surplus. So 
there is no question as to finding customers abroad who 
will want to buy large amounts of our domestic pro- 

But for the United States, any program which seems 
to lay emphasis on increasing imports, is certain to be 
viewed with suspicion by many of our citizens. And 
yet the basis for sound world commerce must rest on 
the broad principle of goods for goods and this is a 
lesson which too many of my fellow-citizens have yet to 

However, unless the United States, and Canada to 
the extent to which it applies, shall increasingly con- 
tribute to better world citizenship through steadily 
enlarging and easier trade relationships, I find great 
difficulty in seeing a long, continuing world peace. 
This is not free trade, but it is intelligent trade. 

The sort of unity of thought and action that has 
characterized the relations between your country and 
mine, will, I have hope, enable our people regularly to 
find answers to any annoying and vexatious differences 
which may arise, before they become troublesome 
issues between our governments. 

This is the kind of relationship one might hope may 
more and more frequently appeal to the whole world as 
desirable and practicable. 

(Continued on page 145) 





I. F. MORRISON, m.e.i.c. 
Professor of Applied Mechanics, University of Alberta, Edmonton. 


From time to time one comes across new forms for 
the three-moment equation. In what follows, the three- 
moment equation is derived by a simple process using 
moment surfaces and is finally put into a form in which 
the fixed-end moments of each span appear. This form 
is more simple than that usually given and, therefore, 
may be more easily remembered and easily applied. 
Therein, if anywhere, lies its value. 


The equation for the displacement at any point in a 
framed structure derived from the fundamental prin- 
ciple of virtual work may be written in the following 
form : 

v f fNNds fMMds , fVVds] 
ô '" -L{J -ËT + J ~ËT + J GlK 

M= j M a +jM b 

The M-surface is shown in Fig. 1 (b). By substituting 
for M , the integral becomes broken up into two parts, 


MMdx = ^j / Mx'dx' 

Mj, ft 


in which EI has been assumed constant over the range 
of integration. 

The integrals are now seen to be the statical moments 
of the M-surface about the lines bb' and aa' respective- 
ly. If one puts 


J EI 'JGAKj b 

, ^ f /*- f—At j 1 / Mx'dx' = S„ and / Mxdx = S a 

+ <L{J Ntds +J Mf dsj J b Ja . 


Of the terms in the above equation, the first three have 
to do with the thrust, moment and shear respectively, 
on the various members of the frame. The remaining 
two are concerned with the changes in temperature. In 
what follows, the temperature of the structure will be 
assumed to remain constant, and thus the last two 
terms will disappear. In addition, experience shows that 
the first and third terms are usually numerically small 
as compared with the second and, therefore, as an 
approximation, they are often neglected in analyses of 
this sort. There is left, then, only one term and the 
equation becomes reduced to 




in which the summation sign indicates that all of the 
members must be considered. The bending moments 
along the axes of the members are indicated by M and 

The M is due to a unit load, or to a unit couple, 
applied at the point at which the displacement, 5 m , 
is to be found. If a unit load be applied at the point m, 
the displacement will be linear; if a unit couple, it will 
be angular, i.e., a change of position and a change of 
angle, respectively. The M is produced by the actual 
loads arranged in any manner along the members. 

If the members be straight, as we shall assume, then 
ds may be replaced by dx and the integration may be 
carried out starting from any point but passing over 
the whole length of each member for each term of the 

If the bending moment curves be plotted for each 
member, the resulting surfaces are called M-surfaces 
or areas — sometimes moment-areas. The M-surfaces 
are usually trapezoids, with the rectangle and triangle 
as special cases. The M-surfaces are usually irregular 
polygons or are bounded by curves such as parabolic 
arcs. _ 

Figure 1 (a) shows the M-surface for a portion of a 
member between two points a and b. At any point, x 
distance from a, the bending moment M will be 

Elô m = ^ S b + ^S a (1) 

If the area of the M-surface be A and the distances 
to the centre of gravity from a and b, x and x' re- 
spectively then 


M a , M b 
T Xo+ T 

This is the well-known moment-area theorem. 



M a 





Fig. la 


X 1 


cq. o 


X ,1 





Fig. lb 


Figure 2 (a) shows two contiguous spans of a con- 
tinuous girder having constant values of EI in each 
span. At each support there is a negative bending 








in»i n o « i 

- t 

e n „ 

Fig. 2a 


Fig. 2c 

moment M„. ; , M„, Jlf„ +7 , a reaction, positive up- 
wards, /?„./, R„, R n+1 , and a deflection 6„_ 7 , ô„, 
ô„+i, assumed positive downward. The loads," not 
shown in the sketch, are assumed all vertically down- 

Figures '2 (b) and 2 (c) show the M-surface and the 
M-surface respectively. The M-surface is due to a unit 
couple of — 1 ft. lb. applied at sections n to each span 
considered as simply supported. The M-surface is shown 
in two parts; that produced by the negative bending 
moments M„.j, M„, M„ +1 and that produced by the 
actual loading acting on each span as simply supported. 

The work equation is 

■■(i + 6) +s c + £f 


in which the last term represents the work done by the 
unit couple due to the change of angle produced at the 
ends of the two simple spans at section n by the actual 
loading. In order to evaluate the integrals, one uses the 
method outlined above. The trapezoidal portions of the 
M-surface can be divided into triangles as indicated 
by the dashed lines. For the n span 

M a = 0, M„ = -1, and the (n + 1) span 

M a = - \,M b = 0. 

Then, using equation (2), 

P„ MMdx _ 1 / _ 1 / 

Jo ~ËI7 ËT n \ T„\ 




3 l 



fln+i MMdx _ 1 (_ 1 (_ M n+1 l n+ 1 Ui_ 
Jo EI H+1 EI n+] \ l n+] \ 2 3 

M „l„+l 2 7 

3 *«+i 


For the other portion of the M-surface, equation (1) is 

"" i MMdx 

7^l>.+i MMdx _ 
o EI„+] 



'n.n + l 


Combining these results and simplifying the equations, 
there results 

6 E 

{. " \ l n l «+/ / I'n+l 

+ M n -j l'„ + 2M n (l' n + l'„ +1 ) + M n+J l' n+1 = + 

6 S„-i tll _j_ 6 >S„,„-i-j /g\ 

Wi *■ n hi + 1 I n + 1 

in which V = j- This is Clapeyron's three-moment equa- 
tion, which is, of course, quite well known and which 
can be found in most texts on the theory of structures 
in special or curtailed form. 


In order to deal with the last two terms, which are 
not in convenient form, one can transform them into 
terms of fixed-end moments. Fixed-end moments are 
becoming no longer novel due to the necessity of com- 
puting them in the application of the moment dis- 
tribution method and formulas for them are given in a 
number of books thus making them readily accessible. 
There are, for example, a number of cases given in the 
American Institute of Steel Construction (A.I.S.C.) 

Figure 3 (a) shows a beam having fixed ends and 
loaded with any arrangement of vertical loads. The 




Fig. 3a 

Fig. 3b 

Fig. 3c 



Fig. 4b 

bending moments at the fixed ends are indicated by 
M t and M^ Figures 3 (b) and 3 (c) show the M-surface 
and the M-surface respectively. Applying the condi- 
tions that there shall be no rotation and no deflection 
at each fixed end, 

El8 a =- (2M t + M r ) - ^ - 
6 I 


from which 

-(M t + 2M r ) 



s„ = 


(2M t + M r ) 

= - (M, + 3 M r ). 

The *S„ and S b are the same as $„-/,„ and the 
S„,„+] of equation (3), because if the three-moment 
equation had been applied the same equations would 
have been obtained. 

If there be a relative vertical displacement of the 
ends of the beam as shown in Fig. 4 (a), the fixed-end 
moments may be computed by the same methods as 
used above. Thus 


- Mi = + M r = — — 

from which 

M t l' = M^_ 

6EI ' 6EI 
Collecting the above results and substituting in equa- 
tion (3), the three-moment equation now becomes, with 
the appropriate changes in notation, 
M„_ 7 1'„ + 2M„ (l'„ + l' n+1 ) + M n+1 l' n+1 = (M r .„_, + 
2Mi, n ) V, + (2M r , n + M,, M+t ) l' n+1 

in which M ,,„-,, etc., are the fixed-end moments arising 
from the actual loads and relative displacements of the 
supports, taken in pairs, for each span. The right-hand 
side of the equation is easily evaluated in terms of the 
fixed-end moments and the whole equation can be 
easily memorized. The form of the equation should be 
noted, for the two sides are very much alike. In this 
way, a set of three-term simultaneous linear equations 
with the bending moments at the supports of the con- 
tinuous girder as unknowns are obtained. The solution 
of these equations is quite easy and has been discussed 
in detail in a previous paper.* 


A simple numerical example will suffice. Figure 5 
shows a continuous girder having two spans. The data 
as regards loading, etc., are shown on the figure. In 
addition, relative to support A, support B sinks 1.0 in. 
and support C, 0.5 in. From the A.I.S.C. Handbook 
the fixed-end moment for the loadings contained in the 
example are 

l6< *»/ 



n = o 

1= 429 

Ah* 1 = 642 M? r 
B 18' | C 

Fig. 5 

M u = - —.80 =- 60 ît. kips=M r>0 



M r , = 


.18 = -54 ft. kips = M u 

To these must be added the fixed-end moments due to 
the sinking of the supports. Taking E = 30,000 kips 
per sq. in. 

"-'- ^xffx» *'-" ■ + 49m - kips ' M "= 

— 49.7 ft. kips 

M r , t 


18 z X 12' X 12 
-108.3 ft. kips 

The three-moment equation becomes 

X0.5 = + 103.2 ît. kips, M,. 2 = 

2 mA ™- + i* ^ 

1 y 429 + 642 ) 


" < - 109 - 7 - 20 - 6 ^W9 + 


(98.4 - 157.2) — - and M t = 

* The Engineering Journal, August 1941. 

54-9 ft. kips 

MANAGEMENT'S NEED OF BROADER VISION (Continued from page 142) 


These vitally important days of the future confront us 
with problems of such profound gravity — questions 
that challenge the very existence of our democratic 
principles, as to demand our united effort toward their 
solution. Not much longer, my friends, can we afford 
this luxury of labor fighting business, of business 
damning government, of agriculture doubting all three, 
of sectional group against sectional group in complete 
disregard of the national interest. These grave issues 
cannot find their solution by that divided route. 

For the old United States — I would assume, too, the 
old Canada — isn't good enough to suit the critical 
citizen of tomorrow. To propose to him — to the young 

soldier who provides the theme for my talk — merely 
to go back to pre-war national income, to pre-war em- 
ployment, to pre-war standards of living is not enough. 
He will insist on a much larger national income, 
higher average earnings, greater security, more goods 
for more people at lower prices: in other words, a 
better living in a better world. If you and I can't 
produce it, he will try to find those who can. Only in an 
atmosphere, peaceful, constructive, and co-operative, 
can these possibilities for the future which my young 
military correspondent hoped for, be brought about. 
Statesmanlike management can do much to bring that 
about, and it is to such a vision for management on 
your side and mine, that I appeal to-day. 




Advisor on Social Insurance, International Labour Ojfice, Montreal. 

Paper presented at the Fifty-Eighth Annual General Professional Meeting of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada, at Quebec, on February 11th, 1944 

What is Social Security ? 

Social security symbolises a great part of that hope 
of a world fit for the common man to live in which 
inspires the United Nations in the present strug- 
gle and which is given expression in the Atlantic 

Social security means, above all, no return to the 
mass unemployment of the Thirties. Unemployment, 
however, is but one of the causes of undeserved eco- 
nomic distress, and perhaps not the most tragic for the 
individual. There is also the plight of the indigent aged 
and disabled, and of destitute widows and children. 
To these must be added sickness, which, in a working 
lifetime, may spell just as much loss of earnings as 
unemployment. Social security comes to mean, then, 
the guarantee of an income in all those common 
contingencies in which a worker, through no fault of 
his own, is deprived of his livelihood by inability to 
work or to obtain work. 

But social security is as much a remedial as it is a 
palliative programme. It must be: otherwise it would 
be overwhelmingly costly. It must be because idleness 
and ill health are evils in themselves that no cash 
payment can cancel. In a worthwhile world, we must 
be waging war all the time against these causes of 

So, in any comprehensive social security system, we 
must have, besides income security, medical services 
and employment services. Social security is then a tri- 
pod of which one support is maintenance when unable 
to work or to obtain it, another is medical care when 
unable to work, and the third, placement when out of a 
job. This tripod, however, cannot stand firm on rotten 
or shifting ground, although it does possess a good 
deal of inherent stability under stress or shock. 

The philosophy of social security recognises, first, 
that we have evils present that we must deal with now 
adequately and justly, and second, that we have to 
attack these evils at their source in unsound sanitary 
and economic environments. The ground on which the 
tripod stands must be consolidated. 

The medical professions demand that proper .nutri- 
tion and housing be provided as the primary conditions 
for a successful health policy. The employment 
services in turn demand, on the one hand, some degree 
of stability and constancy of policy in industry, and, 
on the other hand, adequate schooling and vocational 
training as postulates for an effective employment 
policy. Thus social security calls for a modification of 
the social and economic system, a reshaping of it so as 
to cause the least waste and suffering that is compatible 
with the conservation of essential freedoms. In countries 
other than the Soviet Union, the exponents of social 
security have no desire to destroy the capitalist system : 
they regard the spirit of enterprise, which can only 
flourish under that system, as indispensable for eco- 
nomic progress. But they do desire that the system be 
humanely operated, and endowed with sufficient stabil- 
ity for the social security services to be able to cope 

with the disorder that necessarily accompanies any 
manifestation of spontaneous competitive development. 

Existing Plans 

Of the eight countries of the world in which English 
is an official language, six have social security plans in 
different stages of advancement or application: they 
are the United States, Great Britain, Australia, Canada, 
New Zealand and South Africa. The remaining two are 
India, where a National Conference of trade unions, 
employers and government representatives has recently 
recommended the active consideration of social security 
problems, and Eire, where a government bill has just 
been introduced to provide children's allowances. 

Some of these plans are on paper, some are in process 
of realization, and one is fully applied. Thus, Britain 
has its Beveridge Plan, of which the Government is 
about to issue a new and, as we hope, not too chastened 
edition. In the United States, the Administration has 
a very fine measure pending in Congress, namely: 
the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill, but no one would like, 
to prophesy its fate. In Canada you have at the moment 
the Heagerty Bill for health insurance, and the Marsh 
Plan as the background of the promised income 
security legislation; and you have the useful corrective 
comments of Miss Charlotte Whitton on these pro- 
posals. From South Africa, we have just received word 
of the comprehensive proposals of the Government's 
Social Security Council. In Australia there is a joint 
parliamentary commission on social security, several 
of whose proposals have already been carried out by the 
Government in the midst of war, without waiting to 
find out if it could afford them. Finally in New Zealand 
there is a fully fledged social security scheme that has 
been working for the last five years. 

Every one of these plans provides comprehensive 
income security and medical services. I propose to 
sketch and compare very summarity the main features 
of these plans. 

With the employment programmes of these countries 
I shall not attempt to deal — it would take us too far 
into the field of economic reconstruction; I will only 
say that the Marsh Plan contains the most detailed 
proposals on employment, but that great attention is 
being paid everywhere to the problem of rehabilitating 
the disabled workers and fitting them to resume their 
place in industry. 

Whether we are dealing with the income security or 
medical care features of these plans, we can distinguish 
two alternative principles underlying their organization. 
Either the scheme is principally one of social insurance, 
that is to say, demands a contribution from the pros- 
pective beneficiary; or it is one of social assistance, 
that is to say, the cost is borne out of taxation and the 
grant of benefit is in most cases subject to a means test. 

Income Security 

The Beveridge Plan in Great Britain, the Wagner- 
Murray-Dingell Bill in the United States, and the 



Marsh Plan in Canada are based primarily on an 
insurance principle. The Australian Plan is non- 
contributory throughout, with a means test for most of 
its features. The New Zealand scheme is half way 
between — a hybrid, which, on the one hand, requires 
a contribution proportional to income, and, on the 
other hand, grants benefit according to need. The 
South African Plan is contributory for sickness and 
unemployment allowances and retirement benefits, and 
non-contributory for disability and survivor's benefit 
and for medical care. 

All the plans cover the entire gainfully occupied 
population, together with their wives and children, 
while the Australian, New Zealand and South African 
plans, embracing as they do every resident in the 
country, cover the unoccupied as well. The South 
African Plan, it should be noted, applies to black and 
coloured as well as to white people. 

The range of contingencies covered is much the 
same: unemployment, sickness, maternity leave, per- 
manent disability, old-age, widowhood and orphan- 

The duration of sickness and unemployment benefits 
is limited under the American and Canadian plans — 
to 26 weeks — and unlimited under the Beveridge Plan. 
The old-age benefit falls due everywhere at 65 for men 
and 60 for women, except that in New Zealand 60 is the 
minimum age for both sexes. Under most of the plans, 
only the widow who is elderly or who has dependent 
children receives a benefit. 

Under the insurance schemes the right to benefit is 
conditioned by the payment of a minimum number of 
contributions, and the maintenance of a certain regu- 
larity in their payment. The benefit is fixed at a sub- 
sistence level under the Beveridge Plan; it is propor- 
tional to the wage in the Wagner-Murray-Dingell 
Bill; while under the Marsh Plan it is fixed at sub- 
sistence level for disability, old-age, survivors' benefit 
and proportional to the wage for unemployment and 
sickness benefits. All the insurance schemes have to be 
supplemented by social assistance in order to cover 
persons who do not comply with the contribution con- 
ditions or — under the American and Canadian plans — 
exhaust their unemployment benefit. Exhaustion of 
sickness benefit, it should be noted, simply means the 
substitution of disability benefit, and does not involve 
therefore the intervention of social assistance. 

The insurance schemes are financed by the contri- 
butions of employed persons and employers and the 
contributions of the self-employed, together with con- 
siderable State subsidies. 

In New Zealand and Australia, all the benefits are 
on a subsistence level, equivalent to about 25 per cent 
of the unskilled workers wage for a man without 
dependents. There is a means test, but it is a very 
liberal one and allows, for example, full old-age benefit 
even to a person with some thousands of dollars of 
savings. Both countries give unemployment assistance 
to dependent workers who are seeking to enter employ- 
ment. The New Zealand scheme is financed by a tax of 
5 per cent on all incomes, while the cost of the Australian 
benefits is met out of general taxation and principally 
from income tax. 

All the plans except the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill 
provide children's allowances. They do so because, as 
Beveridge has cogently argued, you cannot abolish 
want without providing children's allowances both for 
the man who is in work and for the man who is out of 
work. You cannot devise cash benefits which will meet 

even subsistence needs without them, unless you are 
prepared to pay more in benefit than the actual wages 
of an unskilled worker with a large family. It is true 
that you could, as Miss Whitton proposes, do much, if 
not as much, by a thorough-going policy of free school 
meals and subsidised housing for large families. But in 
some of these countries the aim of the children's 
allowances is not merely to assure the healthy upbring- 
ing of the younger generation, but to diminish by 
more evident and tangible help the economic handicaps 
of parenthood and positively to encourage larger 
families than are now usual. The menace of a declining 
population and the need to people empty spaces is 
being realized in the British Commonwealth as never 

Medical Care 

The principles underlying present day planning for 
medical care may be briefly stated as follows: 

1. All necessary forms of medical care should be 
available to all members of the community 
without any economic barrier; 

2. Care should be preventive as well as curative and 
should aim at maintaining positive health. 

3. The family should be the unit for health policy 
and each family should have its regular doctor; 

4. General practitioners should work in close co- 
operation with specialists and hospitals; 

5. There should be close co-ordination between 
the medical care and the public health services. 

The points of disagreement concern the form of 
administration, the conditions of service of doctors, 
and the field to be reserved for private practice. The 
line of cleavage is not drawn between the opinions of 
laymen and doctors, but between those of private 
practitioners on the one hand, and hygienists and 
public health officers on the other. 

The British Medical Association and the Canadian 
Medical Association approve, in principle, of compulsory 
health insurance, but they would like to exclude from 
it the well-to-do, who would consequently be left for 
private practice. They stand also for free choice of 
doctor among all practising doctors and for the main- 
tenance, at least provisionally, of the traditional system 
of individual practice in the doctor's own office. They 
are opposed to a salaried medical service and prefer 
remuneration by fee or a fixed amount per patient per 
annum. The American Medical Association, and the 
American drug industry are opposed to compulsory 
health insurance of any kind, or indeed to any State 
interference in the practice of medicine. 

The planners on the other hand are mostly favourable 
to a free public service providing medical care in the 
same way as public education is now provided. Such a 
service would be complete and of high quality, available 
without payment to rich and poor alike, and financed 
from taxation. They demand that doctors should, 
where practicable, work in groups at fully equipped 
health centres, and recommend, but do not insist, that 
remuneration be mainly on a salaried basis. Proposals 
on these lines have been officially endorsed by the 
medical profession in South Africa. 

Whatever solutions may eventually be adopted for 
these problems, the important conclusion may already 
be drawn that in Great Britain and the British 
Dominions the introduction of a national health service 
comprehensive both in scope and content, is no longer 
a matter of conjecture but only a matter of time. 




J. H. Brace 1 

Associated with all proposed security plans it would 
appear that there should be a common denominator 
covering certain fundamentals: 

1 . Canada is still a land of opportunity. We continue 
to blaze new trails. The pioneer spirit has not yet 
disappeared. To the extent that we as individuals 
or groups leave some of our fundamental problems 
for the state to solve which we can very well 
handle ourselves, we shall have lost something of 
untold value. 

2. Regimentation of the masses and bureaucratic 
control of the way of life of the individual have 
only a limited place in a young country such as ours. 

3. Recognizing as a cardinal principle "Freedom 
from Want," I subscribe to the necessity for 
social security planning on the part of those who 
make our laws. To the fullest extent possible, 
any necessary forms of social security services 
promulgated by the authorities should be financed 
by some form of insurance payments by the citi- 
zens at large. 

The moral fibre of the individual is not improved by 
presenting him with something which he has not earned. 
I believe we should keep to a minimum the number of 
things which reduce the right of the individual to 
hew out his own pattern of life, but experience clearly 
indicates the necessity on the part of our government 
to establish some forms of compulsory thrift. 

I view with concern any legislation which will result 
in the regimentation of our medical, dental and similar 
services. The advances that have been made in these 
professions have been the result of individual effort — 
and that effort has been quickened not alone because 
the individual was an idealist but because of his own 
personal gain from his accomplishments. In our efforts 
to bring succour to those who might not otherwise be 
able to obtain it, let us not do anything which will 
retard the present rapid strides medical science is making. 

Dr. Marsh defines "social assistance" as that form 
of relief, restricted to the sub-marginal group of the 
population, given in the form of charity. He states that 
"social insurance" brings in the resources of the 
community as a whole, that the insured person knows 
what he is entitled to, his benefits come as a right and 
not from charity. This is true to the extent that the 
insurance premiums cover the risk but not beyond 
that. It would be unhealthy to develop a general state 
of mind in this land of ours that "This country owes 
me a living." 

There should be continual expansion of state assis- 
tance to those in distress. Otherwise the treatment 
accorded is dependent upon private giving and Canada's 
experience under the latter practice indicates clearly 
that this, too frequently, is far from meeting the 

"Social assistance" and "social insurance" should be 
recognized as two distinct and separate problems. 
The first should have state aid to the extent necessary. 
The second, while under government direction, should 
be self-supporting from the premiums collected. By this 
means the great majority of our citizens can maintain 
their dignity and still have social security. This will 
give coverage to those of us who have had to meet 
various forms of distress beyond our normal expec- 

I am not unmindful of the steady progress that this 

iVice-President, The Bell Telephone Company of Canada, 
Montreal, Que. 

country has been making. Gradually the "House of 
Industry" more commonly known as the "Poor House" 
is disappearing as a result of the old-age pension plan. 
Some form of compulsory saving in the years that have 
passed would have resulted in the old age pension plan 
being self-supporting to-day. 

I subscribe to every necessary form of social security 
which will not result in lowering the moral fibre of the 
individual nor in slowing up the progressive advance*- 
ment of those things which make for a fuller and better 
life for the citizens at large. To provide such security 
the individual should to the fullest extent possible 
finance, in the form of insurance premiums, his own risk. 

I represent an industry which has positive views on 
this question of security. It became apparent to us a 
long time ago that if industrial management wants its 
employees to be interested in its objectives, then 
management must be interested in the objectives of the 
employees. It was clear to us that one of the basic 
objectives of wage-earning employees is freedom from 
worry about the financial burden involved in sickness, 
accident, unemployment, old age, and death. 

For over a quarter of a century we have been 
"bargaining" with our employees, that is, bargaining in 
the broader sense of the term, through a Representation 
Plan, and we know from this that worry about sickness, 
etc., is one of their fundamental problems. 

Their reasoning, of course, is logical. They say, if a 
wage-earner needs his wages while he is able to work 
and his expenses are normal he needs them that much 
more when he is not able to work and his expenses are 
increased because of illness, accident, etc. 

So we have long since developed a Benefit Plan 
which is designed to minimize this problem for our 
employees. It was developed years ago when security 
plans or social security itself were not so popular as 
they are to-day, and it is a non-contributory plan. I 
fully realize that many such plans developed in recent 
years are on an employee contributory basis and there 
may be some advantages in this. But that is beside 
the point. In principle our plan serves its purpose. 
We are satisfied that its effect is invaluable. It is a 
powerful factor in developing employee loyalty and 
support. Obviously it serves the interests of both the 
employee and the employer. 

As you may imagine therefore, I am a proponent of 
industry solving this problem itself insofar as it is 
possible to do so. I recognize the inevitable necessity of 
state plans, but it seems to me that industry can and 
should do a lot to solve this problem. To my mind, it is 
entirely possible that the chances of survival of free 
enterprise, as we have known it, are dependent to 
some degree on the extent to which it assumes its 
so-called social responsibilities. 

An article by Austin M. Fisher, entitled "Insure 
Your Workers' Health," reproduced in the February 
number of Reader's Digest from Forbes Magazine, is 
well worth perusal. This places the problem of social 
security primarily on the shoulders of industry where it 
belongs. "Social Security" as a state plan should be 
supplemental only to the social security programme of 

E. R. Complin 2 

Mr. Stack referred to "the useful corrective comments 
of Miss Charlotte Whitton." For the benefit of those 

2 Industrial Relations Manager, Canadian Industries Limited, 
Montreal, Que., Member of the Institute Committee on 
Industrial Relations. 



who do not know, Dr. Charlotte Whitton was asked by 
Mr. John Bracken to examine the Beveridge and Marsh 
Reports and to submit her comments thereon, a piece 
of work for which her experience and understanding was 
fitted. There has been a tendency to wave aside Dr. 
Whitton's contribution because of the implied political 
beginnings of her contribution. Inasmuch as the Bever- 
idge, Marsh and Heagerty reports have received con- 
siderable publicity through the press and governmental 
channels, their recommendations are fairly well known 
but Dr. Whitton's report has had to be published pri- 
vately and is not nearly so well known. 

For those who have not read it, I suggest that it 
contains many thoughts which are worthwhile studying 
whether or not one agrees with them. I was much im- 
pressed by the following quotation contained in Dr. 
Whitton's letter of transmittal, "If we are to plan cor- 
rectly and powerfully for the post-war world, it is going 
to be essential that the public should distinguish be- 
tween the motives of those who pull difficult questions 
out into the open in order to find the right answers and 
those who do so because they want a shelter for inaction." 

She goes on to say that she does not necessarily 
expect that people will agree with all portions of her 
exposition but feels that there are two sides to any 
question and that alternative methods of arriving at 
social security should be considered. No one can quarrel 
with such an approach to any problem. 

It has been pointed out that she prepared her report 
in four months and this is too brief a time to deal with 
such a subject. But, on the other hand, Dr. Marsh's 
report was, I understand, prepared in even less time. 

Among the many things she points out, several appear 
of significance, and, as we have not the time to refer 
to all of them, I shall only briefly mention one or two. 

In the first place, Great Britain is 90 per cent indus- 
trialized, and secondly, there is one stage less in the 
hierarchy of governments, that is to say, there is not 
our dominion, provincial, municipal situation. Despite 
these two advantages, and the advantage of many years 
of experience in moving toward a perfect structure with 
its resultant thoroughly organized provisions for local, 
social utility functions, Sir William Beveridge saw fit 
to place the needs of children, and health and medical 
care for all the population, outside of the insurance 
structure, even though, as I have said, there is in Eng- 
land a mature solvent insurance structure covering 
many types of risks and built up over a period of thirty 
years with millions of pounds in reserves. On the other 
hand, a country like Canada, whose basic economical, 
governmental and population structure is peculiarly her 
own, with a young untried unemployment insurance 
scheme, is counselled to embark on a programme which 
appears to be either dangerously similar to the British 
programme, or dangerously different. These are not 
matters for the layman to resolve. Certainly the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages of various approaches to 
the problem cannot be adequately weighed by the gen- 
eral public and I doubt very much if experience would 
allow us to say that the solution approved by the 
majority of our representatives in Parliament is neces- 
sarily the most practical solution. It is in matters like 
this that all of us must turn to persons with the time 
and experience to weigh and evaluate the various aspects. 


administrative responsibilities but whose duty it would 
be to keep in close liaison with scientific developments 
in Canada and abroad, and bring to management the 
point of view of science — the eternal search for improve- 
ments, new products and new outlets. 

Government Aid in Co-operative Research 
I suggest that every industry, even if it maintains 
its own research laboratory, would be wise to make use 
of the existing facilities of government and private 
research laboratories where arrangements can be made 
to have special problems studied and where by payment 
for the entire cost of the work, all findings and patents 
can become the exclusive property of the company. 
This type of co-operative research agreement widely 
known as the "Mellon Institute" plan enables even the 
smallest industry to take advantage of first class 
facilities which, alone, it could not possibly support. 
I suggest that a more general use of this plan would, 
without the incurring of large initial obligations, 
enable industries to test the value of research, and 
those who found it profitable could then either increase 
their use of the scheme or build up their own laboratories 
in a sound and efficient way. 

Before concluding, I would like to say that there 
can be no doubt as to the practicability of the above 
suggestions for in a limited but successful way they 
have been demonstrated by the National Research 
Council for many years. Even during the war there are 
several such co-operative agreements in operation and 
many more are awaiting the end of hostilities. I will cite 
only one outstanding case of a Canadian company 
which, brought into being in the last war to manu- 
facture a product formerly supplied by an enemy coun- 
try, found itself unable to compete in the early twenties 

when world trade was reestablished. When its manage- 
ment sought tariff protection as a solution, a wise 
Government offered research assistance instead, and 
for nearly twenty years a co-operative research was 
carried on at the National Research Laboratories. 
To-day the company is firmly established, the quality 
of its product has been raised to a competitive level by 
research, new products have been developed, the entire 
cost of the research has been liquidated and the scienti- 
fic laboratories, which for many years were maintained 
at the National Research Council, have now been 
moved to the factory site and incorporated in the 
industrial organization. Incidentally, the present man- 
aging director and many of the senior administrative 
staff started their careers in the Council's Laboratories 
as research workers on this co-operative project. 

Such examples are all too rare in Canada, but in the 
major industrial countries similar cases can be listed 
by the hundreds. And if we, in Canada, show the 
wisdom and enterprise in research which I believe we 
will, instead of "stagnation and ultimate bankruptcy" 
we may confidently look forward to a progressive, well 
integrated, and prosperous industrial life. 


©Report of Federation of British Industries Research Com- 
mittee, October, 1943. 

©Proceedings, Association of Scientific Workers, January, 

©Address, Dr. H. M. Tory, Canadian Club, Ottawa, October. 

©Bernai — "The Social Function of Science," 1939. 

©Parliamentary and Scientific Committee, London, October, 

©Survey of Scientific and Industrial Laboratories of Canada, 
Bureau of Statistics, 1941. 

©Annual Report — Vick Chemical Company, June, 1943. 





C. R. YOUNG, m. e.i.c. 

Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University of Toronto. 

Past-President of The Engineering Institute of Canada. 

A memorandum submitted to the Council of The Engineering Institute of Canada, on February 9th, 1944. 

Council approved the proposal and has since taken steps to initiate action 

through the provincial departments of education. 


One of the present obligations of the educational 
authorities and institutions in this country is to direct 
their resources towards a speedy and sound re-estab- 
lishment of men discharged from the forces or released 
from war industry. A forward-looking and realistic 
technical educational programme ought to form an 
important part of the general scheme of rehabilitation. 
The faculties of engineering of the universities will, no 
doubt, do their share, but they are properly restricted 
to the professional field. It is therefore necessary that 
steps be taken under provincial auspices, but perhaps 
with federal support, to provide essential training to 
many men with technical aptitudes who either could 
not qualify for admission to a university or could 
not spend four more years of their lives in obtaining an 
education for a livelihood. Some plan should be devised 
whereby men without professional ambitions could 
have their needs satisfied in institutions giving a 
training above the ordinary vocational level but less 
advanced than that offered by the engineering col- 
leges. Minimum qualifications for admission would 
naturally have to be less than complete university 
matriculation and might in some instances have to 
rest chiefly on personal capacity and interest, supple- 
mented perhaps by assurances of future employability 
in technical pursuits. 

Consideration of technical education in Canada 
clearly indicates a serious gap in it above the secondary 
school level and below that of the degree-granting 
engineering faculties and colleges. The universities, as 
the sole type of institution above the ordinary or 
vocational high school, cannot possibly serve ade- 
quately all of the needs of the country in the matter of 
advanced training of technical personnel and any 
attempt at doing so is bound to be unsatisfactory both 
to those seeking training and to the universities them- 
selves. Experience in the United States, in Great 
Britain, and on the continent, has shown that the 
whole fabric of technical education is strengthened and 
marked public benefits realized from the establishment 
of an intermediate type of institution commonly 
designated as the "technical institute". 

It is of importance to note that in the United States 
renewed emphasis is now being placed on the work of 
the technical institutes. Much of the technical training 
to be made available for men discharged from the forces 
and released from war industry will be given by them. 
As an evidence of the growing activity expected in this 
field, eight technical institutes are projected for New 
York State, to be built as part of the post-war construc- 
tion plan and turned over to the State for operation. 


While the graduates of engineering colleges look to 
professional employment involving investigation of the 
scientific and economic features of undertakings and are 
concerned with devising what are often original 
methods of analysis, design, construction, manufacture, 
or operation, the graduates of technical institutes are 

for the most part concerned with repetitive activities 
associated with production, operating or maintenance 
procedures. Graduates from the latter type of institu- 
tion constitute the "line" side of an organization, as 
contrasted with the "staff" side, which is generally 
recruited from the graduates of professional schools. 

Technical institute graduates very often limit their 
interests to, and are trained for, particular industries. 
Their duties are normally of a supervisory character, 
but may include minor technical functions such as 
drafting, design of details, laboratory testing, inspec- 
tion, construction in the field, or the technical aspects 
of sales work. 

Careful studies made in the United States indicate 
that the technical institute graduates required by 
industry represent from 2.2 to 3.0 times the number 
of graduates required from the professional schools. 
These two groups are related in much the same way 
as are non-commissioned officers and commissioned 
officers in the army. 


Technical institutes serve more effectively than the 
engineering colleges the following types of young men: 

(1) Those who have had industrial experience and 
have already chosen a vocation upon which they wish 
to embark with the least possible loss of time. 

(2) Those who have passed the state of "book- 
mindedness" and whose mental learning processes 
centre on actual doing rather than on formal study. 

(3) Those who, for financial or other reasons, cannot 
devote four years to preparation for remunerative 

(4) Those who, having practical rather than intel- 
lectual interest, have had to leave college before pro- 
gressing very far. 

(5) Those whose educational qualifications would not 
admit them to a university. 



While great diversity exists in the character and 
practices of the presently-operating technical institutes, 
they nevertheless exhibit certain well defined general 
characteristics. The courses offered are shorter and 
more practical than those available in the professional 
schools. While courses in the latter develop the special- 
ized functions of research, analysis, design, and new 
production or operating procedures, the work of a 
technical institute is centered upon and seeks to 
rationalize the higher practical pursuits of industry. 
Students of the latter learn by doing rather than by 
studying and there is much less emphasis on inde- 
pendent study than in the universities. The mathema- 
tical and physical sciences are not taught as independent 
disciplines, but in intimate and very direct and practical 
connection with their technical applications. 

The length of technical institute courses varies from 
one to four years, the most common being two years. 
Under favourable aspects, two years of intensive 
practical work with a sound grounding in the under- 



lying sciences will result in a high employability of the 

Three broad types of training are offered in technical 
institutes: — (1) generalized engineering courses, 
(2) technology of particular industries, (3) functional 

Experience has shown that there are innumerable 
positions in industry for the efficient occupancy of which 
a wide range of scientific or technical knowledge is not 
necessary. Many of these are conventionally classed as 
belonging to engineering and many open paths to posts 
of high responsibility in producing and operating 
organizations. The technical requirements of such posi- 
tions can be adequately met by an intensive type of 
engineering training from which the more advanced 
scientific features are omitted. To meet this situation, 
so-called generalized engineering courses have been 
established in some of the technical institutes. 

In the generalized engineering courses a strong effort 
is made to present basic science and technology that 
would be useful in any one of a variety of industries. 
Some of the subjects taught are mathematics, physics, 
chemistry, mechanics, engineering drawing, descriptive 
geometry, electricity, and materials of construction. 
To these there may appropriately be added industrial 
relations, sociology, industrial safety, and industrial 
law. The generalized engineering course in a technical 
institute parallels the engineering courses in the 
universities but represents an abridgment of them. 
The material is presented in a more practical form and 
in a manner not demanding of the student any marked 
attainments in mathematics or in theoretical science. 

Many technical institutes offer courses in the techno- 
logy of particular industries, often with a definitely local 
application. Some of the most successful of these 
institutions have grown out of the idea of service to one 
or more important local industries. An application of 
this principle in Canada might well be advantageous. 

Some technical institutes offer what are called func- 
tional courses. These pertain to such activities as 
quantity surveying, textile designing, power plant 
management and operation, management, and general 

The co-operative plan has been found particularly 
helpful in extending the usefulness of technical institute 
work. Under this, the student alternates between study 
in the institute and employment in industry. His 
experience and practical qualifications increase in 
parallel with his theoretical knowledge. 

Although degrees cannot be granted on the comple- 
tion of the typical short, practical courses offered by 
the technical institutes, it is highly essential that some 
form of certification should be adopted through which 
the graduate would be able to establish his qualifi- 
cations. This has been admirably worked out in Great 
Britain. A scheme of examinations and credentials has 
been developed under the joint auspices of the English 
and Scottish Boards of Education and a group of 
professional institutions. National Diplomas are given 
for successful examinations following full-time day 
courses, and National Certificates for examinations 
following evening and part-time courses. 

In order to guard against an effort by anyone to 
attain professional recognition without the prerequisite 
training, a clear understanding should be reached by 
those sponsoring technical institutes with the Provincial 
Associations of Professional Engineers respecting the 
attitude of the latter to applications for admission from 
technical institute graduates. Credentials obtained from 
a technical institute might be acceptable in lieu of 
part at least of the examinations required of non- 

graduates of professional schools for admission to the 
associations. The difference in required practical ex- 
perience for the two types of graduates should be 
determined at the outset. 


Experience has shown that it is not practicable for a 
degree-granting engineering college itself to attempt 
parallel technical institute activities on the same 
campus, under the same administrative and teaching 
direction, and during the same operating hours. No 
experiment of this kind has so far succeeded. Under 
such circumstances, the technical institute is soon 
regarded as a salvage mechanism for failures, culls and 
misfits. Students in the short courses are not accorded 
the full privileges of regular students in campus activi- 
ties and organizations. Unconsciously, but nevertheless 
almost inevitably, the staff comes to favour the longer 
course, to the very great prejudice of the technical 
institute work and to the detriment of the morale of the 
institution as a whole. No such undesirable situation 
exists if the technical institute has its own adminis- 
tration, its own instructors, its own quarters, and its 
own particular policies and ideals, freed of any invidious 
comparison with institutions giving professional courses. 

From the point of view of the engineering faculty or 
college the superposition of aims and objectives is 
undesirable. The colleges must protect their standing 
with the professional societies and accrediting agencies. 
They must insure that industry places definite value 
on their credentials. One standard of admission, one 
general level of work, and one grade of credentials are 
essential. It is not practicable to arrange the curriculum 
of an engineering college in such a manner that atten- 
dance of one, two, or three years would constitute ade- 
quate and final educational preparation for different 
types of technical employment. Many years ago, the 
German technical universities attempted this plan and 
had to abandon it in favour of different types of schools 
for different callings. 


Experience has shown that it is difficult to arrange 
automatic credits for students who complete technical 
institute courses and desire to enter engineering col- 
leges with a view to obtaining professional training. 
The two types of programmes are widely different. 
To obtain the greatest success, the methods of teaching 
should correspondingly differ. 

A dominating principle in the technical institute 
work has been that the courses are of a "terminal" 
character. It consequently appears impracticable to 
admit graduates of technical institutes at any higher 
level than the first year, except in special cases. The 
difficulty arises in the fact that the so-called theoretical 
courses have by intention been made very different in 
content in the two institutions. In most cases, technical 
institute men have had neither the amount nor the 
type of mathematics .that would serve as a prerequisite 
for the more advanced engineering subjects and for 
which the colleges will allow any considerable credit, 
however purposeful or useful the content or giving of 
the instruction has been. Graduates of the technical 
institutes would, on their part, often experience dis- 
appointment in being asked to start over again far 
down the line. They could scarcely escape a feeling of 
repetition, waste of time, discouragement, or even 

While any regular plan of admission of technical 
institute graduates to advanced standing in the engi- 
neering courses appears to be impracticable, exceptional 
men, having higher educational qualifications than most 



technical institute students have, might be admitted 
to the professional schools above the first year. The 
possibility of this would prove highly attractive to 
young men thinking of entering a technical institute. 
Undoubtedly, it would be in the public interest for the 
universities, possibly in co-operation with the Depart- 
ment of Education for the province concerned, to 
arrange suitable "bridging" courses for facilitating such 


Due to the comparative absence of technical institutes 
in Canada the engineering colleges have, in effect, been 
forced to conduct two over-lapping types of training. 
Primarily, the courses offered are designed for men 
seeking professional qualifications and capable of 
acquiring them. At the same time, however, there are, 
in every engineering college, appreciable numbers of 
students who can hope to attain only a general educa- 
tion or a sub-professional status. Their capacity, or 
interest, does not enable them to keep pace with the 
majority of their classmates. As a result, they waste 
their time and in some measure, hamper the training of 

the better students. Actually, their own interests are 
ill-served and industry is by no means a gainer in the 
process. It must be admitted, too, that a very sub- 
stantial part of the demand for technical personnel 
could be filled by technical institute graduates with a 
greater continuity of service and often with greater 
immediate satisfaction to the employer. 

The concensus of opinion amongst persons long 
experienced in educational matters is that strictly 
professional education would be advanced, the engi- 
neering colleges would be greatly relieved, and their 
primary objectives brought nearer, if those students 
whose interests are practical and vocational rather 
than professional were to seek their training in an 
institution of the type of the technical institute. 


It is my belief that both education and industry 
would be notably served if, with the sponsorship of the 
provinces, a number of technical institutes were 
immediately established so as to be available for 
qualified demobilized men and displaced war workers 
as soon as they are free in substantial numbers. 


Convened at Headquarters, Montreal, on January 27th 1944, and adjourned to the Château 
Frontenac, Quebec City, on Friday, February 10th 1944 

The Fifty-Eighth Annual General Meeting of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada was convened at Head- 
quarters on Thursday, January 27th 1944, at eight 
o'clock p.m., with President K. M. Cameron in the 

The general secretary having read the notice con- 
vening the meeting, the minutes of the Fifty-Seventh 
Annual General Meeting were submitted, and, on the 
motion of H. B. Montizambert, seconded by C. E. 
Gélinas, were taken as read and confirmed. 

Appointment of Scrutineers 

On the motion of Henri Gaudefroy, seconded by G. P. 
Cole, Messrs. H. F. Finnemore, C. E. Gélinas and R. E. 
Heartz were appointed scrutineers to canvass the offi- 
cers' ballot and report the results. 

There being no other formal business, it was resolved, 
on the motion of L. H. Burpee, seconded by J. A. Stairs, 
that the meeting do adjourn to reconvene at the Châ- 
teau Frontenac, Quebec City, at nine-thirty a.m. on the 
tenth day of February, nineteen hundred and forty-four. 

Adjourned General Meeting at the 
Château Frontenac, Quebec City 

The adjourned meeting convened at ten o'clock a.m., 
on Thursday, February 10th 1944, with President 
K. M. Cameron in the chair. 

The general secretary announced the membership of 
the Nominating Committee of the Institute for the 
year 1944 as follows: 

Nominating Committee — 1944 
Chairman: H. C. Fitz- James 
Branch Representative 

Border Cities C. G. R. Armstrong 

Calgary F. K. Beach 


Branch Representative 

Cape Breton J. R. Morrison 

Edmonton J. Garrett 

Halifax J. R. Kave 

Hamilton W. J. W. Reid 

Kingston J. R. Carter 

Lakehead E. L. Goodall 

Lethbridge A. J. Branch 

London F. T. Julian 

Moncton A. Gordon 

Montreal J. M. Crawford 

Niagara Peninsula C. G. Cline 

Ottawa N. B. MacRostie 

Peterborough W. T. Fanjoy 

Quebec E. D. Gray- Donald 

Saguenay N. F. McCaghey 

Saint John D. R. Smith 

Saskatchewan E. K. Phillips 

St. Maurice Valley M. Eaton 

Sault Ste. Marie E. M. MacQuarrie 

Toronto A. E. Berry 

Vancouver H. N. Macpherson 

Victoria S. H. Frame 

Winnipeg D. M. Stephens 

Award of Medals and Prizes 

The general secretary announced the awards of the 
various medals and prizes of the Institute as follows, 
stating that the formal presentation of these distinctions 
would be made at the annual dinner of the Institute 
the following evening: 

Sir John Kennedy Medal — "A recognition of out- 
standing merit in the profession or of noteworthy con- 
tribution to the science of engineering or to the benefit 
of the Institute" — To Dean C. J. Mackenzie, c.m.g., 
m.e.i. a, Acting President, National Research Council, 


Ottawa, Dean of Engineering, University of Sas- 

Gzowski Medal (Gold) — To Frank E. Sterns, m.e.i.c, 
Ottawa, for his paper "Transit Shed with Concrete 
Roof Arches." 

Duggan Medal and Prize — (Medal and Cash Prize of 
$100.00)— To W. R. Stickney, m.e.i.c, Walkerville, for 
his paper "Electric Arc Welding." 

Julian C. Smith Medals — "For Achievement in the 
Development of Canada" — To Dr. George Joseph 
Desbarats, c.m.g., m.e.i.c, Ottawa; Dr. Frederic Henry 
Sexton, m.e.i.c, Halifax. 

Students' and Juniors' Prizes 

H. N. Ruttan Prize — (Western Provinces) — To 
N. Safran, Jr. e. i.e., Calgary, for his paper "Synthetic 

John Galbraith Prize — (Province of Ontario) — To 
A. C. Northover, Jr.E.i.c, Peterborough, for his paper, 
"New Methods and Substitute Materials in Wartime 

Phelps Johnson Prize — (Province of Quebec, English) 
— To B. Mroz, s.e.i.c, Montreal, for his paper, "Port- 
land-Montreal Pipe Line." 

Ernest Marceau Prize — (Province of Quebec, French) 
— To H. Audet, s.e.i.c, Montreal, for his paper, 
"Locomotive de manoeuvre Diesel-électrique 660 

Martin Murphy Prize — (Maritime Provinces) — To 
J. L. Belyea, s.e.i.c, Fredericton, for his paper 
"Simplification in the Design of Automatic Weapons." 

Honorary Memberships 

The general secretary reported that the following 
had been elected to Honorary Membership in the 
Institute, and that certificates would be presented at 
the annual dinner: 

Daniel Webster Mead, Past-President, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Consulting Engineer, Madi- 
son, Wisconsin. 

Robert Ernest Doherty, President, Carnegie In- 
stitute of Technology, Past-Chairman, Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development. 

Report of Council 

On the motion of deGaspé Beaubien, seconded by 
G. L. Dickson, it was resolved that the report of Council 
for the year 1943, as published in the February Journal, 
be accepted and approved. 

Report of Finance Committee, Financial 
Statement and the Treasurer's Report 

On the motion of C. K. McLeod, seconded by R. E. 
Heartz, it was resolved that the report of the Finance 
Committee, the financial statement and the treasurer's 
report, be accepted and approved. 

Reports of Committees 

On the motion of L. F. Grant, seconded by C. F. 
Morrison, it was resolved that the reports of the follow- 
ing committees be taken as read and accepted: Board 
of Examiners and Education, Industrial Relations, 
International Relations, Western Water Problems, Pro- 
fessional Interests, Legislation, Publication, Post- War 
Problems, Membership, Employment Service, Engineer 
in the Active Services, Professional Ethics, Engineering 
Features of Civil Defence, Papers, Library and House, 
Engineer in the Civil Service, The Young Engineer and 
the Deterioration of Concrete Structures. 

Branch Reports 

On the motion of W. R. McCaffrey, seconded by 
Wills Maclachlan, it was resolved that the reports of 
the various branches be taken as read and approved. 

Amendments to the By-laws 

In accordance with section 80 of the by-laws, Council 
presented to the meeting for discussion certain proposals 
for the amendment of sections 22, 29, 31 and 78 of the 
by-laws and for the introduction of a new section 82. 
These had been published in The Engineering Journal 
for December, 1943, and mailed to all corporate 

At the president's request, the general secretary out- 
lined the proposals. He explained that the purpose of 
the proposed new by-law was to enable Council to enter 
into co-operative agreements with sister societies in 
Canada, the United States and Great Britain, and to 
give such societies the right to appoint one of their 
members, who must also be a corporate member of the 
Institute, to the Council of the Institute. The amend- 
ments to sections 29 and 31 become necessary if the 
proposed new by-law is approved. 

The amendment to section 78 gives to those associa- 
tions of professional engineers with which the Institute 
already has or may have co-operative agreements, the 
same privilege of appointing a representative to the 
Institute Council. 

The proposal to amend section 22 is for the purpose 
of supplying The Engineering Journal to every Student 
of the Institute at a nominal cost of $1.00 per year, in- 
stead of the present arrangement whereby the Journal 
subscription is optional to Students at $2.00 per year. 
Council felt that in this way a better contact would be 
maintained with the Students and the usefulness of 
the Institute greatly increased. 

The general secretary explained that Council, at its 
meeting on the previous day, had decided to propose an 
addition to the amendment to section 29, whereby the 
treasurer of the Institute would be made a member of 
Council. At the present time it is the treasurer's duty 
to attend Council meetings but he is not entitled to 

Proposed New Section 82 

It was moved by J. E. Armstrong, and seconded by 
C. E. Sisson, that the proposed new section 82 of the 
by-laws be approved. 

Colonel Grant asked if this would be a reciprocal 
arrangement. Would the Institute have the right to 
appoint one of its members to the governing body of a 
society with which it had a co-operative agreement ? In 
answering Colonel Grant, the president pointed out 
that such a point would be covered in the actual agree- 
ments as negotiated. At the moment the objective was 
to have an organization which would be fully repre- 
sentative of all engineering societies in Canada. The 
decision as to whether or not the Institute should ap- 
point representatives to the Councils of the other socie- 
ties would rest with those societies, but provision for 
such representation is made in the proposal. 

Following some discussion, Mr. Armstrong pointed 
out that the proposed new section is enabling legisla- 
tion only, and that the points raised in the discussion 
had to do with matters that would be worked out in 
any agreements which might be arranged. Such agree- 
ments would have to be submitted to the membership 
before approval and therefore these matters would be 
discussed at that time. 

On being put to the meeting, the motion was carried, 
and the proposed new by-laws, as published on page 



688 of the December 1943 Journal, was approved for 
submission by letter ballot to all corporate members. 

Pkoposed Amendments to Sections 22, 29, 31 and 78 

It was moved by C. R. Young, and seconded by J. B. 
Stirling, that the proposed amendments to sections 22, 
29, 31 and 78 be approved. 

Following Council's decision that the treasurer of the 
Institute should be made a member of Council, it was 
moved by deGaspé Beaubien, and seconded by L. F. 
Grant, that the following words be added to the pro- 
posed amendment to section 29 — "and the treasurer of 
the Institute", making the proposed amendment read 
as follows: 

Section 29— Add— 

"and one councillor from each society or association 
with which the Institute has a co-operative agree- 
ment as described in sections 78 or 82 of the by-laws, 
as such councillors are appointed, and the treasurer 
of the Institute." 

The president put before the meeting the amendment 
to the amendment to section 29, and asked if there was 
any discussion thereon. 

Past-President Challies informed the meeting that 
a petition had been presented to Council signed by all 
living past-treasurers with the exception of one, Mr. 
Pratley, in which unanimous support was given to the 
proposal. He explained that past-treasurers had felt that 
their usefulness to the Institute and facility with which 
they could do their work would be greatly increased if 
they were members of Council. 

Mr. Pratley explained that during his term as treas- 
urer he had not experienced any inconvenience, but he 
explained that at the same time he was a councillor 
of the Institute representing the Montreal Branch. He 
felt that as the treasurer was an appointed officer he 
should not be given a vote. 

Mr. Pitts was in favour of the treasurer having a 
vote but thought that under such circumstances he 
should be an elected officer rather than one that was 

Mr. Beaubien and Mr. Hunt both supported the 
proposal and drew attention to the fact that the pro- 
posed amendment to section 78 and the proposed new 
section 82 both provided that a person appointed by a 
sister society could have a vote on Council, and ex- 
pressed the opinion that if this privilege was given to 
representatives of sister societies it should also be given 
to the Institute treasurer. 

On being put to the meeting, the amendment to the 
amendment to section 29 was carried. 

Commander E. C. Cull wick suggested that the pro- 
posed amendment to section 78 should be reworded 
slightly in order to make it definite that the representa- 
tives of the associations referred to must be corporate 
members of the Institute at the time of their appoint- 
ment to Council. This was seconded by Mr. Armstrong, 
and, on being put to the meeting, was carried unani- 
mously. The revised wording of the amendment is as 
follows : 

Section 78 — Add at the end of the by-law: 

"The Association shall have the right to appoint 

to the Council of the Institute a representative who 

is a corporate member of the Institute, who shall 

enjoy all rights and privileges as described in Section 

32 of the by-laws." 

Dean Young's motion was then put to the meeting 
and carried, the proposed amendments to sections 22, 
29, 31 and 78 being approved for submission by letter 
ballot to all corporate members. 

Technical Institutes 

In response to a request from the president, Dean 
Young outlined a submission which he had made to 
Council with reference to technical education. He re- 
ferred to the situation which would exist at the univer- 
sities when the thousands of young men now in the 
armed forces and war industry were released and found 
it necessary to take new training to fit them for new 

He thought that in Canada it would be advisable to 
establish some technical institutions to give a course 
somewhere between that of a high school and that of 
the engineering colleges. There are no such institutions 
in Canada now but there are many of them in England 
and some in the United States. In England they are 
known as "Technical Colleges" and in the United States 
as "Technical Institutes." Courses are devised to turn 
out persons who are more interested in production and 
management that in theoretical study and design. 

He thought the universities would be unable to handle 
this additional burden and that the high schools and 
technical schools were not equipped for it. Graduates 
from the schools would be of a sub-professional level 
but would be above the ordinary technician grade. It 
was not likely that their graduation from these insti- 
tutes would qualify them for membership in the pro- 
vincial professional associations. 

Dean Young read the resolution which had been ap- 
proved at the meeting of Council the day previous which 
indicated that Council supported the proposal and that 
the Institute should inform the branches of it so that 
provincial departments of education might be ap- 
proached to consider the idea. The resolution also sug- 
gested that the Institute inform each provincial associa- 
tion or corporation of Council's decision and make avail- 
able to them copies of Dean Young's memorandum. 

Dean Young explained that he was not making any 
motion at this meeting but simply reporting Council's 
action so that the membership might be informed. 

Statistical Control of Quality in Production 

The president reported that at the Council meeting 
on the previous day consideration had been given to 
making an exploratory study of the statistical control 
of quality in production. He asked Colonel W. R. 
McCaffrey, the secretary of the Canadian Engineering 
Standards Association (C.E.S. A.) to speak to this 

Colonel McCaffrey stated that the subject had been 
discussed before the C.E.S. A. and that the decision 
reached indicated that an organization such as The 
Engineering Institute of Canada would be better able 
to make this study than the Association. He explained 
that the C.E.S. A. was very anxious to see this study 
carried out and he thought it was a splendid idea for 
the Institute to accept the responsibility. 

Election of Officers 

R. E. Heartz read the report of the scrutineers ap- 
pointed to canvass the officers' ballot for the year 1944 
as follows: 

President deGaspé Beaubien, Montreal 

Vice-Presidents : 

Zone B (Province of Ontario), J. M. Fleming, Port 

Zone C (Province of Quebec), E. B. Wardle, Grand'- 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces), G. L. Dickson, 





The head table. Past-Presidents C. J. Mackenzie, J. B. Challies, A. J. Grant, J. M. R. Fairbairn, President 
K. M. Cameron, Past-Presidents A. R. Décary, O. O. Lefebvre, F. A. Gaby, F. P. Shearwood, C. R. Young, 
and Councillor J. E. Armstrong of Montreal at the end of the table. 

The reminiscences of A. J. 
Grant get rapt attention from 
J. B. Challies. 

Alex. Larivière and Brigadier A. Thériault of 
Quebec with Vice-President Lieut. -Col. L. F. 
Grant of Kingston. 

Quebec Branch Chairman 
René Dupuis chats with Dr. 
A. Frigon of C.B.C. 

Quebec Branch Secretary Paul Vin- 
cent, St. Maurice Branch Chair- 
man J. H. Frégeau and Quebec 
Councillor Dr. Paul Gagnon. 

Vice-President E. B. Wardle of 
Grand'Mère and Councillor Carl 
Stenbol of Sault Ste. Marie. 



President K. M. Cameron *^^BH The new T P resident ' 

was presented with the f - ■Jflt» MS ,,< ' GaspCBeaubien. 

y ^* J. B. Carswell, president of War Assets 

Corporation, speaks from the book of 


OF 1944 

Victoria Branch A. S. G. Musgrave . , ., 

Lethbridge Branch Wm. Meldrum ** 1S J™^ unnecessary and futile to attempt to de- 
Calgary Branch James McMillan ^ lbe the Q uebec ^^J'VT- vT?° T* 

• n i tt t -n • I heir own senses will recall the highlights ol every oc- 

Winnipeg Branch . . H. L. Bnggs cagion and the genera] Qverall feeling of satisfact ion, 

bault bte. Marie Branch Carl Stenbol better than can any pr i nt ed word. Nevertheless, for the 

Niagara Peninsula Branch A. W. F. McQueen benefit of those who were not fortunate enough to be 

Hamilton Branch Alex. Love present, the following narrative account is offered. 

Toronto Branch W. S. Wilson _ -, 

Peterborough Branch H. R. Sills Council Meeting 

Ottawa Branch G. H. Ferguson Following events in chronological order, the first 

Montreal Branch R S Eadie item ^° recoI "d was the meeting of Council on the morn- 

P E Poitras ' n ^ °^ Wednesday, February 9th. The minutes of the 

Quebec Branch R E. Gagnon f eei ^ a PP ear «S^fe™ in th n S Jou ™ al > but * is in " 

A/r * ta u T^TJATi- teresting to note that 27 councillors and 1 1 guests were 

w T/ r a T pa t a present to participate in the deliberations. The meeting 

Halifax Branch P. A. Lovett was presided 0V er by the retiring president, K. M. 

Cape Breton Branch J. A. Russell Cameron, who referred fittingly to the fact that this 

was his last council meeting as president. It must have 

On the motion of R. E. Heartz, seconded by J. G. given him a great deal of pleasure and satisfaction to 

Hall, it was resolved that the report of the scrutineers look back over the year's attainments, and to realize 

be adopted, and that the ballot papers be destroyed. all that was accomplished under his jurisdiction. 

The president announced that the newly elected President's Dinner 

officers would be inducted at the annual dinner of the J»' 1 '*- • i •• j i_ j 

Institute the following evening. The d î nner ë lven b Y the retiring president has de- 

t, . . , „ ,, , ,. , . . .. . . . veloped into one of the most important and pleasant 

President Cameron then delivered his retiring address functions of an annual mee ting. This year was certainly 

which appears in full on page 160 of this issue of the no exce ption. It took place at the Garrison Club and 

Journal. wag atten d e d by 64 guests. Previous to the dinner, all 

On the motion of T. M. Dechene, seconded by P. L. the guests were entertained at the home of Dr. Paul 
Pratley, it was unanimously resolved that a hearty vote Gagnon and Mrs. Gagnon. The wives of those attending 
of thanks be tendered to the retiring president and the president's dinner were also present at this re- 
members of Council in appreciation of the work which ception. 

they have done for the Institute during the past year. With the president at head table were nine past- 

In seconding the motion, Mr. Pratley commented on presidents. Each of them was called on by Mr. Cameron 

the fact that the past year had been a strenuous one for a few remarks, and in this way afforded the assembly 

in the history of the Institute, and he felt that the a delightful evening's entertainment. 

Institute had been fortunate in having a man such as The Quebec ladies were hostesses at dinner to the 

Mr. Cameron as its president. wives of all those persons who were attending the presi- 

On the motion of Arthur Jackson, seconded by I. S. dent's dinner. All reports indicate that this function 
Patterson, it was unanimously resolved that a hearty was very enjoyable and much appreciated by the visit- 
vote of thanks be extended to the officers and members m S ladies. 

of the Quebec Branch for their courtesy, hospitality Thursday, February 10th 

and unfailing kindness in connection with the Fifty- n Thursday morning, February 10th, the annual 

Eighth Annual General Meeting. general meeting took place in the Jacques Cartier room, 

There being no further business, the meeting ad- with President K. M. Cameron presiding. A full account 

journed at eleven fifty-five a.m. . of this meeting appears above. 


At noon, a luncheon was held in the ballroom, with 
Professor René Dupuis, chairman of the Quebec branch, 
presiding. The speaker was J. B. Carswell. His subject 
was "They Shall Beat Their Swords into Ploughshares." 
Mr. Carswell described the serious problem which was 
before the War Assets Corporation which he, as presi- 
dent, must be concerned with for many years to come. 
510 sat down for the luncheon. 

The afternoon was devoted to a paper by Dr. Harry 
G. Acres, "The Design of the Shipshaw Power Develop- 
ment." McNeely DuBose, vice-president of the Alumi- 
num Company of Canada, was in the chair. Dr. Acres' 
paper will be printed in full in the April number of the 
Journal, and therefore no comment is being made on it 
here, except to say that it was attended by about four 
or five hundred persons who were deeply interested in 
the paper itself and the discussion which followed. 

In the evening at 8.30 p.m. an unusual event was 
featured. The Université Laval presented honorary de- 
grees of Doctor of Science to the retiring president, 
K. M. Cameron, and Brigadier A. Thériault, m.e.i.c. 
This was a most colourful occasion, and greatly appre- 
ciated by all those who were privileged to attend. 
Cardinal Villeneuve, as Chancellor of the University, 
congratulated the recipients, and presented them with 
their certificates. The citations were read by Monsieur 
Aimé Labrie, general secretary of the University, and 
the rector, Monseigneur Cyrille Gagnon, presented the 
candidates to the chancellor. 

Mr. Cameron's address in reply to the presentation 
was one of the finest things that has been heard by an 
engineering audience. It was excellent material, deliv- 
ered clearly and concisely. It is being reprinted in full 
in another part of this Journal. Brigadier Thériault also 
made very grateful and adequate response. His address 
was delivered in French. 

The engineers of Canada will be greatly interested 
and pleased at the innovation which was indicated by 
the presentation of honorary degrees to members of 
their profession. It is a graceful compliment that, in 
departing from the procedure of honouring only classics 
scholars, engineers were selected for the inauguration. 

The same evening special entertainment in the form 
of a Cabaret-Chantant was held in the ballroom of the 
Chateau. This provided some interesting divertisse- 
ment, much enjoyed by all those who participated. 

Friday, February 11th 

Friday's programme was opened with two profes- 
sional sessions, one of which ran all day, and the other 
made up of four separate papers, two in the morning 
and two in the afternoon. The long paper was on the 
subject of post-war planning for which Elliott M. Little, 
general manager of the Anglo-Canadian Pulp & Paper 
Mills, Ltd., presided. 

The basis of this session was a paper written under 
the joint authorship of John E. Armstrong, m.e.i.c, 
chief engineer, Canadian Pacific Railway Company; 
R. M. Brophy, general manager, Canadian Marconi 
Company; G. A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c, president, Calgary 
Power Company and president, Montreal Engineering 
Company; Arthur Surveyor, m.e.i.c, consulting engi- 
neer, Montreal; R. L. Weldon, m.e.i.c, president, 
Bathurst Power & Paper Company Ltd.; H. G. Wels- 
ford, m.e.i.c, vice-president and general manager, 
Dominion Engineering Company, Limited. 

The three sections of the paper were delivered by 
Messrs. J. E. Armstrong and J. B. Stirling. Unfortun- 
ately, three of the authors were absent because of illness. 
Mr. Stirling was asked to assist in the delivery of the 

paper because of his excellent qualifications for such an 

The paper by the joint authors was followed by 
another under the authorship of Past-President C. J. 
Mackenzie. R. S. Jane, Director of Industrial Research, 
The Shawinigan Water & Power Company, was in the 
chair. This paper also dealt with post-war planning, 
under the title "Industrial Research in Post-war Can- 
ada." Both these papers proved to be extremely inter- 
esting, and it was quite evident they made a real con- 
tribution to the solution of this serious problem. It was 
also quite apparent that under the stimulation of such 
fine papers there was insufficient time for constructive 
discussion. Both papers will be printed immediately, 
and made available to the members of the Institute. 

At the conclusion of the first paper, a resolution was 
approved whereby the Council of the Institute was 
asked to follow-up this session in whatever manner it 
was thought most assistance could be given. From this 
it is expected that Council will establish some further 
programme in the belief that the Institute can be of 
real assistance. 

Of the parallel sessions, the first one was presented 
by M. G. Saunders, mechanical superintendent, Alumi- 
num Company of Canada, Ltd., Arvida, under the title 
"The Development of Steam Production at Arvida." 
This meeting was very well attended, in spite of the 
strong counter-attraction provided by the post-war 
session. Mr. Saunders' paper will be printed in an early 
number of the Journal. Ralph C. Flitton, assistant to 
the manager, Engineering Division, Canadian Vickers, 
Ltd., presided. 

The next session was on "Improved Soil Stabiliza- 
tion," a paper presented by Guillaume Piette, jr.E.i.c, 
under the chairmanship of Ernest Gohier, chief engi- 
neer, Department of Highways, Quebec. This paper 
also will be presented to the members through the 

At luncheon that day, under the chairmanship of 
Hector Cimon, vice-president of the Institute for Que- 
bec, a very fine address was delivered by W. L. Batt, 
Hon. m.e.i.c, titled "Management's Need of Broader 
Vision." Mr. Batt's address is printed in this issue. 
Ontario Vice-President, Lieut.-Col. L. F. Grant, made 
an excellent speech in thanking Mr. Batt. The atten- 
dance at the luncheon was 594. 

In the afternoon, the first session was "Social Security 
Planning in the English Speaking World." The speaker 
was Mr. Maurice Stack, technical adviser on social in- 
surance, International Labour Office, Montreal. Mr. 
Wills Maclachlan, chairman of the Institute's Com- 
mittee on Industrial Relations, was in the chair. Unfor- 
tunately, this meeting was not as largely attended as it 
should have been, due doubtless to the difficulty in 
locating the room in which it was delivered, and also 
to the keen competition afforded by the post-war ses- 
sion. However, Mr. Stack's paper and the discussion 
are printed in this issue of the Journal. 

The last of the sessions on Friday was "Electronics, 
Radio, and Television", presented by H. L. Sheen, 
manager, Radio Section, Canadian General Electric 
Company, Toronto. Dr. Paul E. Gagnon, director of 
the Department of Chemistry, Laval University, pre- 
sided. Mr. Sheen presented his paper in a very informal 
manner, much to the pleasure of his audience. 

Annual Banquet and Dance 

As usual, the banquet on Friday evening provided 
the highlight of the whole programme. 620 people were 
present, which is the second largest attendance which 
can be discovered among the Institute's records. K. M. 



W. L. Batt, Hon.M.E.I.C, 
vice-president of W.P.B. and 
president of SKF speaks at 
the Friday luncheon. 

Dr. K. M. Cameron. 

Mr. Cameron receives his doctor's 
degree from the chancellor of Laval 
University, Cardinal Villeneuve. 

"Anyone in the hall know anything 
about N.S.S. regulations?" asks 
E. M. Little, Chairman of the 
Post-war Planning Session. 

Vice-President Hector 
Cimon, Quebec, presides at 
the Friday luncheon. 

Dr. C. J. Mackenzie speaks 
on Industrial Research in the 

Cameron presided, although towards the end of the 
programme he turned over the reins of office to deGaspé 

The prizes, medals, and honours of the Institute were 
presented and included the award of two certificates 
of honorary membership. 

The speaker of the evening was the Hon. Adélard 
Godbout, Prime Minister of the province of Quebec, 
and his subject was "The Engineer and the Province of 
Quebec." He paid a very fine tribute to the profession 
and pointed out the opportunities which had always 
existed in the province of Quebec for the practice of 
engineering. The substance of his address is printed 
elsewhere in this issue. 

Previous to the dance which followed the banquet a 
reception was held by the new president, deGaspé 
Beaubien and Madame Beaubien, the retiring president 
K. M. Cameron and Mrs. Cameron, and the chairman 
of the Quebec Branch Professor René Dupuis and 
Madame Dupuis. This afforded all members and guests 
an opportunity to meet these outstanding members of 
the profession and officers of the Institute. 

Until an early hour in the morning, dancing held 
forth in the ballroom. It was a gay note upon which 
to conclude this day full of special features. The insti- 

tution of "Muriel's Room" aided materially, and was 
much appreciated by everyone. 


A very special feature was added to the programme 
on Saturday morning, consisting of a trip up the river 
as far as the Quebec Bridge on the icebreaker N.B. 
McLean. About 150 people participated and everyone 
voted it a most unusually pleasant affair. Unfortunately, 
the combination of wind, weather, ice and tide made it 
necessary to alter the original arrangements, and in 
the shuffle a small group of people "missed the boat." 
This was a most regrettable occurrence, but was some- 
thing over which no possible control could be exercised. 

Many persons felt that this was the finest annual 
meeting ever held by the Institute. Certainly it will be 
difficult to arrange one that will be any better. Certain 
it is that no finer hospitality could be provided, or no 
better setting found, for such a meeting. Members from 
coast to coast are greatly indebted to the Quebec Branch 
for its most outstanding contribution to the life of the 
Institute. The opinion was expressed on all sides that 
another meeting should be taken to Quebec just as 
soon as possible. This is, perhaps, the finest tribute 
that could be paid to the branch. 




Dr. C. J. Mackenzie receives the Sir John Kennedy 
Medal from Premier Godbout. 

Premier Adélard Godbout 
praises the engineers. 

Col. C. E. Davies, secretary 
of The American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, 
enjoys a joke. 

H. H. Henline, national secretary 
of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, receives the cer- 
tificate of honorary membership on 
behalf of Dr. R. E. Doherty, presi- 
dent of Carnegie Institute of Tech- 

A. C. Northover of Canadian Gen- 
eral Electric Co. Ltd., Peter- 
borough, receives the John Gal- 
braith Prize of the Institute. 

Mrs. W. J. W. Reid of Hamilton, Ernest Hartford, 
executive assistant secretary of The American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers and Mrs. Hartford 
of New York, and E. M. Little of Quebec. 

James L. Belyea, fourth-year stu- 
dent at the University of New 
Brunswick, came all the way from 
Fredericton to receive the Martin 
Murphy Prize. 




President's Retiring Address 

K. M. Cameron 

The report of your Council has been presented to 
you for your consideration. It reflects the thought and 
care given to your Institute's business during the past 
year, the continuance of policies initiated during pre- 
ceding years, the impact of conditions under which we 
are now carrying on, and the progress that has been 
achieved. It is a report of steady endeavour and prog- 
ress both in matters of immediate and of long term 
value and importance to the profession and, we hope, 
to our country. 

It is not my purpose to refer to specific matters dealt 
with by your Council. I would, however, express my 
deep appreciation of the attention and interest given 
by members of Council to your business, the ever will- 
ing desire to be of service in any capacity though un- 
questionably at considerable personal inconvenience 
and expense, the incisively constructive thought and 
study, in which respect no distinction can be found as 
it applies to the members of all your committees as 
well as to the members of your Council. To them all I 
extend my most appreciative thanks for unfailing and 
courteous, but most constructive assistance. To your 
general secretary, your assistant general secretary, and 
the loyal, efficient and hard working staff at head- 
quarters your thanks, with mine are gratefully ex- 
tended. To me it has been a fruitful and stimulating 

And I would like to take this occasion to say how 
deeply I appreciate the whole hearted and encouraging 
hospitality so genuinely shown when, following the now 
acknowledged custom, I visited the Institute branches. 
This was fully equalled by the interest shown in Insti- 
tute and professional affairs, both present and future, 
and I therefore venture to submit some thoughts for 
your consideration. 

Engineers discuss their activities from a professional 
viewpoint, and refrain from being vocal about the fre- 
quent changes of residence which are a characteristic 
of engineering employment. They do recognize and 
appreciate as beyond value the loyalty and devotion so 
unstintingly given by their wives. The profession is 
under a debt to these women it can never discharge. 
God bless them! They can take it! 

The Young Engineer 

No contribution of greater value to the people of 
Canada can be made by the engineering profession than 
that of fostering and developing the young engineer. 
Our engineering schools maintain the highest standards. 
Let us continue to support them, to assist them in their 
development. They are the threshold over which the 
young man steps into the world of engineering, that 
world where "all experience is an arch wherethro' 
gleams that untravelled world, whose margin fades for- 
ever and forever as I move." Much has already been 
exceedingly well done through the Institute to assist 
in the selection and guidance of the young engineer. 
There remains much to be done. It is an opportunity, 
an obligation, and the results, if consistently followed, 
will be of inestimable value to the country and to the 


Through the medium of this Institute the members 
of the engineering profession have steadfastly worked 

for the furtherance of the aims set forth in the by-laws. 
Through the Institute the value of the profession has 
been enhanced. By the consistent high standards set 
and maintained by its members, the Institute has 
gained a place and a voice in the development of this 
country, and in the respect the profession in Canada is 
held in other lands. This is a heritage we must appre- 
ciate at its true and high value. It is there to be shared 
with all engineers in Canada. 

As the only voluntary, wholly Canadian, all-embrac- 
ing professional engineering body, and as the largest 
and oldest of technical organizations, the Institute has 
rightfully taken the lead in the movement for co- 
operation. As the benefits of co-operative agreements 
already entered into become more widely known, and 
as the purpose or objective gains wider recognition, 
the progress already made will quicken. Maybe it will 
always encounter some opposition. That may be an 
advantage. Constructive and forward looking criticism 
is always valuable. But it is not very difficult to see its 
ultimate acceptance by all professional bodies who wish 
to retain their Canadian identity; another example of 
engineering foresight, of constructive long range 

The Engineer on Active Service 

Science and engineering are the outcome of man's 
continuing urge to make available for himself, and 
others, the fruits of his God-given reasoning, observing, 
thinking powers applied to the latent resources so 
abundantly provided by the Almighty. It would seem 
one of the inexplicable contradictions or obstacles in 
the path of human progress that the implements, pro- 
cesses and materials man has developed for his better- 
ment under divine inspiration, should be turned to his 
destruction. That attempt is now being made by that 
arch-criminal and vile person, Hitler, and those who 
follow his evil course. Is it that in its development and 
application of other humanizing concepts, society 
has fallen behind the progress in science and engineer- 
ing ? V 

It is to the developments in these arts that the world 
has to turn to rid itself of this scourge. It constitutes 
a challenge to science and engineering of the most pro- 
found order to so acquaint itself with the course of 
events and of trends that in addition to developing 
those things which add to material comfort and well 
being, it shall so influence the development and appli- 
cation of humanizing concepts that no further cata- 
clysms will be possible. 

This is a large order. But science and engineering 
have been the outgrowth of truth and right. 

From the ranks of those in this and other lands who 
follow the profession of engineering, many have gone 
forth to war for the right. Of the honour they have 
brought to the profession we are gratefully proud. The 
memory of those who will not again be among us will 
continue to shine down through the years. Our con- 
tinued efforts to prepare for the future of those who 
will return will constitute our best commemoration of 
their willing and unselfish sacrifice. It is the least we 
can do. I am confident they would have it so. 

It is to the spirit which prompted these and all other 
valiant men to go forth, and to the contribution of 
those who remained behind to see to their support that 
we owe the accomplishments already made in this great 
struggle for mastery, and the maintenance of right and 
freedom over evil and oppression. It must continue to 



be our first thought and pre-eminent task, above and 
beyond any consideration of personal comfort and gain, 
to see that these indomitable men, and women, lack 
nothing. They can be counted on to do their valorous 
duty, that the name of Canada will forever be hon- 
oured among all peoples. Can we do less ? 

Together we are defending a priceless heritage, in 
our land and in our way of life. When the present strug- 
gle ceases, we must be prepared to improve and 
develop that heritage. We must show by thought and 
word and deed that we, engineers, have faith in Canada, 
and in its future, and to that future we dedicate the 
best that lies in us. 

Greetings from Laval University 

Monseigneur Cyrille Gagnon, p.a. 

C'est avec un extrême plaisir que j'accueille ici, au 
nom de l'Université Laval, les hôtes distingués qui 
sont venus de tous les coins du pays, et même des 
Etats-Unis, pour assister dans notre ville au 58ème 
Congrès de l'Institut Canadien des Ingénieurs, et je 
souhaite à tous et à chacun la bienvenue la plus cor- 
diale dans cette institution qui remonte, par le Sémi- 
naire, aux premiers temps du Canada français. 

Je salue avec une joie particulière les anciens prési- 
dents et les autres docteurs qui nous ont fait l'honneur 
de se joindre à notre corps universitaire en revêtant 
leur toge pour cette circonstance. 

Un congrès de l'Engineering Institute of Canada est 
toujours un événement important, qui attire les ingé- 
nieurs les plus renommés et les plus influents du 
Canada et même des Etats-Unis ; aussi ne sommes-nous 
pas surpris que les grandes villes de notre pays se dis- 
putent l'honneur d'en être le siège. Cette année, c'est 
la vieille cité de Champlain qui est à l'honneur; et sans 
doute l'une des raisons qui l'ont fait choisir pour ces 
assises solennelles, c'est qu'elle est une ville universi- 
taire; et plus précisément on a voulu, je crois, rendre 
hommage à l'Université Laval pour le magnifique essor, 
les merveilleux progrès de sa faculté des sciences. Je 
pense bien qu'on a voulu également reconnaître la 
valeur et les mérites des membres de la section de 
Québec et particulièrement de son président M. René 
Dupuis, l'infatigable directeur de notre Département 
de Génie Electrique. Et je m'en réjouis vivement, avec 
tous mes collègues de l'Université. 

L'Institut Canadien des Ingénieurs, Mesdames, Mes- 
sieurs, accomplit dans notre pays une oeuvre de haute 
valeur scientifique et de grande portée sociale et 
nationale. Et c'est en partie pour reconnaître ce fait et 
offrir à l'Institut un témoignage sensible de notre 
estime et de notre sympathie que nous avons voulu 
décerner un diplôme d'honneur à deux de ses membres 
les plus actifs, les plus dévoués, les plus méritants, M. 
Kenneth MacKenzie Cameron, son distingué président, 
et le brigadier Antonin Thériault, surintendant général 
des arsenaux du Canada. 

Dr. Cameron Praises Laval 

It is a great honour Laval University confers on my 
colleague, Brigadier Thériault, and on me, and it is 
moreover a pleasure, indeed, to receive this tangible 
evidence of that honour at the hands of one we hold in 
highest esteem, for his simple kindliness of spirit, his 
broad outlook, and his attainments in the service of 
his people and his country.* 

We are the outward recipients of this distinction. In 

*Cardinal Rodrigue Villeneuve, chancellor of Laval University. 

its broader sense, we feel that Laval University wishes 
to give tangible evidence of its recognition of the part 
that science and engineering, pure and applied, have 
played and may play in our national life. We feel that 
recognition by Laval University will stimulate us all 
to continue and to increase our devotion to our task. 

Laval University, although incorporated by Royal 
Charter in 1852, possesses a background in tradition, 
in service, reaching back to the earliest days of our 
country. Our history is replete with instances of cour- 
age, of fortitude, of service, emanating from the spirit 
which has fortified, guided and inspired those gallant 
men who went forth from these halls. That they will 
have worthy successors in abundance we have every 
faith. We owe a heavy debt to the founders of this Uni- 
versity, and to these men, these pioneers in a pioneer 
country. They left their mark on it. With you, whose 
forefathers came from the land of Jacques Cartier, of 
Champlain, of Bishop Laval, we whose forefathers 
came from other lands join in remembering their ser- 
vice in the development of our country and their service 
to its people. 

The country has developed and will continue to de- 
velop. In the forefront of all development is education, 
and universities not only interpret education, but foster 
its development. It is, as Lord Halifax points out in the 
address delivered here on May 29, 1943, necessary that 
education be supported by, not forcibly divorced by 
religion, that it is one of the first principles of religion — 
"to welcome careful search for truth, and it is a cardinal 
rule of science to despise or neglect no facts, however 
difficult or inconvenient." "Religion answers why, and 
science answers how, and these questions are comple- 
mentary, and not in opposition, to each other." 

With this background of history, of tradition, of 
service, and in consonnance therewith Laval University 
has added a Department of Sciences to its field in edu- 
cation. The development of this, as of other lands, has 
found science and engineering keeping pace with the 
other arts. Laval may be assured of the helpful sup- 
port of The Engineering Institute of Canada in this 
enlargement of the sphere of usefulness. Just as science 
and engineering throughout the world appreciates the 
many noteworthy contributions made by men and 
women of France in that field, so do we of the scientific 
and engineering profession in all Canada value them, 
and value the contributions made by Canadians of 
French extraction in Canada. The Engineering Insti- 
tute of Canada provides a means for interchange of 
knowledge, of views, of stimulating education, and 
development. But in a larger sense that contact brings 
us to know each other, to an appreciation of our own, 
as well as of the other man's shortcomings, and to appre- 
ciate even more fully that contribution we may make 
in our national life. 

I consider myself indeed fortunate that I have been 
privileged to have known many engineers of French 
extraction. I honour the memory of those who have 
passed from among us. I cherish the friendship of those 
who permit me to call them friends. I look forward to 
increasing that circle of courteous, helpful, and stimu- 
lating friends and associates. 

The extension of the facilities of Laval in the field of 
education in science and engineering is a matter worthy 
of special emphasis in these days of world conflict 
between those who endeavour to impose the abomin- 
able ideology of Hitler and those nations allied on the 
side of right. Hitler thinks he can destroy the result of 
centuries of advancement by causing the burning of 
books, by warping the minds of the young and leading 
them into the paths of evil, by an attempt to crucify 



the spiritual example set us by our Lord and Master. 
He will surely fail. We must see that he does. 

The young men and women you will train to take 
their places in our national life will learn from you the 
value of truth, will learn to think, to observe, to enquire, 
to reason, to become useful citizens. They will value 
more and more this training, will develop a deeper con- 
cept of the value of education, of knowledge. They will 
more and more realize the debt they owe to this Uni- 
versity and its staff. They will learn respect for them- 
selves, and will learn that service, under God, is the 
truest measure of a man. 

The country needs such men and women. There is a 
place for them. There is work to do. We have faith in 
Canada. It is our country. Others have love for their 
countries. David, the psalmist, wrote: "Lord, Thou has 
been bountiful unto this Thy land." Sir Walter Scott 
wrote: "This is my own, my native land." Sir Adolphe 
Routhier: "O Canada, terre de nos aieux." These were 
their prayers. 

May we not then, we of diverse origins, pray for 
understanding, for mutual respect, and apply the words 
of President Roosevelt as a prayer for ourselves. 

"Let us, then, march forward, together, facing dan- 
ger, bearing sacrifice, competing only in the effort to 
share even more fully in the great task laid upon us all. 
Let us, remembering the price that some have paid for 
our survival, make our contribution worthy to lie 
beside theirs on the altar of man's faith." 

Citations for new Honorary Members 

Daniel Webster Mead 

Some engineers there be whose technical work is of a 
type which appeals directly to the public, because its 
visible results obviously contribute to the welfare of 
humanity. Dr. Mead is one of these, for in his special 
branch of engineering, he has been called upon to deal 
with problems of flood control, not only on great rivers 
in North America but in far off China as well. 

Since his retirement in 1932 from the chair of 
hydraulic and sanitary engineering at the University of 
Wisconsin, one of his chief interests has been to study 
the training and subsequent progress of the young 
engineer and the many complex questions connected 

He has been the recipient of many honours from his 
fellow-engineers in the United States, including the 
presidency of the senior Founder Society, the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, and the Washington Award 
given for "accomplishments which pre-eminently pro- 
mote the happiness, comfort and well being of 
humanity." To these distinctions the Council of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada now has the pleasure, 
in the 60th year of service to the profession, of adding 
election as an honorary member of the Institute. 

Mr. President — I have the honour of presenting to 
you for an honorary membership, Dr. Daniel W. Mead 

Robert Ernest Doherty 

Membership in the Engineers' Council for Profes- 
sional Development, which The Engineering Institute 
of Canada has now held for more than three years, 
has helped to give us in Canada a better understanding 
of the many problems of professional education, ethics, 
and organization which face our fellow engineers in 
the United States. It has. also made them aware of 
some of the difficulties which face us. 

Under the chairmanship of Dr. Doherty, covering a 
period of three years, E.C.P.D. made very substantial 
progress in the important task of co-ordinating pro- 

fessional efforts. His wide outlook as chairman was 
based on his knowledge of the needs of young engineers 
on the staff of the General Electric Companv at 
Schenectady, and also on his educational work as Dean 
of the School of Engineering at Yale University, and 
then as President of the Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nology at Pittsburgh. His recent election as President 
of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering 
Education is a testimony to his eminence as an au- 
thority in that field. 

In addition to these matters, Dr. Doherty has 
undertaken much responsible war work, as a consultant 
and committee member, in connection with military 
training, production and management, for the U.S. 
Ordnance and War Departments. He is a member of 
long standing in the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, and the Lamme Medal of that society was 
awarded to him in 1937. To-day, in recognition of his 
attainments as an engineer and educationalist, the 
Council of The Engineering Institute of Canada is 
conferring upon him an honorary membership in the 

Mr. President — I have the honour of presenting to 
you Mr. H. H. Henline, Secretary of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, to receive an honorary 
membership on behalf of Dr. Robert Ernest Doherty. 

The Engineer and Québec 

Honourable Adélard Godbout 

Prime Minister of the Province of Quebec 

I was greatly pleased, on looking through your 
heavily-charged programme, to note that not only were 
technical subjects listed, but that you also included 
post-war problems, and the responsibility which is 
incumbent upon governments and industry in general 
to maintain a higher standard of living for our people, 
after the war is over. 

I wish to compliment you on this farsighted thinking. 
Engineers have ever been builders, active patriots, 
big-hearted and broadminded. They are the first 
artisans in the development of a land and the prosperity 
of a nation. Their suggestions are therefore very precious 
to those who have the heavy burden of administering 
the public domain. 

For me to try to outline the great debt Canada owes 
to the talent, the initiative and perseverance of en- 
gineers would be a truly formidable undertaking. 
Despite the enormous difficulties confronting them, they 
have traced, in granite, cement and steel the gigantic 
monument which to-day forms the base of our economic 
backbone. But times have changed. Events sometimes 
move faster than man. The present situation has 
created special problems which will have to be solved 
without delay. And it is in reconstruction work, 
arising out of the war, in the application of truly 
peacetime works that the engineer shall allow his talent, 
science and devotion full scope. He shall aid public 
organizations and chiefs of industry to set on a new 
pedestal the activity we have displayed in helping 
win the war and assuring victory. 

The Engineering Institute of Canada is composed of 
specialists, and for some time now we have lived in an 
era of specialization. Mechanical and electrical engi- 
neering were not fully developed at the beginning of the 
present century. Chemists had not yet occupied the 
prominent place they hold to-day in industry. Your 
association has brought all these scientists together 
under the one banner, and has given them the prestige 
to which they are entitled. I am pleased to note that 



since your group was first founded in 1887 six of my 
French-speaking fellow citizens have been called upon 
to fill the post of president. Some are still alive. You 
will, I am sure, allow me to congratulate them on 
having been chosen by their confrères, and also for 
having so brilliantly attained the foremost rank in 
their profession. . . . 

We are not content to sit back and rest on our 
laurels. We believe that by increasing our provincial 
patrimony we will at the same time be working towards 
the general expansion of Canada, a land we want to 
see great and prosperous. 

That is why it is so vital to stress, among our own 
people, the advantages of a technical education. We are 
not overlooking its importance for we have in the 
province, in addition to our technical schools and 
trades and arts schools, the École Polytechnique, in 
Montréal, from whence have come some of your 
society's most distinguished members; also a School of 
Forestry in Québec, affiliated with Laval University. 
In addition there have been founded in this city, with 
the aid of the provincial government, a School of 
Chemistry, a School of Mining and, barely two years 
ago, a School of Electrical Engineering, the direction 
of which has been entrusted to your tireless local 
chairman, Professor René Dupuis. 

We are anxious to satisfy the scientific curiosity of 
our young people. They are showing keen interest in 
the applied sciences, and I am able to pridefully state 
that they have already given proof of their clear 
thinking and ability, in industry and teaching. 

Our classical colleges develop and train priests, 
physicians, barristers and notaries, all of whom have 
brought honour to their professions, but the number 
turning towards scientific careers is increasing yearly. 
We are endeavoring to respond to this tendency by 
creating the necessary institutions. 

Sensational revelations will doubtless be made 
public by scientists after the war, and we may logically 
expect the application of new and more economic 
processes, in the majority of manifestations of human 
genius. We should hold ourselves in readiness to profit 

by these improvements, to obtain our share of progress 
and, if necessary, to anticipate these precursors. 

This is why we wish to co-operate with you, with sane 
capital, with all our compatriots, and with the rest of 
the world. Co-operation is the finest expression of 
peace. It is the common contribution of all men of 
goodwill who have the common welfare as their goal. 
The Province of Québec has, as have you all, made 
great sacrifices to assure the success of our armed 
forces. She also wishes to excel in pacific undertakings, 
and prepare for unborn generations a glorious future. 

True patriotism is both idealistic and realistic. In my 
opinion it consists of fructifying, as required, the 
special talents of individuals as well as the riches which 
Providence has entrusted to our care in the corner of 
the world we inhabit. 

Our country has reached the adult stage. It makes its 
power felt. Its commercial relations are growing. It 
now sends its own ambassadors to foreign countries. 
Its people, profiting through the genius of the two 
great races, are linked to the soil of Canada by deep- 
rooted beliefs and century-old traditions. 

There only remains the creating, among all Cana- 
dians, of the true union that will make us a powerful 
people, of generous aspirations, working under the 
national flag — which unfortunately, we do not yet 
possess — for the general welfare of the nation. 

Ladies and gentlement, I can think of no better 
symbol of unity than your Institute. Those who honour 
me this evening by listening to me come from all parts 
of Canada and the United States. They have left 
their homes and families to gather here, under the 
banner of a professional association, to discuss problems 
that interest the entire population. You understand 
each other perfectly because your goal is a common one, 
your ambitions are identical, and you like your work. 
I sincerely hope that all Canadians, whether they be of 
English, French or other origin, love their country 
as you love your profession. When this has been 
accomplished, we need entertain no doubt as to the 
future. Canadians will form a truly united family, 
ready to proudly stride forward to its destiny. 

The head-table and part of the hall at the Annual Banquet. 



From Month to Month 


The achievements of the engineering profession in 
the last five years have been outstanding. New levels 
of accomplishment have been reached by the engineers 
in all the active services and those at home, untiring in 
their efforts, have built and developed a war industry 
that has proved unequalled in quality, diversity and 
volume of production. In all of this The Engineering 
Institute of Canada has been privileged to help by dis- 
seminating technical information, and by special serv- 
ices to the government and to the engineers. 

Now that the light of victory is dawning on us, prepa- 
ration must be made for the transition from war to 
peace. During that difficult period, a great responsibility 
will rest upon the engineer. Many problems will arise 
which his special qualifications will help him to solve. 
These problems may be technical, economical, or social. 
In all of them he has a special part to play. 

The engineer knows labour well. He understands its 
aspirations, its frustrations, its importance in our social 
system. He is known to and respected by labour, not 
only because of his personal qualities, but also because 
his mind develops the projects which give labour its 

Who better than the engineer can assist labour to see 
the problems of the employer, and the employer to 
realize the needs of labour ? Production is the basis of 
prosperity, and unless the relationships between these 
two groups lead to maximum production there will be 
prosperity for neither. No matter what proposals are 
advanced as solutions to the post-war problem, we still 
can consume only what we produce. 

The Institute itself will have definite post-war prob- 
lems. One of these will be the successful transfer of its 
members from active services and from war industry 
into peacetime occupations. While the Wartime Bureau 
of Technical Personnel may be continued after the war, 
it seems evident that the Institute itself can also do 
much to help its members through that period of change. 

During the past decade, steady development in the 
organization of the engineering profession in Canada 
has shown the necessity of closer association between 
our various technical societies. With this in view, cer- 
tain proposals have now been made to change the by- 
laws of the Institute, so as to enlarge its field of use- 
fulness and enable it to align itself more closely with 
bodies having kindred aims. Council has approved these 
proposals, and it is my earnest hope that all our mem-